Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Organizational Culture Related Abstracts

35 Knowledge Management Strategies as a Tool to Change the Organizational Culture

Authors: Doaa Abbas Zaher

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For the past two decades demand for knowledge has been increasing. Management of society’s knowledge has far reaching effects to economic growth through increased capacity to complete viable activities. Organizations use information technology to effect organizational change. This is a challenge for the less developed nations whose capacity to integrate knowledge in core functions is limited. This creates organizational problems as there is global competition amongst organizations. Cross-cultural perceptions influence difference knowledge Management. This study provides a cross-cultural analysis on the influence in knowledge culture in Japan and Saudi Arabia to effect change in organizations. Since different countries adopt different knowledge management strategies, this dictates the state of organizational development through enriched organizational culture. The research uses a mixed approach design to collect data from primary and secondary sources. Primary source will use the questionnaires while secondary sources uses case analysis from books, articles, reports, and journals. The study will take a period of three years to come up with a complete paper.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Information, Organizational Culture, society knowledge

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34 Features Valuation of Intellectual Capital in the Organization

Authors: H. M. Avanesyan

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Economists have been discussing the importance of intangible assets for the success of organization for many years. The term intellectual capital was popularized in the 1990s by Thomas Stewart. “Intellectual capital is the knowledge, applied experience, enterprise processes and technology customer relationship and professional skills which are valuable assets to an organization.” Human capital – includes employee brainpower, competence, skills, experience and knowledge. Customer capital – includes relations and networks with partners, suppliers, distributors, and customers. The objective of the article is to assess one of the key components of organizational culture – organizational values. The focus of the survey was on assessing how intellectual capital presented in these values of the organization. In the conclusion section the article refers to underestimation of intellectual capital by the organization management and the various possible negative effects of the latter.

Keywords: Management, Organization, Intellectual Capital, Organizational Culture, Human Capital, Social identity

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33 Role of Organizational Culture in Building Sustainable Employee’s Performance in Organizations: A Case Study of Zenith Bank PLC Jalingo Taraba State Nigeria

Authors: Jerome Nyameh

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The most valuable asset in the existence of organization is the employees and their ability in maintain appreciable level of performance which support the goal of the organization and the ability to do that depend largely on the organizational culture and culture has been considered most currently as the factor that relate positively to organizational excellence and sustainable employee’s performance over the period of time An employee engagement program will not go far without first establishing the organizational culture that is required to support sustainability. This means integrating sustainability into the overall employee’s performance, with clear vision, goals and metrics. It means having strong culture and a collaborative governance structure that has been develop as a ways of doing things in the organization for decision making and resource allocation. It requires a rewards and recognition program to support and reinforce sustainability behaviors. With such a culture in place, organization will be able to develop a strategy that fully engages employees, while fully realizing the benefits of their contributions. The study investigated empirically the role of organizational culture building sustainable employee’s performance using Zenith bank PLC a model where organizational culture will build sustainable employees performance strategy for a lasting actualization of organizational was developed. In order to achieve the research objectives of (i) to assess how organizational culture can build sustainable employee’s performance (ii) to analyze the gap that exists between organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance in the organization, a survey questionnaires of 20 items was administered to sixty respondents. The findings of this study have practical implications for organizational leaders, managers and employees, and their organizations, particularly commercial banks in Nigeria, besides offering scope for further research in the area of organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance. It will also show a significance and positive relationship that exist between organizational culture and sustainable employee’s performance, as means of building viable organization with cultural uniqueness and excellence performance in the world of competition.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Organizations, sustainable employee’s performance, Zenith Bank PLC Nigeria

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32 Organizational Culture of a Public and a Private Hospital in Brazil

Authors: Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Thamiris Cavazzani Vegro, Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Andrea Bernardes

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Introduction: Organizations are cultural, symbolic and imaginary systems composed by values and norms. These values and norms represent the organizational culture, which determines the behavior of the workers, guides the work practices and impacts the quality of care and the safety culture of health services worldwide. Objective: To analyze the organizational culture of a public and a private hospital in Brazil. Method: Descriptive study with quantitative approach developed in a public and in a private hospital of Brazil. Sample was composed by 281 nursing workers, of which 73 nurses and 208 nursing auxiliaries and technicians. The data collection instrument comprised the Brazilian Instrument for Assessing Organizational Culture. Data were collected from March to December 2013. Results: At the public hospital, the results showed an average score of 2.85 for the values concerning cooperative professionalism (CP); 3.02 for values related to hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power (HR); 2.23 for individualistic professionalism and competition at work (IP); 2.22 for values related to satisfaction, well-being and motivation of workers (SW); 3.47 for external integration (EI); 2.03 for rewarding and training practices (RT); 2.75 for practices related to the promotion of interpersonal relationships (IR) About the private hospital, the results showed an average score of 3.24 for the CP; 2.83 for HR; 2.69 for IP; 2.71 for SW; 3.73 for EI; 2.56 for RT; 2.83 for IR at the hospital. Discussion: The analysis of organizational values of the studied hospitals shows that workers find the existence of hierarchical rigidity and the centralization of power in the institutions; believed there was cooperation at workplace, though they perceived individualism and competition; believed that values associated with the workers’ well-being, satisfaction and motivation were seldom acknowledged by the hospital; believed in the adoption of strategic planning actions within the institution, but considered interpersonal relationship promotion, continuous education and the rewarding of workers to be little valued by the institution. Conclusion: This work context can lead to professional dissatisfaction, compromising the quality of care and contributing to the occurrence of occupational diseases.

Keywords: nursing management, Organizational Culture, Quality Of Care, interpersonal relationships

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31 Identifying Organizational Culture to Implement Knowledge Management: Case Study of BKN, Indonesia

Authors: Elin Cahyaningsih, Maria Margaretha, Dana Indra Sensuse Lukman

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One of key success an organization can be seen from its culture. Employee, environment, and so on are factors for organization to achieve goals and build a competitive advantage. Type of organizational culture can be a guide to implementing Knowledge Management (KM) in organization especially in BKN. Culture will determine behavior of employees or environment to support KM. This paper describes the process to decide which culture does organization belong and suggestion and creating strategic moves in the future to implement KM. OCAI (Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument) and its framework (Competing Value Framework) were used to decide the type of organizational culture. To implement KM in organization, clan is an appropriate culture, because clan culture represent cultural values and leader type to implement a successful KM. Result of the measurement will be references for BKN to improve organization culture to achieve its goals and organization effectiveness.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Government, Organizational Culture, OCAI

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30 The Relationship between Organizational Culture and the Establishment of Knowledge Management in the Central Insurance of Iran

Authors: Alireza Assareh, Fatemeh Havas Beigi, Mohammad Vafaee Yeganeh

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The present study is conducted to investigate the relationship between organizational culture and the establishment of knowledge management in the Central Insurance of Iran. The research results revealed that there is a significant positive relationship between organizational culture and its elements that include management support, organizational belonging, individual innovation, and leadership style and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran and that there isn’t any significant relationship between conflict resolution and the establishment of knowledge management in the central insurance of Iran.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Organizational Culture, central insurance of Iran, individual innovation

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29 Impact of Electronic Guest Relationship Management (e-GRM) on Brand Loyalty: The Case of Croatian Hotels

Authors: Marina Laškarin, Vlado Galičić

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Quick adoption of e-business and emerging influence of “Electronic Word of Mouth e-WOM” communication on guests made leading hotel brands successful examples of electronic guest relationship management. Main reasons behind such success are well established procedures in collection, analysis and usage of highly valuable data available on the Internet, generated through some form of e-GRM programme. E-GRM is more than just a technology solution. It’s a system which balance respective guest demands, hotel technological capabilities and organizational culture of employees, discharging the universal approach in guest relations “same for all”. The purpose of this research derives from the necessity of determining the importance of monitoring and applying e-WOM communication as one of the methods used in managing guest relations. This paper analyses and compares different hotelier’s opinions on e-WOM communication.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, brand loyalty, e-WOM communication, GRM programmes

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28 Knowledge Sharing Model Based on Individual and Organizational Factors Related to Faculty Members of University

Authors: Mitra Sadoughi

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This study presents the knowledge-sharing model based on individual and organizational factors related to faculty members. To achieve this goal, individual and organizational factors were presented through qualitative research in the form of open codes, axial, and selective observations; then, the final model was obtained using structural equation model. Participants included 1,719 faculty members of the Azad Universities, Mazandaran Province, Region 3. The samples related to the qualitative survey included 25 faculty members experienced at teaching and the samples related to the quantitative survey included 326 faculty members selected by multistage cluster sampling. A 72-item questionnaire was used to measure the quantitative variables. The reliability of the questionnaire was 0.93. Its content and face validity was determined with the help of faculty members, consultants, and other experts. For the analysis of quantitative data obtained from structural model and regression, SPSS and LISREL were used. The results showed that the status of knowledge sharing is moderate in the universities. Individual factors influencing knowledge sharing included the sharing of educational materials, perception, confidence and knowledge self-efficiency, and organizational factors influencing knowledge sharing included structural social capital, cognitive social capital, social capital relations, organizational communication, organizational structure, organizational culture, IT infrastructure and systems of rewards. Finally, it was found that the contribution of individual factors on knowledge sharing was more than organizational factors; therefore, a model was presented in which contribution of individual and organizational factors were determined.

Keywords: Perception, Trust, Organizational Communication, Knowledge sharing, Social Capital, Organizational Culture, knowledge self-efficiency

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27 Relationship between Strategic Management and Organizational Culture in Sport Organization (Case Study: Selected Sport Federations of Islamic Republic of Iran)

Authors: Habib Honari, Mohammad Ali Ghareh, Alireza Ahmadi

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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between strategic management and organizational culture in sport federations of Islamic Republic of Iran. Strategic management is a set of decisions and actions which define the long term performance of an organization. Organizational culture can be considered as an identity for every organization and somehow gives an identification to organization members. Organizational culture result in a certain commitments in organization members which is more valuable than individual profits and interests. The method of research was descriptive and correlational, conducted as a field study. The statistical population consisted of the employees of 10 sports federations and 170 persons were selected as sample. For data gathering, Barringer and Bluedorn’s strategic management questionnaire (1999) and Sakyn’s organizational culture questionnaire (2001) were used. The reliability of the questionnaires were 0.82 and 0.80 respectively, and the validity was approved by 8 experienced professors in sport management. To analyze data, KS (Kolmogorov–Smirnov) test and Pearson's coefficient were used. The results have shown that there is a significant meaningful relationship between strategic management and organizational culture (p < 0.05, r= 0.62). Beside this, there is a positive relationship between strategic management variables including scanning intensity, planning flexibility, locus of planning, planning horizon, strategic controls, and organizational culture (p < 0.05). Based on this research result it can be derived that strategic management planning and operation in terms of appropriate organizational culture is more applicable. By agreeing on their values and beliefs, adaptation to changes, caring about the individualities, coordination in tasks, modifying the individual and organizational goals, the federations will be able to achieve their strategic goals.

Keywords: Strategic Management, Organizational Culture, sports federations, Islamic Republic of Iran

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26 The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Application of Management Accounting Innovation: Evidence from Iran

Authors: Zohreh Hajiha

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Culture affects the ability of the organization in expressing and achieving the goals. Organizational culture influences the selection of instruments applied in the management of organizations. All the instruments applied in organizations to control, promote and create innovations are influenced by organizational culture. This research studies organizational culture based on the cultural model of Muijen and its relationship with applying management accounting innovations in Iranian listed firms. Management accounting innovations of this study include activity-based costing, activity-based management, balanced scorecard, target costing, standard costing, quality costing, Kaizen costing and dimensions of organizational culture include support orientation, innovation orientation, rules orientation and goal orientation. 105 questionnaires were sent to financial executives of production companies and 73 questionnaires were returned. The findings show that there is a significant difference between organizational culture of firms that have applied management accounting innovations and those which have used these innovations less. Also, dimensions of support orientation and culture goal orientation are the highest in groups that apply management accounting innovations. The findings suggest that proper organization culture could promote the use od management accounting tools in Iranian firms.

Keywords: Innovation, Management Accounting, Organizational Culture, muijen model

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25 The Relationship between Organization Culture and Organization Learning in Three Different Types of Companies

Authors: Mahmoud Timar, Javad Joukar Borazjani

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A dynamic organization helps the management to overcome both internal and external uncertainties and complexities of the organization with more confidence and efficiency. Regarding this issue, in this paper, the influence of organizational culture factors over organizational learning components, which both of them are considered as important characteristics of a dynamic organization, has been studied in three subsidiary companies (production, consultation and service) of National Iranian Oil Company, and moreover we also tried to identify the most dominant culture in these three subsidiaries. Analysis of 840 received questionnaires by SPSS shows that there is a significant relationship between the components of organizational culture and organizational learning; however the rate of relationship between these two factors was different among the examined companies. By the use of Regression, it has been clarified that in the servicing company the highest relationship is between mission and learning environment, while in production division, there is a significant relationship between adaptability and learning needs satisfaction and however in consulting company the highest relationship is between involvement and applying learning in workplace.

Keywords: Culture, Organizational Culture, Organizational learning, denison model, leaning

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24 Aligning Organizational Culture and Compensation Strategies

Authors: Giuseppe Maria Russo, Patrícia Amélia Tomei, Antônio Linhares, André Moreira Santos

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Alignment between management strategies, policies and practices with organizational cultures holds great potential to meet the challenges of retaining professionals and maintaining their commitment. In this article, authors consider that when it is aligned with company strategy, compensation acts as an incentive for developing common visions within the organizational culture. This article verified the correlation between types of culture and compensation’s strategic components and provided inputs for the definition of strategies aligned with cultural typologies. We conclude that the impact of compensation variables varies according to the type of organizational culture. This result reinforces the theory that different cultures define different organizational strategies. Thus, compensation strategies may explain types of organizational culture.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Compensation, Handy’s cultural typology, rewards

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23 Studying the Establishment of Knowledge Management Background Factors at Islamic Azad University, Behshahr Branch

Authors: Mohammad Reza Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Hossein Taheri

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Knowledge management serves as one of the great breakthroughs in information and knowledge era and given its outstanding features, successful organizations tends to adopt it. Therefore, to deal with knowledge management establishment in universities is of special importance. In this regard, the present research aims to shed lights on factors background knowledge management establishment at Islamic Azad University, Behshahr Branch (Northern Iran). Considering three factors information technology system, knowledge process system and organizational culture as a fundamental of knowledge management infrastructure, foregoing factors were evaluated individually. The present research was conducted in descriptive-survey manner and participants included all staffs and faculty members, so that according to Krejcie & Morgan table a sample size proportional to the population size was considered. The measurement tools included survey questionnaire whose reliability was calculated to 0.83 according to Cronbachs alpha. To data analysis, descriptive statistics such as frequency and its percentage tables, column charts, mean, standard deviation and as for inferential statistics Kolomogrov- Smirnov test and single T-test were used. The findings show that despite the good corporate culture as one of the three factors background the establishment of the knowledge management at Islamic Azad University Behshahr Branch, other two ones, including IT systems, and knowledge processes systems are characterized with adverse status. As a result, these factors have caused no necessary conditions for the establishment of Knowledge Management in the university provided.

Keywords: Information Technology, Knowledge Management, Organizational Culture, knowledge processes, educational institutions

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22 Flexible Work Arrangements for Managers-Gender Diversity and Organizational Development in German Firms

Authors: Marc Gärtner, Monika Huesmann, Katharina Schiederig

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While workplace flexibility provides opportunities to better balance work and family care, careers in management are still predominantly based on physical presence, blurred boundaries and a culture of availability at the workplace. Thus, carers (mostly women) still experience disadvantages and stalled careers. In a multi-case study, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, success factors and barriers of flexible work arrangements in five big organizations, including three of the largest German companies, have been identified. Using qualitative interview methods, the working models of 10 female and male users of flexible work arrangements like part time, home office and job sharing have been studied. The study group applied a 360-degree approach with focus groups, covering the users’ themselves, their superiors, colleagues and staff as well as in-house human resource managers. The group interviews reveal that success of flexible models is mainly built on three factors: (a) the inclusiveness of the organizational culture, (b) the commitment of leaders and especially the supervisors, and (c) the fitting of the model and the user(s). Flexibilization of time and space can indeed contribute to a better work-life balance. This is, however, not a necessary outcome, as the interviews suggest, but depends on the right implementation of the right model in the particular work environment. Beyond the actual study results, the presentation will also assess the methodological approach.

Keywords: Leadership, Organizational Culture, work-life balance, flexible work

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21 Upward Millennium: Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Development and Implementation in Pakistani Organizations

Authors: Sara Aziz, Madiha Arooj, Hira Rizwani, Wasim Irshad

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Enterprise Resource Planning (ER) as component of Information Resource System has turned up as one of the most demanding software in market for the new millennium. ERP system automates the core activities of any organization such as finance, manufacturing and supply chain management, human resource etc. to generate an access to the information in real time environment. Despite this fact many of the organizations globally particularly in developing country Pakistan are unaware and avoid adopting it. The development and implementation of ERP system is a complex and challenging process. This research was aimed to explore the benefits and coping strategies (with reference to end user reaction) of organizations those have implemented ERP. The problems addressed in this study focused the challenges and key success factors regarding implementing ERP Pakistani Organizations. Secondly, it has explored the stumbling blocks and business integration of those organizations that are not implementing ERP. The public and corporate sector organizations in Pakistan were selected to collect the data. The research finding shows that the organizational culture, openness towards adoption and learning, deployment and development, top management commitment and change systems, business processes and compatibility and user acceptance and reaction are contributing factors for successful implementation and development of ERP system. This research is thus an addition to enhance knowledge and understanding of implementation of ERP system in Pakistan.

Keywords: Change Management, Organizational Culture, ERP system, user acceptance and involvement

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20 Organizational Culture and Its Internalization of Change in the Manufacturing and Service Sector Industries in India

Authors: Rashmi Uchil, A. H. Sequeira

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Post-liberalization era in India has seen an unprecedented growth of mergers, both domestic as well as cross-border deals. Indian organizations have slowly begun appreciating this inorganic method of growth. However, all is not well as is evidenced in the lowering value creation of organizations after mergers. Several studies have identified that organizational culture is one of the key factors that affects the success of mergers. But very few studies have been attempted in this realm in India. The current study attempts to identify the factors in the organizational culture variable that may be unique to India. It also focuses on the difference in the impact of organizational culture on merger of organizations in the manufacturing and service sectors in India. The study uses a mixed research approach. An exploratory research approach is adopted to identify the variables that constitute organizational culture specifically in the Indian scenario. A few hypotheses were developed from the identified variables and tested to arrive at the Grounded Theory. The Grounded Theory approach used in the study, attempts to integrate the variables related to organizational culture. Descriptive approach is used to validate the developed grounded theory with a new empirical data set and thus test the relationship between the organizational culture variables and the success of mergers. Empirical data is captured from merged organizations situated in major cities of India. These organizations represent significant proportions of the total number of organizations which have adopted mergers. The mix of industries included software, banking, manufacturing, pharmaceutical and financial services. Mixed sampling approach was adopted for this study. The first phase of sampling was conducted using the probability method of stratified random sampling. The study further used the non-probability method of judgmental sampling. Adequate sample size was identified for the study which represents the top, middle and junior management levels of the organizations that had adopted mergers. Validity and reliability of the research instrument was ensured with appropriate tests. Statistical tools like regression analysis, correlation analysis and factor analysis were used for data analysis. The results of the study revealed a strong relationship between organizational culture and its impact on the success of mergers. The study also revealed that the results were unique to the extent that they highlighted a marked difference in the manner of internalization of change of organizational culture after merger by the organizations in the manufacturing sector. Further, the study reveals that the organizations in the service sector internalized the changes at a slower rate. The study also portrays the industries in the manufacturing sector as more proactive and can contribute to a change in the perception of the said organizations.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Mergers, manufacturing industries, service industries

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19 Antecedents and Consequences of Organizational Intelligence in an R and D Organization

Authors: Akriti Srivastava, Soumi Awasthy

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One of the disciplines that provoked increased interest in the importance of intelligence is the management and organization development literature. Organization intelligence is a key enabling force underlying many vital activities and processes dominating organizational life. Hence, the factors which lead to organizational intelligence and the result which comes out of the whole procedure is important to be understood with the understanding of OI. The focus of this research was to uncover potential antecedents and consequences of organizational intelligence, thus a non-experimental explanatory survey research design was used. A non-experimental research design is in which the manipulation of variables and randomization of samples are not present. The data was collected with the help of the questionnaire from 321 scientists from different laboratories of an R & D organization. Out of which 304 data were found suitable for the analysis. There were 194 males (age, M= 35.03, SD=7.63) and 110 females (age, M= 34.34, SD=8.44). This study tested a conceptual model linking antecedent variables (leadership and organizational culture) to organizational intelligence, followed by organizational innovational capability and organizational performance. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to analyze the hypothesized model. But, before that, confirmatory factor analysis of organizational intelligence scale was done which resulted in an insignificant model. Then, exploratory factor analysis was done which gave six factors for organizational intelligence scale. This structure was used throughout the study. Following this, the final analysis revealed relatively good fit of data to the hypothesized model with certain modifications. Leadership and organizational culture emerged out as the significant antecedents of organizational intelligence. Organizational innovational capability and organizational performance came out to be the consequent factors of organizational intelligence. But organizational intelligence did not predict organizational performance via organizational innovational capability. With this, additional significant pathway emerged out between leadership and organizational performance. The model offers a fresh and comprehensive view of the organizational intelligence. In this study, prior studies in related literature were reviewed to offer a basic framework of organizational intelligence. The study proved to be beneficial for organizational intelligence scholarship, seeing its importance in the competitive environment.

Keywords: Leadership, Organizational Culture, organizational intelligence, organizational innovational capability

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18 Creating a Quasi-Folklore as a Tool for Knowledge Sharing in a Family-Based Business

Authors: Chico A. E. Hindarto

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Knowledge management practices are more contextual when they combine with the corporate culture. Each entity has a specific cultural climate that enables knowledge sharing in both functional and individual levels. The interactions between people within organization can be influenced by the culture and how the knowledge is transmitted. On the other hand, these interactions have impacts in culture modification as well. Storytelling is one of the methods in delivering the knowledge throughout the organization. This paper aims to explore the possibility in using a quasi-folklore in the family-based business. Folklore is defined as informal tradition culture that spreading through a word-of-mouth, without knowing the source of the story. In this paper, the quasi-folklore term is used to differentiate it with the original term of folklore. The story is created by somebody in the organization, not like the folklore with unknown source. However, the source is not disclosed, in order to avoid the predicted interest from the story origin. The setting of family-based business is deliberately chosen, since the kinship is considerably strong in this type of entity. Through a thorough literature review that relates to knowledge management, storytelling, and folklore, this paper determines how folklore can be an option for knowledge sharing within the organization.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Organizational Culture, Folklore, Family Business, storytelling

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17 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

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The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Tolerance, Organizational Culture, Bureaucracy, Adhocracy

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16 [Keynote Talk]: New Generations and Employment: An Exploratory Study about Tensions between the Psycho-Social Characteristics of the Generation Z and Expectations and Actions of Organizational Structures Related with Employment (CABA, 2016)

Authors: Esteban Maioli

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Generational studies have an important research tradition in social and human sciences. On the one hand, the speed of social change in the context of globalization imposes the need to research the transformations are identified both the subjectivity of the agents involved and its inclusion in the institutional matrix, specifically employment. Generation Z, (generally considered as the population group whose birth occurs after 1995) have unique psycho-social characteristics. Gen Z is characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that impact in their concrete action in organizational structures. On the other hand, managers often have to deal with generational differences in the workplace. Organizations have members who belong to different generations; they had never before faced the challenge of having such a diverse group of members. The members of each historical generation are characterized by a different set of values, beliefs, attitudes and ambitions that are manifest in their concrete action in organizational structures. Gen Z it’s the only one who can fully be considered "global," while its members were born in the consolidated context of globalization. Some salient features of the Generation Z can be summarized as follows. They’re the first fully born into a digital world. Social networks and technology are integrated into their lives. They are concerned about the challenges of the modern world (poverty, inequality, climate change, among others). They are self-expressive, more liberal and open to change. They often bore easily, with short attention spans. They do not like routine tasks. They want to achieve a good life-work balance, and they are interested in a flexible work environment, as opposed to traditional work schedule. They are critical thinkers, who come with innovative and creative ideas to help. Research design considered methodological triangulation. Data was collected with two techniques: a self-administered survey with multiple choice questions and attitudinal scales applied over a non-probabilistic sample by reasoned decision. According to the multi-method strategy, also it was conducted in-depth interviews. Organizations constantly face new challenges. One of the biggest ones is to learn to manage a multi-generational scope of work. While Gen Z has not yet been fully incorporated (expected to do so in five years or so), many organizations have already begun to implement a series of changes in its recruitment and development. The main obstacle to retaining young talent is the gap between the expectations of iGen applicants and what companies offer. Members of the iGen expect not only a good salary and job stability but also a clear career plan. Generation Z needs to have immediate feedback on their tasks. However, many organizations have yet to improve both motivation and monitoring practices. It is essential for companies to take a review of organizational practices anchored in the culture of the organization.

Keywords: Employment, Organizational Culture, Organizations, Expectations, generation Z, psycho-social characteristics

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15 The Institutional Change Occurring in the Chinese Sport Sector: A Case Study on the Chinese Football Association Reform

Authors: Qi Peng

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The Chinese sport sector is currently undergoing a dramatic institutional change. A sport system that was heavily dominated by the government is starting to shift towards one that is driven by the market. During the past sixty years, the Chinese Football Association (CFA), although ostensibly a ‘non-governmental organization’, has been in fact operated under the close supervision and control of the government. The double-identity of CFA has taken most of the blame for the poor performance of the Chinese football team, especially the men’s team. In 2015, a policy initiated by the Chinese government introduced a potentially radical change to the institutional structure of CFA by delegating the power of government agency – the General Administration of Sport of China - to the organization (CFA) itself. Against such background, an overarching research question was brought up- will an organization remained institutionalized within the system change in response to the external (policy) jolt? To answer this question, three principal data collection methods were employed: document review, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Document review provides the mapping of the structural and cultural framework in which the CFA functions during the change process. The author have had the chance to interact closely with the organization as participant observer in the organization for a period of time, long enough to collect the data, but never too long to get biased view of the situation. This stage enables the author to gain an in-depth understanding of how CFA managed to restructure the governance and legitimacy. Conducting semi-structured interviews with staff within the CFA and from staff within selected stakeholders of CFA also provided a crucial step to gain an insight into the factors for change as well as the implications of the change. A wide range of interviewees that have been and to be interviewed include: CFA members (senior officials and staff); local football associations members; senior Chinese Super League football club managers; CFA Super League Co., LTD (senior officials and staff); CSL broadcasters; Chinese Olympic Committee members. The preliminary research data shows that the CFA is currently undergoing two levels of change: although the settings of CFA has been gradually restructured (organizational framework), the organizational values and beliefs remain almost the same as the CFA before the reform. This means that the plan of shifting from a governmental agency to an autonomous association is an going process, and that organizational core beliefs and values are more difficult to change than its structural framework. This is due to the inertia of the organizational history and the effect of institutionalization. The change of Chinese Football Association is looked at as a pioneering sport organization in China to undertake the “decoupling” road. It is believed that many other sport organizations, especially sport governing bodies will follow the step of CFA in the near future. Therefore, the experience of CFA change is worthy of studying.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Organizational change, Chinese Football Association, Structural Framework

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14 Evaluation of Organizational Culture and Its Effects on Innovation in the IT Sector: A Case Study from UAE

Authors: Salaheddine Bendak, Amir M. Shikhli, Refaat H. Abdel-Razek

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Innovation is considered to be one of the key factors that influence long-term success of any company. The problem of many organizations in developing countries is trying to implement innovation without a strong basis within the organizational culture to support it. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of organizational culture on innovation in one of the biggest information technology organizations in UAE, Injazat Data System. First, an Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) was used as a survey and Competing Value Framework as a model to analyze the existing culture within the organization and determine its characteristics. Following that, a modified version of the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) was used to determine innovation types introduced by the organization. Then multiple linear regression analysis was used to find out the effects of existing organizational culture on innovation. Results show that existing organizational culture is composed of a combination of Hierarchy (29.4%), Clan (25.8%), Market (24.9%) and Adhocracy (19.9%). Results of the second survey show that the organization focuses on organizational innovation (26.8%) followed by market and product innovations (25.6%) and finally process innovation (22.0%). Regression analysis results reveal that for each innovation type there is a recommended combination of the four culture types. For product innovation, the combination is 47.4% Clan, 17.9% Adhocracy, 1.0% Market and 33.3% Hierarchy; for process innovation it is 19.7% Clan, 45.2% Adhocracy, 32.0% Market and 3.1% Hierarchy; for organizational innovation the combination is 5.4% Clan, 32.7% Adhocracy, 6.0% Market and 55.9% Hierarchy; and for market innovation it is 25.5% Clan, 42.6% Adhocracy, 32.6% Market and 8.4% Hierarchy. Based on these recommended combinations, this study suggests two ways to enhance the innovation culture in the organization. First, if the management decides on the innovation type to be enhanced, a comparison between the existing culture and the recommended combination of selected innovation types will lead to difference in percentages of each culture type. Then further analysis should show how to modify the existing culture to match the recommended combination. Second, if the innovation type is not selected, but the management wants to enhance innovation culture in the organization, the difference in percentages of each culture type will lead to finding out the recommended combination of culture types that gives the narrowest gap between existing culture and recommended combination.

Keywords: Organizational innovation, Organizational Culture, developing countries, Product Innovation, Marketing Innovation, Process innovation, innovation types

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13 The Impact of Organizational Culture on Internet Marketing Adoption

Authors: Hafiz Mushtaq Ahmad, Syed Faizan Ali Shah, Bushra Hussain, Muneeb Iqbal

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of organizational culture on internet marketing adoption. Moreover, the study intends to explore the role of organizational culture in the internet marketing adoption that helps business to achieve organizational growth and augmented market share. Background: With the enormous expansion of technology, organizations now need technology-based marketing paradigm in order to capture larger group of customers. Organizational culture plays a dominant and prominent role in the internet marketing adoption. Changes in the world economy have demolished current organizational competition and generating new technology standards and strategies. With all the technological advances, e-marketing has become one of the essential part of marketing strategies. Organizations require advance internet marketing strategies in order to compete in a global market. Methodology: The population of this study consists of telecom sector organizations of Pakistan. The sample size consists of 200 telecom sector employees. Data were gathered through the questionnaire instrument. The research strategy of this study is survey. The study uses a deductive approach. The sampling technique of this study is convenience sampling. Tentative Results: The study reveals that organizational culture played a vital role in the internet marketing adoption. The results show that there is a strong association between the organizational culture and internet marketing adoption. The results further show that flexible organizational culture helps organization to easily adopt internet marketing. Conclusion: The study discloses that flexible organizational culture helps organizations to easily adopt e-marketing. The study guides decision-makers and owners of organizations to recognize the importance of internet marketing strategy and help them to increase market share by using e-marketing. The study offers solution to the managers to develop flexible organizational culture that helps in internet marketing adoption.

Keywords: Internet Technology, Internet Marketing, Organizational Culture, marketing paradigm

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12 Cross Country Comparison: Business Process Management Maturity, Social Business Process Management and Organizational Culture

Authors: Dalia Suša Vugec

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In recent few decades, business process management (BPM) has been in focus of a great number of researchers and organizations. There are many benefits derived from the implementation of BPM in organizations. However, there has been also noticed that lately traditional BPM faces some difficulties in terms of the divide between models and their execution, lost innovations, lack of information fusioning and so on. As a result, there has been a new discipline, called social BPM, which incorporates principles of social software into the BPM. On the other hand, many researchers indicate organizational culture as a vital part of the BPM success and maturity. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the current state of BPM maturity and the usage of social BPM among the organizations from Croatia, Slovenia and Austria, with the regards to the organizational culture as well. The paper presents the results of a survey conducted as part of the PROSPER project (IP-2014-09-3729), financed by Croatian Science Foundation. The results indicate differences in the level of BPM maturity, the usage of social BPM and the dominant organizational culture in the observed organizations from different countries. These differences are further discussed in the paper.

Keywords: Business Process Management, Organizational Culture, social BPM, BPM maturity

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11 Examining the European Central Bank's Marginal Attention to Human Rights Concerns during the Eurozone Crisis through the Lens of Organizational Culture

Authors: Hila Levi

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Respect for human rights is a fundamental element of the European Union's (EU) identity and law. Surprisingly, however, the protection of human rights has been significantly restricted in the austerity programs ordered by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the European Commission (EC) (often labeled 'the Troika') in return for financial aid to the crisis-hit countries. This paper focuses on the role of the ECB in the crisis management. While other international financial institutions, such as the IMF or the World Bank, may opt to neglect human rights obligations, one might expect a greater respect of human rights from the ECB, which is bound by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. However, this paper argues that ECB officials made no significant effort to protect human rights or strike an adequate balance between competing financial and human rights needs while coping with the crisis. ECB officials were preoccupied with the need to stabilize the economy and prevent a collapse of the Eurozone, and paid only marginal attention to human rights concerns in the design and implementation of Troikas' programs. This paper explores the role of Organizational Culture (OC) in explaining this marginalization. While International Relations (IR) research on Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) behavior has traditionally focused on external interests of powerful member states, and on national and economic considerations, this study focuses on particular institutions' internal factors and independent processes. OC characteristics have been identified in OC literature as an important determinant of organizational behavior. This paper suggests that cultural characteristics are also vital for the examination of IGOs, and particularly for understanding the ECB's behavior during the crisis. In order to assess the OC of the ECB and the impact it had on its policies and decisions during the Eurozone crisis, the paper uses the results of numerous qualitative interviews conducted with high-ranking officials and staff members of the ECB involved in the crisis management. It further reviews primary sources of the ECB (such as ECB statutes, and the Memoranda of Understanding signed between the crisis countries and the Troika), and secondary sources (such as the report of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights on Austerity measures and economic, social, and cultural rights). It thus analyzes the interaction between the ECBs culture and the almost complete absence of human rights considerations in the Eurozone crisis resolution scheme. This paper highlights the importance and influence of internal ideational factors on IGOs behavior. From a more practical perspective, this paper may contribute to understanding one of the obstacles in the process of human rights implementation in international organizations, and provide instruments for better protection of social and economic rights.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, eurozone crisis, European central bank, intergovernmental organizations

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10 The Role of Organizational Culture, Work Discipline, and Employee Motivation towards Employees Performance at Personal Care and Cosmetic Department Flammable PT XYZ Cosmetics

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Novawiguna Kemalasari

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This research is a planned activity to find an objective answer to PT XYZ problem through scientific procedure. In this study, It was used quantitative research methods by using samples taken from a department selected by researchers. This study aims to analyze the influence of organizational culture, work discipline and work motivation on employee performance of Personal Care & Cosmetic Department (PCC) Flammable PT XYZ. This research was conducted at PT XYZ Personal Care & Cosmetic Department (PCC) Flammable involving 82 employees as respondents, the data were obtained by using questionnaires filled in self-rating by respondents. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression model processed by using SPSS version 22. The result of research showed that organizational culture variable, work discipline and work motivation had significant effect to employee performance.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, Employee Motivation, work discipline, employees performance

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9 The Role of Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment, and Styles of Transformational Leadership towards Employee Performance

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Novawiguna Kemalasari

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This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style on employee performance. This study used descriptive survey method with quantitative approach, and questionnaires as a tool used for basic data collection. The sampling technique used is proportionate stratified random sampling technique; all respondents in this study were 70 respondents. The analytical method used in this research is multiple linear regressions. The result of determination coefficient of 52.3% indicates that organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style simultaneously have a significant influence on the performance of employees, while the remaining 47.7% is explained by other factors outside the research variables. Partially, organization culture has strong and positive influence on employee performance, organizational commitment has a moderate and positive effect on employee performance, while the transformational leadership style has a strong and positive influence on employee performance and this is also the variable that has the most impact on employee performance.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, organizational commitment, employee performance, transformational leadership style

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8 Understanding Workplace Behavior through Organizational Culture and Complex Adaptive Systems Theory

Authors: Péter Restás, Andrea Czibor, Zsolt Péter Szabó

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Purpose: This article aims to rethink the phenomena of employee behavior as a product of a system. Both organizational culture and Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) theory emphasize that individual behavior depends on the specific system and the unique organizational culture. These two major theories are both represented in the field of organizational studies; however, they are rarely used together for the comprehensive understanding of workplace behavior. Methodology: By reviewing the literature we use key concepts stemming from organizational culture and CAS theory in order to show the similarities between these theories and create an enriched understanding of employee behavior. Findings: a) Workplace behavior is defined here as social cognition issue. b) Organizations are discussed here as complex systems, and cultures which drive and dictate the cognitive processes of agents in the system. c) Culture gives CAS theory a context which lets us see organizations not just as ever-changing and unpredictable, but as such systems that aim to create and maintain stability by recurring behavior. Conclusion: Applying the knowledge from culture and CAS theory sheds light on our present understanding of employee behavior, also emphasizes the importance of novel ways in organizational research and management.

Keywords: Stability, Organizational Culture, complex adaptive systems theory, employee behavior

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7 Business Process Management and Organizational Culture in Big Companies: Cross-Country Analysis

Authors: Dalia Suša Vugec

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Business process management (BPM) is widely used approach focused on designing, mapping, changing, managing and analyzing business processes of an organization, which eventually leads to better performance and derives many other benefits. Since every organization strives to improve its performance in order to be sustainable and to remain competitive on the market in long-term period, numerous organizations are nowadays adopting and implementing BPM. However, not all organizations are equally successful in that. One of the ways of measuring BPM success is by measuring its maturity by calculating Process Performance Index (PPI) using ten BPM success factors. Still, although BPM is a holistic concept, organizational culture is not taken into consideration in calculating PPI. Hence, aim of this paper is twofold; first, it aims to explore and analyze the current state of BPM success factors within the big organizations from Slovenia, Croatia, and Austria and second, it aims to analyze the structure of organizational culture within the observed companies, focusing on the link with BPM success factors as well. The presented study is based on the results of the questionnaire conducted as the part of the PROSPER project (IP-2014-09-3729) and financed by Croatian Science Foundation. The results of the questionnaire reveal differences in the achieved levels of BPM success factors and therefore BPM maturity in total between the three observed countries. Moreover, the structure of organizational culture across three countries also differs. This paper discusses the revealed differences between countries as well as the link between organizational culture and BPM success factors.

Keywords: Business Process Management, Organizational Culture, process performance index, BPM maturity, BPM success factors

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6 Community Education Leadership and Organizational Culture: Perceptions of Empowerment

Authors: Aisha M. Khairat

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Community education in the Arab Republic of Egypt is a model that provides education to remote, underprivileged villages and hamlets where children have no access to public education. The community education model is based on the philosophy of transforming individuals to reach their full potential and on instilling the seeds of empowerment and citizenship to induce societal transformation. This research aims at investigating the degree to which the leadership style and organizational culture of the Egyptian community schools demonstrates an empowering approach. Nile Valley NGO, an Egyptian Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) leading hundreds of Egyptian community schools was studied to investigate the perceptions of empowerment amongst its leadership. This in turn will have serious implications on the level of empowerment the communities managed by Nile Valley NGO are experiencing, and will serve as an indicator to the degree to which community schools are achieving their goals in transforming individuals and empowering communities and reforming Egyptian education – and not just a tool to reach literacy. This mixed-methods research utilized surveys and semi-structured interviews to capture the perceptions of empowerment in the views of a sample of 380 community schools facilitators (teachers) spanning 8 Egyptian governorates and Nile Valley NGO’s community education project team and leadership. The findings demonstrate interesting leadership approaches with traits from transformational and servant leadership theoretical models. The organizational culture at Nile Valley NGO reflects the universal dichotomy between market-oriented and humanitarian orientations. The perceptions of empowerment were positive, and several success stories were uncovered in spite of the many challenges faced on the national level and despite the scarcity or resources.

Keywords: Leadership, Organizational Culture, Empowerment, community education, community schools in Egypt

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