Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Organized Crime Related Abstracts

6 The Prevalence of Organized Retail Crime in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Saleh Dabil

Abstract:

This study investigates the level of existence of organized retail crime in supermarkets of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The store managers, security managers and general employees were asked about the types of retail crimes occur in the stores. Three independent variables were related to the report of organized retail theft. The independent variables are: (1) the supermarket profile (volume, location, standard and type of the store), (2) the social physical environment of the store (maintenance, cleanness and overall organizational cooperation), (3) the security techniques and loss prevention electronics techniques used. The theoretical framework of this study based on the social disorganization theory. This study concluded that the organized retail theft, in specific, organized theft is moderately apparent in Riyadh stores. The general result showed that the environment of the stores has an effect on the prevalence of organized retail theft with relation to the gender of thieves, age groups, working shift, type of stolen items as well as the number of thieves in one case. Among other reasons, some factors of the organized theft are: economic pressure of customers based on the location of the store. The dealing of theft also was investigated to have a clear picture of stores dealing with organized retail theft. The result showed that mostly, thieves sent without any action and sometimes given written warning. Very few cases dealt with by police. There are other factors in the study can be looked up in the text. This study suggests solving the problem of organized theft; first is ‘the well distributing of the duties and responsibilities between the employees especially for security purposes’. Second is ‘installation of strong security system’ and ‘making well-designed store layout’. Third is ‘giving training for general employees’ and ‘to give periodically security skills training of employees’. There are other suggestions in the study can be looked up in the text.

Keywords: Loss Prevention, retail, Organized Crime, Theft, store environment

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5 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human security, Human Rights, Corruption, Human trafficking, Organized Crime

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4 Organized Crime-A Social Challenge for Kosovo towards European Union Integration

Authors: Samedin Mehmeti

Abstract:

Very tens political and economic situation, in particular armed conflicts that followed at the time of the destruction of the former Yugoslavia, influenced migrations and displacement of population. Especially setting international sanctions and embargo influenced the creation of organized criminal groups. A lot of members of the former Yugoslav security apparatus in collaboration with ordinary criminal groups engaged in: smuggling of goods, petroleum and arms, sale and transport of drugs, payable murder, damage to public property, kidnappings, extortion, racketeering, etc. This tradition of criminality, of course in other forms and with other methods, has continued after conflicts and continues with a high intensity even in nowadays. One of the most delicate problems of organized crime activity is the impact on the economic sphere, where organized crime opposes and severely damages national security and economy to criminalize it in certain sectors and directions. Organized crime groups including who find Kosovo as a place to develop their criminal activities are characterized by: loyalty of many people especially through family connections and kinship in carrying out criminal activities and the existence of powerful hierarchy of leadership which in many cases include the corrupt officials of state apparatus. Groups have clear hierarchy and flexible structure of command, each member within the criminal group knows his duties concrete. According to statistics presented in police reports its notable that Kosovo has a large number of cases of organized crime, cultivation, trafficking and possession of narcotics. As already is very well known that one of the primary conditions that must be fulfilled on track toward integration in the European Union is precisely to prevent and combat organized crime. Kosovo has serious problems with prosecutorial and judicial system. But the misuse of public funds, even those coming directly from EU budget or the budget of the European Union member states, have a negative impact on this process. The economic crisis that has gripped some of the EU countries has led to the creation of an environment in which there are far fewer resources and opportunities to invest in preventing and combating organized crime within member states. This automatically reduces the level of financial support for other countries in the fight against organized crime. Kosovo as a poor country, now has less likely benefiting from the support tools that will be eventually offered by Europe set of in this area.

Keywords: Police, Narcotics, Organized Crime, european integration

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3 The Role of Asset Recovery in Combatting Organized Crime

Authors: Tamas Bezsenyi, Noemi Katona

Abstract:

Fighting Human Trafficking is a highly important issue worldwide that states need to deal with in international politics. In the EU combatting human trafficking is emphasized in international policy making and also in the work of international law enforcement, thus in the work of the EUROPOL. While the EU Directive against Human Trafficking prescribes how states should fight this transnational crime and also how victims should be assisted, the EUROPOL focuses on the effective cooperation between national law enforcement agencies. However, despite the aims of the common fight, human trafficking is regulated differently in the punitive law of various nation states. This deeply defines the work and possibilities of national law enforcement organizations. Among the manifold differences in this paper, we focus on the role of regulating asset recovery. We highlight that money, and the regulation and practice how the law enforcement deals with income gained from criminal activities, play essential role in combatting human trafficking. While doing research on the investigation of transnational human trafficking by the Hungarian Law Enforcement Agencies, we have found that the unfortunate regulation of asset recovery determines the lower effectiveness of eliminating criminal organizations. While i.e. in the Netherlands confiscation of property takes place in an early stage of the criminal procedure, in Hungary it can be conducted only if money laundering is also assumed. Our presentation builds on the comparison of criminal procedures which we analyse based on criminal files and interviews with coworkers of the National Bureau of Investigation.

Keywords: Human trafficking, Law enforcement, Organized Crime, asset recovery

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2 The Dark Side of the Fight against Organised Crime

Authors: Ana M. Prieto del Pino

Abstract:

As is well known, UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988) was a landmark regarding the seizure of proceeds of crime. Depriving criminals of the profits from their activity became a priority at an international level in the fight against organised crime. Enabling confiscation of proceeds of illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, criminalising money laundering and confiscating the proceeds thereof are the three measures taken in order to achieve that purpose. The beginning of 21st century brought the declaration of war on corruption and on the illicit enjoyment of the profits thereof onto the international scene. According to the UN Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (2000), States Parties should adopt the necessary measures to enable the confiscation of proceeds of crime derived from offences (or property of equivalent value) and property, equipment and other instrumentalities used in offences covered by that Convention. The UN Convention against Corruption (2003) states asset recovery explicitly as a fundamental principle and sets forth measures aiming at the direct recovery of property through international cooperation in confiscation. Furthermore, European legislation has made many significant strides forward in less than twenty years concerning money laundering, confiscation, and asset recovery. Crime does not pay, let there be no doubt about it. Nevertheless, we must be very careful not to sing out of tune with individual rights and legal guarantees. On the one hand, innocent individuals and businesses must be protected, since they should not pay for the guilty ones’ faults. On the other hand, the rule of law must be preserved and not be tossed aside regarding those who have carried out criminal activities. An in-depth analysis of judicial decisions on money laundering and confiscation of proceeds of crime issued by European national courts and by the European Court of Human Rights in the last decade has been carried out from a human rights, legal guarantees and criminal law basic principles’ perspective. The undertaken study has revealed the violation of the right to property, of the proportionality principle legal and the infringement of basic principles of states’ domestic substantive and procedural criminal law systems. The most relevant ones have to do with the punishment of money laundering committed through negligence, non-conviction based confiscation and a too-far reaching interpretation of the notion of ‘proceeds of crime’. Almost everything in life has a bright and a dark side. Confiscation of criminal proceeds and asset recovery are not an exception to this rule.

Keywords: Human Rights, Money Laundering, Organized Crime, confiscation

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1 A Case-Study Analysis on the Necessity of Testing for Cyber Risk Mitigation on Maritime Transport

Authors: Polychronis Kapalidis

Abstract:

In recent years, researchers have started to turn their attention to cyber security and maritime security independently, neglecting, in most cases, to examine the areas where these two critical issues are intertwined. The impact of cybersecurity issues on the maritime economy is emerging dramatically. Maritime transport and all related activities are conducted by technology-intensive platforms, which today rely heavily on information systems. The paper’s argument is that when no defense is completely effective against cyber attacks, it is vital to test responses to the inevitable incursions. Hence, preparedness in the form of testing existing cybersecurity structure via different tools for potential attacks is vital for minimizing risks. Traditional criminal activities may further be facilitated and evolved through the misuse of cyberspace. Kidnap, piracy, fraud, theft of cargo and imposition of ransomware are the major of these activities that mainly target the industry’s most valuable asset; the ship. The paper, adopting a case-study analysis, based on stakeholder consultation and secondary data analysis, namely policy and strategic-related documentation, presents the importance of holistic testing in the sector. Arguing that poor understanding of the issue leads to the adoption of ineffective policies the paper will present the level of awareness within the industry and assess the risks and vulnerabilities of ships to these cybercriminal activities. It will conclude by suggesting that testing procedures must be focused on three main pillars within the maritime transport sector: the human factor, the infrastructure, and the procedures.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Cybercrime, Organized Crime, risk mitigation

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