Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

organizational commitment Related Abstracts

32 Impact of Emotional Intelligence on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: A Study on Young Doctors of Pakistan

Authors: Fareeha zafar, Aisha Khalid, Talha Aftab

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This paper investigates the impact of emotional intelligence on job satisfaction and organizational commitment at workplace in the doctors; age ranging from 25 to 32 years. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been considered as important issue in terms of high quality services and superior performance. This paper presents a field survey conducted in 9 different public sector hospitals which operate in Punjab, Pakistan. 250 questionnaires were distributed out of which 180 returned back were showing 72% response rate, confirming the significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction and emotional intelligence and organizational commitment.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, organizational commitment, young doctors

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31 Can Career Advancement and Job Security Act as Collaterals for Commitment? Evidence from the Hotel Industry of Malaysia

Authors: Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Cheng Ling Tan, Aizzat Md. Nasurdin

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This study aims to examine the role of career advancement and job security as predictors of employee commitment to their organization. Data was collected from 580 frontline employees attached to two departments of 29 luxury hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Statistical results using Partial Least Squares technique provided support for the proposed hypotheses. In view of the findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: Malaysia, organizational commitment, job security, career advancement, frontline employees, luxury hotels

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30 Compensation Strategies and Their Effects on Employees' Motivation and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour in Some Manufacturing Companies in Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Ade Oyedijo

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This paper reports the findings of a study on the strategic and organizational antecedents and effects of two opposing pay patterns used by some manufacturing companies in Lagos Nigeria with particular reference to the behavioural correlates of the pay strategies considered. The assumed relationship between pay strategies and some organizational correlates such as business and corporate strategies and firm size was considered problematic in view of their likely implications for employee motivation and citizenship behaviour and firm performance. The survey research method was used for the study. Structured, close ended questions were used to collect primary data from the respondents. A multipart Likert scale was used to measure the pay orientations of the respondent firms and the job and organizational involvement of the respondent employees. Utilizing hierarchical linear regression method and "t-test" to analyze the data obtained from 48 manufacturing companies of various sizes and strategies, it was found that the dominant pattern of employee compensation in the sampled manufacturing companies. The study also revealed that the choice of a pay strategy was strongly influenced by organizational size as well as the type of business and corporate level strategies adopted by afirm. Firms pursuing a strategy of related and unrelated diversification are more likely to adopt the algorithmic compensation system than single product firms because of their relatively larger size and scope. However; firms that pursue a competitive advantage through a business level strategy of cost efficiency are more likely to use the experiential, variable pay strategy. The study found that an algorithmic compensation strategy is as effective as experiential compensation strategy in the promotion of organizational citizenship behaviour and motivation of employees.

Keywords: Business Strategy, Algorithmic, Corporate Strategy, Motivation, Compensation, organizational commitment, citizenship behaviour, experiential, work environment

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29 An Integrative Model of Job Characteristics Key Attitudes and Intention to Leave Among Faculty in Higher Education

Authors: Bhavna Malik

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The study is build on a theoretical framework that links characteristics of job, key attitudes and intention to leave, why faculty may be disengaging from institutional service. The literature indicates that job characteristics, key attitudes and intention to leave are very important for effective organizational functioning. In general, the literature showed that some job characteristics might be the antecedents of job satisfaction and the aggregate variable job scope was positively associated with organizational commitment, and these key attitudes predicted intention to leave negatively. The present study attempted to propose a new integrative model of the relationships among job characteristics, key attitudes, and intention to leave. The main purpose of the present study is to examine the effects of job characteristics on intention to leave. While examining the role of job characteristics, the mediating roles of key attitudes were taken into account in order to better understand how job characteristics affect the exhibition of intention to leave. The secondary purpose is to investigate the effects of job characteristics on key attitudes, and the effects of key attitudes on intention to leave. Job characteristics of remuneration, resource for professional activities, career opportunities were positively associated with the work attitude of job satisfaction. The aggregate job scope was positively associated with the work attitude of organizational commitment although no single job characteristic was significantly associated with organizational commitment. Commitment, however, did not significantly affect time spent on institutional service. Two job characteristics—time spent on research and time spent on teaching—were negatively associated with this behavior. In general, the literature showed that some job characteristics might be the antecedents of job satisfaction and the aggregate variable job scope was positively associated with organizational commitment, and these key attiudes predicted intention to leave negatively. In turn, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were negatively associated with the intention to leave. In addition to these, organizational commitment was negatively associated with the intention to leave. However, no significant direct association was found between job characteristics and intention to leave.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, Job Characteristics Model, intention to leave

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28 Continuance Commitment of Retail Pharmacist in a Labor Shortage: Results from the Questionnaire Survey

Authors: Shigeaki Mishima

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Pharmacist labor shortage has become a long-term problem in Japan. This paper discusses the relationship between organizational commitment and pharmacists' organizational behavior in the context of labor shortage. Based on a multidimensional view of organizational commitment, effective commitment and continuous commitment are measured. It is suggested that the continuous commitment has a unique impact on withholding information behavior. We also discuss the impact of labor supply and demand on continuous commitment of retail pharmacist.

Keywords: organizational commitment, professional, pharmacist, labor shortage

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27 Factors Related to Employee Adherence to Rules in Kuwait Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical framework which demonstrates the effect of four personal factors on employees rule following behavior in Kuwaiti business organizations. The model suggested in this study includes organizational citizenship behavior, affective organizational commitment, organizational trust, and procedural justice as possible predictors of rule following behavior. The study also attempts to compare the effects of the suggested factors on employees rule following behavior. The new model will, hopefully, extend previous research by adding new variables to the models used to explain employees rule following behavior. A discussion of issues related to rule-following behavior is presented, as well as recommendations for future research.

Keywords: Organizational Justice, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, employee adherence to rules

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26 Motivation for Work and Organizational Commitment in an Engineering Public Faculty: A Perception of Technical and Administrative Employees

Authors: Ester Eliane Jeunon, Fátima Aparecida de Carvalho

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This study addresses issues in the public service: motivation to work and organizational commitment. The goal of this research was to examine how it configures the motivation to work and organizational commitment of the technical and administrative effective staff of the School of Engineering at UFMG. For this purpose a descriptive research under a quantitative and qualitative approach has been performed. In the quantitative research it has been applied a questionnaire to all 146 technical and administrative institution effective staff, that configures a census research. This questionnaire was divided into three parts, the first one aimed at performing a socio-demographic survey of participants, the second one aimed to measure motivation and the third one aimed at measuring organizational commitment. The Bases Organizational Commitment Scale (EBACO) was used in the analysis of data obtained in the third part of the questionnaire. The qualitative research was conducted through interviews with 08 managers, with open-ended questions structured in an analysis category, thus contemplating the administrative structure of the School of Engineering. The results of the research revealed that there is no relevant difference between the hygiene and motivational indices, related to the staff´s gender and area of work. Nonetheless, it was observed higher motivational indices for staff with shorter duration of employment in the institution. Also, the results shown high organizational commitment of the staff with the institution, with a predominance of the component “Requirement for performance”, followed by commitments “Consistent line of activity”, “Affiliative” and “Affective”, which reached almost tge some average in this study. Finally the results showed that all commitment indices have positive moderated correlation to the motivational indices, except the “shortage of alternative” index.

Keywords: Human Resources, Public Service, organizational commitment, motivation to work

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25 Knowledge Management Factors Affecting the Level of Commitment

Authors: Abbas Keramati, Abtin Boostani, Mohammad Jamal Sadeghi

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This paper examines the influence of knowledge management factors on organizational commitment for employees in the oil and gas drilling industry of Iran. We determine what knowledge factors have the greatest impact on the personnel loyalty and commitment to the organization using collected data from a survey of over 300 full-time personnel working in three large companies active in oil and gas drilling industry of Iran. To specify the effect of knowledge factors in the organizational commitment of the personnel in the studied organizations, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used. Findings of our study show that the factors such as knowledge and expertise, in-service training, the knowledge value and the application of individuals’ knowledge in the organization as the factor “learning and perception of personnel from the value of knowledge within the organization” has the greatest impact on the organizational commitment. After this factor, “existence of knowledge and knowledge sharing environment in the organization”; “existence of potential knowledge exchanging in the organization”; and “organizational knowledge level” factors have the most impact on the organizational commitment of personnel, respectively.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, organizational commitment, loyalty, Principle Component Analysis, drilling industry

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24 New Managerialism and Organizational Commitment: Impact towards Employees' Work Performance in a Malaysian Public University

Authors: Kamarul Fairuz Hassim, Sharifah Fatimah Syed-Ahmad

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New managerialism has become the current trend in managing public sector which emphasizes on efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability. Public universities are not exempted from experiencing this new system. This study tries to explore the direct impact of new managerialism towards work performance of the employees in a public university in Malaysia and the indirect impact through a mediating factor – Organizational Commitment. Feedback were gathered from 204 respondents comprises of academics and non-academics managers in the University of Malaya using a 39 items, self-administered questionnaire. Respondents’ views were asked in the aspects of managerialism level of the university, their organizational commitment, and self-rated work performance level. The findings exhibit that there is a direct impact of new managerialism towards employees’ work performance in a positive way. This is contradicting to the established Hypotheses of this study. Furthermore, there is no significant finding on the role of all three components of organizational commitment – affective, normative, and continuance as the mediating factors in new managerialism approach that gave impact towards work performance. Consequently these insignificant found failed to corroborate the remaining six hypotheses in this study. On another note, findings gathered from this study show some contradiction to the original research conducted earlier by Smeenk et al. in 2009. Therefore, results obtained from this study do contribute to the existing pool of knowledge as previous studies on this topic are scarce especially in the Malaysia’s context.

Keywords: organizational commitment, work performance, new managerialism, Malaysia public universities

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23 Antecedents and Consequents of Organizational Politics: A Select Study of a Central University

Authors: Poonam Mishra, Shiv Kumar Sharma, Sanjeev Swami

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Purpose: The Purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of percieved organizational politics with three levels of antecedents (i.e., organizational level, work environment level and individual level)and its consequents simultaneously. The study addresses antecedents and consequents of percieved political behavior in the higher education sector of India with specific reference to a central university. Design/ Methodology/ Approach: A conceptual framework and hypotheses were first developed on the basis of review of previous studies on organizational politics. A questionnaire was then developed carrying 66 items related to 8-constructs and demographic characteristics of respondents. Jundegemental sampling was used to select respondents. Primary data is collected through structured questionnaire from 45 faculty members of a central university. The sample constitutes Professors, Associate Professors and Assistant Professors from various departments of the University. To test hypotheses data was analyzed statistically using partial least square-structural equations modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings: Results indicated a strong support for OP’s relationship with three of the four proposed antecedents that are, workforce diversity, relationship conflict and need for power with relationship conflict having the strongest impact. No significant relationship was found between role conflict and perception of organizational politics. The three consequences that is, intention to turnover, job anxiety, and organizational commitment are significantly impacted by perception of organizational politics. Practical Implications– This study will be helpful in motivating future research for improving the quality of higher education in India by reducing the level of antecedents that adds to the level of perception of organizational politics, ultimately resulting in unfavorable outcomes. Originality/value: Although a large number of studies on atecedents and consequents of percieved organizational politics have been reported, little attention has been paid to test all the separate but interdependent relationships simultaneously; in this paper organizational politics will be simultaneously treated as a dependent variable and same will be treated as independent variable in subsequent relationships.

Keywords: organizational commitment, workforce diversity, organizational politics, job anxiety, relationship conflict, role conflict, need for power, intention to turnover

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22 A Research to Determine the Impact of Mobbing on Organizational Commitment

Authors: K. Eryeşil, O. Esmen, A. Beduk, m. Onacak

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The mobbing is a process that is consisting of negative behaviors such as, systematically and continuously insulting, offending against personal dignity, preventing access to necessary information and disseminating rumors against employee by one or more than one individuals in a work environment through which disturbing the employee physically, psychologically and socially to cause to quit his/her job. This research is aiming to explore the results of mobbing (psychological violence) on employees’ organizational commitment in workplaces. Mobbing takes many forms and is often used to force an employee to leave the work environment. Two different types of scales have been reviewed and revised for use in the research. The Heinz Leymann scale is the first measure, which was developed to define causes and effects, in addition to characteristic behaviors of mobbing. The second scale was developed by Allen and Mayer and indicates levels of organizational commitment. In this research, a questionnaire were applied to 50 employees in a special glass factory in Konya to search mobbing itself and indicate the effects of mobbing to organizational commitments. One of the important findings of this research is that there was no relation between mobbing and general organizational commitment.

Keywords: organizational commitment, mobbing, affective commitment, normative commitment, continuance commitment

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21 The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Burn out on Organizational Cynicism: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Aykut Beduk, Kemalettin Eryeşil, Osman Esmen

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The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational commitment which is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, and burnout syndrome and organizational cynicism. Accordingly, a field research based on survey method was conducted on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. The findings of the research show that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational cynicism and burnout while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and burnout. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism.

Keywords: Healthcare Management, Burnout, organizational commitment, organizational cynicism

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20 The Quality of Working Life and the Organizational Commitment of Municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon Province

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

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This research aims to investigate: (1) Relationship between the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province. (2) To compare the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal employee in Samut Sakhon Province by the gender, age, education, official experience, position, division, and income. This study is a quantitative research; data was collected by questionnaires distributed to the municipal employee in Samut Sakhon province for 241 sample by stratified random sampling. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and inferential statistic including t-test, F-test and Pearson correlation for hypothesis testing. Finding showed that the quality of working life and the organizational commitment of municipal Employee in Samut Sakhon province in terms of compensation and fair has a positive correlation (r = 0.673) and the comparison of the quality of working life and organizational commitment of municipal employees in Samut Sakhon province by gender. We found that the overall difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level and we also found stability and progress in career path and the characteristics are beneficial to society has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.01 level, and the participation and social acceptance has a difference was statistically significant at the 0.05 level.

Keywords: organizational commitment, quality of working life, municipal employee, Samut Sakhon province

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19 The Antecedents That Effect on Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Mananya Meenakorn

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The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: totally state-owned public enterprises, partially transformed public enterprises and totally transformed public enterprises, based on the degree of state ownership and the level of management control that exist in the public reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment between the three types of public energy enterprises. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and organizational commitment. Whereas change-related behaviors show a direct negative influence on organizational commitment, both HRM practices and work-related values indicate direct positive influences on them also.

Keywords: organizational commitment, affective commitment, public enterprise reform organizations, public energy enterprises in Thailand

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18 The Organizational Commitment of the Public Enterprises in Thailand

Authors: Routsukol Sunalai

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The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public enterprise reform policy on the attributes of organizational commitments in the public energy enterprises in Thailand. It compares three structural types of public energy enterprises: Totally state-owned public enterprises (type I), partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III), based on the degree of state partially transformed public enterprises (type II), and totally transformed public enterprises (type III),based on the degree of reformed organizations, by analyzing the presence of the desirable attributes of organizational commitment as perceived by employees. Findings indicate that there are statistically significant differences in the level of some dimensions of organizational commitment (affective commitment and normative commitment) between the three types of public energy enterprises. The lack of a structural type difference holds for only continuance commitment. The results also indicate empirical evidence concerning the causal relationship between the antecedents and including organizational commitment also.

Keywords: organizational commitment, management control, public enterprises in Thailand, public enterprise reform

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17 Investing the Employees Higher Quitting Intention at the Call Centers of Pakistan: A Reality or a Myth: A Case Study of Pakistan Telecommunication Sector

Authors: Naheed Malik, Marisa Smith

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This study has been undertaken as an attempt to explore the underlying reasons that cause higher employee turnover rates at the call centers of Pakistan. This research also aimed to examine the relationship among the job related variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, supervisor support, self-esteem, organizational stressors (work overload, role ambiguity and work family conflict) and quitting inclination. A total of 340 call centers respondents filled the survey questionnaire. The data was analyzed through SPSS 19.0. Results reveal the significant relationship among the study variables and stress level contributing more towards employee penchant to leave the job. A significant amount of call centers employee have proclivity to quit from their jobs as soon as they would be able to find some other jobs with attractive compensation. The majority of the respondents were found to be unhappy and dissatisfied due to hectic schedule and imbalance between family and work. This research also highlighted the specific areas in which call centre management needs to emphasize deliberately that affect more sharply on employee leaving aptitude. This study also suggests some useful strategies for the well being of employees that can minimize their tendency of quitting and retention in the long run.

Keywords: stress, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, self esteem, call centers, supervisor’s support, employee turnover, employees’ intention to quit, customer service representative (CSRs)

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16 The Impact of CSR Satisfaction on Employee Commitment

Authors: Silke Bustamante, Andrea Pelzeter, Andreas Deckmann, Rudi Ehlscheidt, Franziska Freudenberger

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Many companies increasingly seek to enhance their attractiveness as an employer to bind their employees. At the same time, corporate responsibility for social and ecological issues seems to become a more important part of an attractive employer brand. It enables the company to match the values and expectations of its members, to signal fairness towards them and to increase its brand potential for positive psychological identification on the employees’ side. In the last decade, several empirical studies have focused this relationship, confirming a positive effect of employees’ CSR perception and their affective organizational commitment. The current paper aims to take a slightly different view by analyzing the impact of another factor on commitment: the weighted employee’s satisfaction with the employer CSR. For that purpose, it is assumed that commitment levels are rather a result of the fulfillment or disappointment of expectations. Hence, instead of merely asking how CSR perception affects commitment, a more complex independent variable is taken into account: a weighted satisfaction construct that summarizes two different factors. Therefore, the individual level of commitment contingent on CSR is conceptualized as a function of two psychological processes: (1) the individual significance that an employee ascribes to specific employer attributes and (2) the individual satisfaction based on the fulfillment of expectation that rely on preceding perceptions of employer attributes. The results presented are based on a quantitative survey that was undertaken among employees of the German service sector. Conceptually a five-dimensional CSR construct (ecology, employees, marketplace, society and corporate governance) and a two-dimensional non-CSR construct (company and workplace) were applied to differentiate employer characteristics. (1) Respondents were asked to indicate the importance of different facets of CSR-related and non-CSR-related employer attributes. By means of a conjoint analysis, the relative importance of each employer attribute was calculated from the data. (2) In addition to this, participants stated their level of satisfaction with specific employer attributes. Both indications were merged to individually weighted satisfaction indexes on the seven-dimensional levels of employer characteristics. The affective organizational commitment of employees (dependent variable) was gathered by applying the established 15-items Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). The findings related to the relationship between satisfaction and commitment will be presented. Furthermore, the question will be addressed, how important satisfaction with CSR is in relation to the satisfaction with other attributes of the company in the creation of commitment. Practical as well as scientific implications will be discussed especially with reference to previous results that focused on CSR perception as a commitment driver.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, organizational commitment, employee expectations, employee attitudes/satisfaction, employer brand

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15 Impact of Leadership Styles on Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment among Faculty Members of Public Sector Universities in Punjab

Authors: Wajeeha Shahid

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The study was designed to assess the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment among faculty members of universities of Punjab. 713 faculty members were selected as sample through convenient random sampling technique. Three self-constructed questionnaires namely Leadership Styles Questionnaire (LSQ), Work Motivation Questionnaire (WMQ) and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCMQ) were used as research instruments. Major objectives of the study included assessing the effect and impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on work motivation and organizational commitment. Theoretical frame work of the study included Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration, Contingent Rewards and Management by Exception as independent variables and Extrinsic motivation, Intrinsic motivation, Affective commitment, Continuance commitment and Normative commitment as dependent variables. SPSS Version 21 was used to analyze and tabulate data. Cronbach's Alpha reliability, Pearson Correlation and Multiple regression analysis were applied as statistical treatments for the analysis. Results revealed that Idealized Influence correlated significantly with intrinsic motivation and Affective commitment whereas Contingent rewards had a strong positive correlation with extrinsic motivation and affective commitment. Multiple regression models revealed a variance of 85% for transformational leadership style over work motivation and organizational commitment. Whereas transactional style as a predictor manifested a variance of 79% for work motivation and 76% for organizational commitment. It was suggested that changing organizational cultures are demanding more from their leadership. All organizations need to consider transformational leadership style as an important part of their equipment in leveraging both soft and hard organizational targets.

Keywords: Leadership Styles, organizational commitment, work motivation, faculty member

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14 Structural Model on Organizational Climate, Leadership Behavior and Organizational Commitment: Work Engagement of Private Secondary School Teachers in Davao City

Authors: Genevaive Melendres

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School administrators face the reality of teachers losing their engagement, or schools losing the teachers. This study is then conducted to identify a structural model that best predict work engagement of private secondary teachers in Davao City. Ninety-three teachers from four sectarian schools and 56 teachers from four non-sectarian schools were involved in the completion of four survey instruments namely Organizational Climate Questionnaire, Leader Behavior Descriptive Questionnaire, Organizational Commitment Scales, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scales. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, mean, standardized deviation, t-test for independent sample, Pearson r, stepwise multiple regression analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results show that schools have high level of organizational climate dimensions; leaders oftentimes show work-oriented and people-oriented behavior; teachers have high normative commitment and they are very often engaged at their work. Teachers from non-sectarian schools have higher organizational commitment than those from sectarian schools. Organizational climate and leadership behavior are positively related to and predict work engagement whereas commitment did not show any relationship. This study underscores the relative effects of three variables on the work engagement of teachers. After testing network of relationships and evaluating several models, a best-fitting model was found between leadership behavior and work engagement. The noteworthy findings suggest that principals pay attention and consistently evaluate their behavior for this best predicts the work engagement of the teachers. The study provides value to administrators who take decisions and create conditions in which teachers derive fulfillment.

Keywords: Organizational Climate, organizational commitment, leadership behavior, private secondary school teachers, structural model on work engagement

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13 The Moderating Effect of Organizational Commitment in the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Work Outcomes

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The purpose of this study is to determine the moderating of effect of organizational commitment in the relationship between emotional intelligence and work outcomes. The study presents a new model to explain the mechanism through which emotional intelligence influences work outcomes. The model includes emotional intelligence as an independent variable, organizational commitment as a moderating variable, and work performance, job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to leave as dependent variables. A sample of 208 employees working in eight Kuwaiti business organizations (from industrial, banking, service, and financial sectors) were surveyed, and data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that emotional intelligence is positively associated with organizational commitment and that the positive effect of emotional intelligence on job involvement and organizational citizenship behavior is moderated by organizational commitment. The results of the current study are discussed and are compared to the results of previous studies in this area. Finally, the directions for future research are suggested.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave, job involvement

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12 Consequences of Employees' Perception of Political Behavior in Kuwaiti Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad

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The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of employees’ perception of political behavior on their behavior and attitudes. The model tested in this study suggests that employees’ perception of political behavior in their organizations leads to lower levels of job satisfaction, and organizational commitment, and higher levels of work-related stress, and intentions to leave the organization. A sample of 182 employees working in six Kuwaiti business organizations were surveyed using a questionnaire, and data was analyzed using correlation analysis, regression analysis, and non-parametric tests. Results reveal that employees’ perception of political behavior is negatively associated with job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and positively associated with work-related stress and employees’ intentions to leave the organization. The results of the current study are discussed and are compared to the results of previous studies in this area. Finally, the directions for future research are suggested.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, intention to leave, perceptions of political behavior

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11 Empirical Examination of High Performance Work System, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizen Behavior: A Mediation of Model of Vietnam Organizations

Authors: Giang Vu, Duong Nguyen, Yuan-Ling Chen

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Vietnam is a fast developing country with highly economic growth, and Vietnam organizations strive to utilize high performance work system (HPWS) in reinforcing employee in-role performance. HPWS, a bundle of human resource (HR) practices, are composed of eight sets of HR practices, namely selective staffing, extensive training, internal mobility, employment security, clear job description, result-oriented appraisal, incentive reward, and participation. However, whether HPWS stimulate employee extra-role behaviors remains understudied in a booming economic context. In this study, we aim to investigate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a Vietnam context and, as a central issue, disentangle how HPWS elicits in employee OCB. On the other hand, recently, a deliberation of so-called 'black-box' HPWS issue has explored the role of employee commitment, suggesting that organizational commitment is a compelling source of employee OCB. We draw upon social exchange theory to predict that when employees perceive the organizational investment, like HPWS, in heightening their abilities, knowledge, and motivation, they are more likely to pay back with commitment; consequently, they will take initiatives in OCB. Hence, we hypothesize an individual level framework, in which organizational commitment mediates the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. We collected data on HPWS, organizational commitment, OCB, and demographic variables, all at line managers of Vietnamese firms in Hanoi and Hochiminh. We conclude with research findings, implications, and future research suggestions.

Keywords: Vietnam, organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, high performance work system

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10 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: Bullying, turnover intention, organizational commitment, workplace aggression

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9 Assessment of Training, Job Attitudes and Motivation: A Mediation Model in Banking Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Abdul Rauf, Xiaoxing Liu, Waqas Amin, Rizwan Qaisar Danish

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The core intention of this study is to analyze the linkage of training, job attitudes and motivation through a mediation model in the banking sector of Pakistan. Moreover, this study is executed to answer a range of queries regarding the consideration of employees about training, job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment. Hence, the association of training with job satisfaction, job satisfaction with motivation, organizational commitment with job satisfaction, organization commitment as independently with motivation and training directly related to motivation is determined in this course of study. A questionnaire crafted for comprehending the purpose of this study by including four variables such as training, job satisfaction, motivation and organizational commitment which have to measure. A sample of 450 employees from seventeen private (17) banks and two (2) public banks was taken on the basis of convenience sampling from Pakistan. However, 357 questionnaires, completely filled were received back. AMOS used for assessing the conformity factor analysis (CFA) model and statistical techniques practiced to scan the collected data (i.e.) descriptive statistics, regression analysis and correlation analysis. The empirical findings revealed that training and organizational commitment has a significant and positive impact directly on job satisfaction and motivation as well as through the mediator (job satisfaction) also the impact sensing in the same way on the motivation of employees in the financial Banks of Pakistan. In this research study, the banking sector is under discussion, so the findings could not generalize on other sectors such as manufacturing, textiles, telecom, and medicine, etc. The low sample size is also the limitation of this study. On the foundation of these results the management fascinates to make the revised strategies regarding training program for the employees as it enhances their motivation level, and job satisfaction on a regular basis.

Keywords: training, Motivation, Pakistan, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment

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8 The Impact of Employee's Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility on Job Satisfaction: Corporate Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Binish Ahmed

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is regarded as voluntary behaviors that contribute to the social welfare based on the concept of sustainable development. The corporations should not only stress on their economic and business outcomes but also pay attention to their effect on the society and environment. It could attract investors and customers, as well as maintain a positive interaction with the government. In spite of the broad diffusion, and its potential significance to employees' perspective, CSR is now examined and has built-in Organizational Behavior (OB), and Human Resource Management (HRM) look into the broad structure of relationship between employees' perspective, work attitudes and behavior to improve the research on CSR. The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of employees’ perception of CSR on work attitudes and behaviors of employees. A conceptual framework is proposed, based on the literature and practices. The research would conduct the primary data survey of convenient sampling from the employees and managers-using detailed questionnaire- to address the following questions. The survey of 180 respondents of age greater than 20 having at least six-month experience from companies based in Karachi are source of data. The application of professional empirical models for data analysis and interpretation are source to draw the conclusion. 1. What are the dynamics of CSR in an organization? Why is it important to have a CSR department? What sort of business approach are CSR activities practiced? Do CSR activities improve the quality of life of workplace? And, how it linked with welfare of society? 2. How the positive job attitude and behavior does encourage the employees about the perception of CSR? How is it linked with the job satisfaction? What is the relationship between employees’ perception of CSR and job satisfaction?

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, work behaviors

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7 An Examination of Some Determinates of Work Performance in Kuwaiti Business Organizations

Authors: Ali Muhammad

Abstract:

The study investigates the effect of some determinates of work performance in Kuwaiti business organizations. The study postulates that employee attitudes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction), behaviors (organizational citizenship behavior, job involvement), and emotional intelligence will have positive effects on work performance. Survey data were collected from 204 employees working in eight Kuwaiti work organizations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, Cronbach alpha, and regression analysis. Results confirmed the study hypotheses; employee attitudes of organizational commitment and job satisfaction was found to have a significant positive effect on work performance. Organizational citizenship behavior and job involvement were also found to have positive effect on work performance. Findings also revealed that an in increase in emotional intelligent will cause performance to increase. Results of the current study were compared and contrasted to findings of previous studies. The theoretical and empirical application of the findings were explained. Limitation of the current study was discussed and topics for future research were proposed.

Keywords: Job Satisfaction, Emotional Intelligence, organizational commitment, work performance, organizational citizenship behavior, job involvement

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6 The Contributions of Internal Marketing to the Explanation of Organizational Commitment: Study Developed on Public Institutions

Authors: J. Santos, A. Gomes, G. Goncalves

Abstract:

Organizations have increased the debate on the importance of symbolic aspects need to humanize, based on trust. A strong connection with the cultural guidance is key to determine the success of any company since it guarantees its recognition and increased productivity. This way, the quality of an organization relies essentially on its collaborators; on the way, they feel the company as their own. The changes imposed on public institutions try to fit some management practices of the private sector, to the public organizations. Currently, all efforts are aimed to increase competitiveness and promoting a better organizational performance, which leads to an increased the importance of human assets in organizations. A particular interest is the internal marketing since it has a relevant role in the development of employees. This research aimed to describe and identify how internal marketing contributes to explain organizational commitment. A quantitative analysis was done with a sample of 600 workers from public organizations, collected through a questionnaire composed of two scales that allowed the analysis of each of the constructs. The results show explanatory contribution of internal marketing practices on affective and normative commitment, through written information. By the results, workers are committed to the organizations.

Keywords: organizational commitment, public institutions, internal marketing, Portuguese

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5 The Role of Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment, and Styles of Transformational Leadership towards Employee Performance

Authors: Ahmad Badawi Saluy, Novawiguna Kemalasari

Abstract:

This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style on employee performance. This study used descriptive survey method with quantitative approach, and questionnaires as a tool used for basic data collection. The sampling technique used is proportionate stratified random sampling technique; all respondents in this study were 70 respondents. The analytical method used in this research is multiple linear regressions. The result of determination coefficient of 52.3% indicates that organizational culture, organizational commitment, and transformational leadership style simultaneously have a significant influence on the performance of employees, while the remaining 47.7% is explained by other factors outside the research variables. Partially, organization culture has strong and positive influence on employee performance, organizational commitment has a moderate and positive effect on employee performance, while the transformational leadership style has a strong and positive influence on employee performance and this is also the variable that has the most impact on employee performance.

Keywords: Organizational Culture, organizational commitment, employee performance, transformational leadership style

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4 The Relationship between Characteristics of Nurses and Organizational Commitment of Nurses in Geriatric Intermediate Care Facilities in Japan

Authors: Chiharu Miyata, Hidenori Arai

Abstract:

Background: The quality of care in geriatric intermediate facilities (GIFs) in Japan is not in a satisfied level. To improve it, it is crucial to reconsider nurses’ professionalism. Our goal is to create an organizational system that allows nurses to succeed professionally. To do this, we must first discuss the relationship between nurses’ characteristics and the organization. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the extent to which demographic and work-related factors are related to organizational commitment among nurses in GIFs. Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional method was adopted, using a self-completion questionnaire survey. The questionnaires consisted of 49 items for job satisfaction, the three-dimensional commitment model of organizational commitment and the background information of respondents. Results: A total of 1,189 nurses participated. Of those, 91% (n=1084) were women, and mean age was 48.2 years. Most participants were staff nurses (n=791; 66%). Significant differences in 'affective commitment' (AC) scores were found for age (p < .001), overall work experience (p < .001), and work status (p < .001). For work experience in the current facility, significant differences were found in all organizational commitment scores (p < .001). The group with high job satisfaction scored significantly higher in all types of organizational commitment (p < 0.001). Conclusions: These results led to a conclusion that understanding the expectations of nurses at the workplace to adapt with the organization, and creating a work environment that clarifies contents of tasks, especially allowing for nurses to feel significance and achievement with tasks, would increase AC.

Keywords: Geriatric nursing, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, geriatric intermediate care facilities

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3 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif, Maham Malik

Abstract:

Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: Nursing, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit

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