Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Organophosphorus Related Abstracts

2 Organochlorine and Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from Lake Chad, Baga, North Eastern Nigeria

Authors: J. C. Akan, F. I. Abdulrahman, Z. M. Chellube

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to determine the levels of some organochlorine (o, p-DDE, p,p’-DDD, o,p’-DDD, p,p’-DDT, p,p’-DDT, α-BHC, γ-BHC, lindane, Endosulfan sulphate, dieldrin and aldrin and organophosphorus (Dichlorvos, Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion and Fenitrothion) pesticide residues in the gills, liver, stomach, kidney and flesh of four fish species (Tilapia zilli, Clarias anguillaris Hetrotis niloticus and Oreochronmis niloticus) between the periods of September 2010 to October, 2011. Samples were collected from Kwantan turare in Lake Chad, Baga, Borno State, Nigeria. Extraction of the fish samples and de-fattening of the fish sample extracts were performed using standard procedures. Analysis of the fish samples for pesticide residues were carried out using Shimadzu GC/MS (GC – 17A), equipped with fluorescence detector. Large differences in the levels of pesticide residues were observed between tissues within each fish. The concentrations of all the organophosphorus pesticides were higher in the organs of Oreochronmis niloticus, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. For organochlorine pesticides, the organs of Tilapia zilli showed the highest concentrations, while Hetrotis niloticus shows the lowest. The highest pesticide concentrations were observed in gills and liver tissues of all the species of fish study, while the lowest concentrations were observed in flesh. Based on the above results, it can therefore be concluded that the concentrations of pesticide in the four fish species study did exceed the permissible limits set by FAO and FEPA.

Keywords: Pesticides, Fish, Organophosphorus, organochlorine, accumulation, lake chad

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1 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius

Abstract:

Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: Organophosphorus, acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, THC, THRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 155