Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Organization Related Abstracts

36 Factors Affecting Employee Performance: A Case Study in Marketing and Trading Directorate, Pertamina Ltd.

Authors: Saptiadi Nugroho, A. Nur Muhamad Afif

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Understanding factors that influence employee performance is very important. By finding the significant factors, organization could intervene to improve the employee performance that simultaneously will affect organization itself. In this research, four aspects consist of PCCD training, education level, corrective action, and work location were tested to identify their influence on employee performance. By using correlation analysis and T-Test, it was found that employee performance significantly influenced by PCCD training, work location, and corrective action. Meanwhile the education level did not influence employee performance.

Keywords: Organization, employee development, employee performance, performance management system

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35 Study of Components and Effective Factors on Organizational Commitment of Khoramabad Branchs Islamic Azad University’s Faculty Members

Authors: Mehry Daraei

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The goal of this study was to survey the components and affective factors on organizational commitment of Islamic Azad university Khoramabad Baranch’s faculty members. The research method was correlation by causal modeling and data were gathered by questionnaire. Statistical society consisted of 147 faculty members in Islamic Azad University Khoramabad Branch and sample size was determined as 106 persons by Morgan’s sample table that were selected by class sampling. Correlation test, T-single group test and path analysis test were used for analysis of data. Data were analyzed by Lisrel software. The results showed that organizational corporate was the most effective element on organizational commitment and organizational corporate, experience work and organizational justice were only in direct relation with organizational commitment. Also, job security had direct and indirect effect on OC. Job security had effect on OC by gender. Gender variable had direct and indirect effect on OC. Gender had effect on OC by organizational corporate. Job opportunities out of university also had direct and indirect effect on OC, which means job opportunities had indirect effect on OC by organizational corporate.

Keywords: Organization, Islamic Azad University, commitment, job security

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34 Importance of Human Resources Training in an Information Age

Authors: A. Serap Fırat

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The aim of this study is to display conceptually the relationship and interaction between matter of human resources training and the information age. Fast development from industrial community to an information community has occurred and organizations have been seeking ways to overcome this change. Human resources policy and human capital with enhanced competence will have direct impact on work performance; therefore, this paper deals with the increased importance of human resource management due to the fact that it nurtures human capital. Researching and scanning are used as a method in this study. Both local and foreign literature and expert views are employed -as much as one could be- in the making of the theoretical framework of this study.

Keywords: Education, Human Resources, Organization, occupation, information age

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33 The Social Change Leadership Model for Administrators and Teachers Development in Northeast Thailand

Authors: D. Thawinkarn, S. Wongbutlee

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The Social Change Leadership model is strongly aligned with administration’s mission. This research aims to examine the elements of social change leadership, build and develop leadership for social change, and evaluate effectiveness of leadership development model for social change. The research operation has 3 phases: model studies by in-depth interviews and survey research; drafting and creating model which verified by the experts; and trial of model in schools. The results showed that administrators and teachers have the elements of leadership for social change in moderate level. These elements are ranged descending from consciousness of self, common purpose, congruence, collaboration, commitment, citizenship, and controversy with civility. Model of leadership for social change is included the principles, objectives, content, process. Workshop process: Results show that the model of leadership development for social change in administrators and teachers leads to higher score in leadership evaluation prior to administering the operation.

Keywords: Leadership, Organization, social change model, administrators

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32 Employees Retention through Effective HR Practices

Authors: Choi Sang Long

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It is vital for Human Resource (HR) managers to address and overcome employees’ turnover intention in their organization. Ability to keep good employees is critical for ensuring success of the organization in future. People are seeking many ways of live that is meaningful and less complicated and this new lifestyle actually has an impact on how an employee must be motivated and managed. Therefore, this paper discusses extensively on the impact of human resource practices that can alter the negative effect on the organization due to high employees’ turnover. These critical practices are employees’ career development, performance management, training and a fair compensation scheme.

Keywords: Human resource management, Organization, Performance Management, Career Development, Compensation, turnover intention

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31 Features Valuation of Intellectual Capital in the Organization

Authors: H. M. Avanesyan

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Economists have been discussing the importance of intangible assets for the success of organization for many years. The term intellectual capital was popularized in the 1990s by Thomas Stewart. “Intellectual capital is the knowledge, applied experience, enterprise processes and technology customer relationship and professional skills which are valuable assets to an organization.” Human capital – includes employee brainpower, competence, skills, experience and knowledge. Customer capital – includes relations and networks with partners, suppliers, distributors, and customers. The objective of the article is to assess one of the key components of organizational culture – organizational values. The focus of the survey was on assessing how intellectual capital presented in these values of the organization. In the conclusion section the article refers to underestimation of intellectual capital by the organization management and the various possible negative effects of the latter.

Keywords: Management, Organization, Intellectual Capital, Organizational Culture, Human Capital, Social identity

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30 An Examination of the Link between Social Enterprise Orientation of an Organization and the Pursuit of Corporate Sustainability

Authors: Jerome Nyameh, Susan P. Teru

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Many contemporary organizations are placing a greater emphasis on business enterprise systems as a means of generating higher levels of economic development and sustainability. Many business research and literature has also concur that enterprise drive economic development, giving little or no credit to social enterprise, whose profit is reinvest to the community development compare to the business enterprise that share their profit to shareholders. Economic development and corporate sustainability includes economic policies that affect the beneficiaries of the economic entity and how it support corporate sustainability as a multifaceted concept that requires organizational change and adaptation on different levels. In this paper, we provide a closer examination of this suggested link between the social enterprise orientation of an organization and the pursuit of corporate sustainability. We suggest that producing social enterprise increments may be best achieved by orienting social enterprise entrepreneurs system to promote economic development and corporate sustainability, which is the new approach to organizational excellent. To this end, we describe a new approach to the social enterprise process that includes social entrepreneur and the key drivers of economic development and corporate sustainability at each stage. We present a model of social enterprise that incorporates the main ideas of the paper and suggests a new perspective for thinking about how to foster and manage social enterprise to achieve high levels of economic development and corporate sustainability as a new ways of achieving organizational excellence. Specifically, we seek to assess (1) what constitutes a corporate sustainability-oriented organization culture, (2) whether it is possible for organizations to display a unified corporate sustainability as a result of social enterprise (3) whether organizations can become more sustainable through social enterprise change.

Keywords: Organization, Business and Management, social enterprise orientation, the pursuit of corporate sustainability

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29 Ontology as Knowledge Capture Tool in Organizations: A Literature Review

Authors: Dana Indra Sensuse, Maria Margaretha, Lukman

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Knowledge capture is a step in knowledge life cycle to get knowledge in the organization. Tacit and explicit knowledge are needed to organize in a path, so the organization will be easy to choose which knowledge will be use. There are many challenges to capture knowledge in the organization, such as researcher must know which knowledge has been validated by an expert, how to get tacit knowledge from experts and make it explicit knowledge, and so on. Besides that, the technology will be a reliable tool to help the researcher to capture knowledge. Some paper wrote how ontology in knowledge management can be used for proposed framework to capture and reuse knowledge. Organization has to manage their knowledge, process capture and share will decide their position in the business area. This paper will describe further from literature review about the tool of ontology that will help the organization to capture its knowledge.

Keywords: Ontology, Organization, Technology, knowledge capture

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28 Digital Preservation: A Need of Tomorrow

Authors: Gaurav Kumar

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Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: Information Technology, software, Conservation, Organization, Preservation, Hardware, Digital Preservation, repository, document, archive, machine readable format

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27 Impact of Human Resources Accounting on Employees' Performance in Organization

Authors: HAMID SAREMI, Shida Hanafi

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In an age of technology and economics, human capital has important and axial role in the organization and human resource accounting has a wide perception to key resources of organization i.e. human resources. Human resources accounting is new branch of accounting that has Short-lived and generally deals to a range of policies and measures that are related to various aspects of human resources and It gives importance to an organization's most important asset is its human resources and human resource management is the key to success in an organization and to achieve this important matter must review and evaluation of human resources data be with knowledge of accounting based on empirical studies and methods of measurement and reporting of human resources accounting information. Undoubtedly human resource management without information cannot be done and take decision and human resources accounting is practical way to inform the decision makers who are committed to harnessing human resources,, human resources accounting with applying accounting principles in the organization and is with conducting basic research on the extent of the of human resources accounting information" effect of employees' personal performance. In human resource accounting analysis and criteria and valuation of cost and manpower valuating is as the main resource in each Institute. Protection of human resources is a process that according to human resources accounting is for organization profitability. In fact, this type of accounting can be called as a major source in measurement and trends of costs and human resources valuation in each institution. What is the economic value of such assets? What is the amount of expenditures for education and training of professional individuals to value in asset account? What amount of funds spent should be considered as lost opportunity cost? In this paper, according to the literature of human resource accounting we have studied the human resources matter and its objectives and topic of the importance of human resource valuation on employee performance review and method of reporting of human resources according to different models.

Keywords: Accounting, Human Resources, Human resource management, Organization, Performance, Human Capital, employees, valuation and cost of human resources

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26 Challenges to Effective Public Sector Management in Developing Countries: The Networking and Communication Functions of Public Sector Managers in Nigeria and Ghana

Authors: Ethelbert Chinedu Nwokorie

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This empirical study analyzes the impact of communication and networking functions of Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector managers’ on public sector effectiveness. The focus is on which of these management functions public sector managers’ in these countries perform most, why, how and how does it affect effectiveness of public sector organizations in the two countries. This qualitative analysis was done by interviewing middle and top level managers in some selected public sector organizations in the two countries on their practical experiences. Findings reveal that ineffectiveness of public sector organizations in Ghana persists because public sector managers perform more of networking functions to promote their individual carrier success and progression in their various organizations, rather than achieving the organizations goals and objectives. In Nigeria, though majority of the interviewed public sector managers perform more communication functions than networking, they do this mostly by treating files and correspondences, instead of face-to-face communication and interaction with employees’. Hence, they hardly relate directly with their employees’ to find out how they are performing their jobs, their challenges, where they are having problems and why. The findings and recommendations of this study will help in improving effectiveness, quality and service delivery in Nigerian and Ghanaian public sector organizations and beyond.

Keywords: Networking, Communication, Management, Organization, Public Sector, Effectiveness, employees

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25 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal

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The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: Organization, Employee Engagement, Cognitive Flexibility, turnover intentions

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24 Digital Preservation: Requirement of 21st Century

Authors: Gaurav Kumar, Shilpa

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Digital libraries have been established all over the world to create, maintain and to preserve the digital materials. This paper focuses on operational digital preservation systems specifically in educational organizations in India. It considers the broad range of digital objects including e-journals, technical reports, e-records, project documents, scientific data, etc. This paper describes the main objectives, process and technological issues involved in preservation of digital materials. Digital preservation refers to the various methods of keeping digital materials alive for the future. It includes everything from electronic publications on CD-ROM to Online database and collections of experimental data in digital format maintains the ability to display, retrieve and use digital collections in the face of rapidly changing technological and organizational infrastructures elements. This paper exhibits the importance and objectives of digital preservation. The necessities of preservation are hardware and software technology to interpret the digital documents and discuss various aspects of digital preservation.

Keywords: Information Technology, software, Conservation, Organization, Preservation, Hardware, Digital Preservation, repository, document, archive, machine readable format, digital dark age

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23 Evalution of the Impact on Improvement of Bank Manager Decision Making

Authors: Bahram Fathi, Farzane Sadatnia

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Today, all public and private organizations have found that the management of the world for key information related to the activities of a staff and its main essence and philosophy, though they constitute the management information systems are very helpful in this respect the right to apply systems can save a lot in terms of economic organizations including reducing the time decision - making, improve the quality of decision making, and cost savings to bring information systems is a backup system that can never be instead of logic and human reasoning, which can be used in the series is spreading, providing resources, and provide the necessary facilities, provide better services for users, balanced budget allocation, determine strengths and weaknesses and previous plans to review the current decisions and especially the decision . Hence; in this study attempts to the effect of an information system on a review of the organization.

Keywords: Planning, Control, Information System, Organization, coordination

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22 Impact of Strategic Leadership on Corporate Performance

Authors: Adesina Nathaniel Olanrewaju

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The motivation behind this study is the need to see strategic leadership as one of the key driving forces for improving corporate performance. Strategic leadership is seen as a potent source of management development and sustained competitive advantage for both employee and organizational performance. There is currently a charge on leaders as a major cause of organizational failure. Stakeholders give what they can afford, not necessarily what the organization needs and impose operational and financial decisions on the leaders, 200 respondents were fit for the analysis from the six geo-political regions in Nigeria. The selection was done equally among various parastatals through random sampling technique from the south-south, south-east, south-west, north-east, north-west and north-central. A descriptive research of the survey was employed. The data were subjected to t-test analysis and correlation and regression were used for the analysis. The findings revealed that there is a strong relationship and impact between a strategic leader and corporate performance. Recommendations were made based on the findings that strategic leaders should be given the blueprint, company’s policy and the stakeholders’ expectation within a time frame the work is to be carried out.

Keywords: Organization, Performance, Strategic, Time, stakeholder, leader

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21 Financial Management Performance in Organization Profitability

Authors: Adekunle Olakunle Felix

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Research will be based on the financial management importance within organization and its important role in non-economic and economic activities that provide us the useful information about the efficient procurement and utilization of finance in a profitable manner. Due to industrialization, financial management become a vital part of business and it is very important for the business concern that with a good financial management to earn maximum profit.

Keywords: Business, Financial, Management, Organization, Efficiency, Profitability

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20 Integrated Risk Management as a Framework for Organisational Success

Authors: Olakunle Felix Adekunle

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Risk management is recognised as an essential tool to tackle the inevitable uncertainty associated with business and projects at all levels. But it frequently fails to meet expectations, with projects continuing to run late, over budget or under performing, and business is not gaining the expected benefits. The evident disconnect which often occurs between strategic vision and tactical project delivery typically arises from poorly defined project objectives and inadequate attention to the proactive management of risks that could affect those objectives. One of the main failings in the traditional approach to risk management arises from a narrow focus on the downside, restricted to the technical or operational field, addressing tactical threats to processes, performance or people. This shortcoming can be overcome by widening the scope of risk management to encompass both strategic risks and upside opportunities, creating an integrated approach which can bridge the gap between strategy and tactics. Integrated risk management addresses risk across a variety of levels in the organisation, including strategy and tactics, and covering both opportunity and threat. Effective implementation of integrated risk management can produce a number of benefits to the organisation which are not available from the typical limited-scope risk process. This paper explores how to expand risk management to deliver strategic advantage while retaining its use as a tactical tool.

Keywords: Risk management, Vision, Strategy, Organization, Project, success, tactis

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19 A Study on How to Improve PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) Guidelines Performance by Simulation

Authors: Fatemeh Jaferi, Moslem Parsa, Seyed Mehdi Sajadi

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The project-oriented organizations are more appropriate for sustainable environments. Any effective project-oriented organization should institutionalize its project management processes in such a manner to yield the greatest possible profits. The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between the project management PMBOK guideline (Project Management Body of Knowledge) and simulation technology in project-oriented organizations. The methodology involves using five steps for applying these two tools aimed at enhancing project management processes in the Lorestan Gas Corporation, as one of the project-oriented organization. Results show the implementation of such management approach leads to a 5% performance improvement and using PMBOK can be instrumental in effective delay management. The implementation of the aforementioned improvement package was effective in improving the efficiency of organizational processes; in terms of optimizing the resource utilization that has manifested itself in resource losses and cost reductions.

Keywords: Management, Optimization, Organization, Processes, project-orientation, PMBOK

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18 French Managers and Their Subordinates’ Well-Being

Authors: B. Gangloff, N. Malleh

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Well-being at work has many positive aspects. Our general hypothesis is that employees who feel well-being at work will be positively valued by their superiors, and that this positive value, which evokes the concept of social norms, allows us to assign to well-being at work a normative status. Three populations (line managers, students destined to become human resource managers, and employees) responded to a well-being questionnaire. Managers had to indicate, for each item, if they appreciated (or not) an employee feeling the well-being presented in the item; students had to indicate which items an employee should check if s/he wants to be positively (versus negatively) appreciated by his/her superior; and employees had to indicate to what degree each item corresponded to the well-being they used to feel. Three hypotheses are developed and confirmed: Managers positively value employees feeling some sense of well-being; students are aware of this positivity; spontaneously employees show a state of well-being, which means, knowing that spontaneous self-presentation is often produced by social desirability, that employees are aware of the well-being positivity. These data are discussed under a conceptual and applied angle.

Keywords: Organization, Evaluation, Normativity, Well-being at Work

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17 A Review of the Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Engagementc

Authors: Ibrahim Hamidu Magem

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Employee engagement has continued to gain popularity among practitioners, consultants and academicians recent years. This is due to the fact that the engaged employees are central to organizational success in today’s highly competitive and rapidly changing business environment. Employee engagement depicts a situation whereby employee’s harnessed themselves to their work roles. The importance of employee engagement to organizations cannot be overemphasized in today’s rapidly changing business environment. Organizations both large and small are constantly striving to improve their performance, retain employees, reduce absenteeism, and create loyal customers among others. To be able to achieve these organizations need a team of highly engaged employees. In line with this, the study attempts to provide a valuable framework for understanding the antecedents and consequences of employee engagement in organizations. The paper categorizes the antecedents of employee engagement into individual and organizational factors which it is assumed that the existence of such factors could result into engaged employees that will be of benefit to organizations. Therefore, it is recommended that organizations should revisit and redesign its employee engagement system to enable them attain their organizational goals and objectives. In addition, organizations should note that engagement is personal but organizational engagement programmes should be about everyone in the organization. The findings from this paper adds to existing studies about employee engagement and also provide awareness to academics and practitioners about the importance of employee engagement to improve organizations efficiency and effectiveness, as well as to impact to overall firm performance.

Keywords: Organization, Employee Engagement, antecedents, job involvement

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16 Features of Formation and Development of Possessory Risk Management Systems of Organization in the Russian Economy

Authors: Mikhail V. Khachaturyan, Inga A. Koryagina, Maria Nikishova

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The study investigates the impact of the ongoing financial crisis, started in the 2nd half of 2014, on marketing budgets spent by Fast-moving consumer goods companies. In these conditions, special importance is given to efficient possessory risk management systems. The main objective for establishing and developing possessory risk management systems for FMCG companies in a crisis is to analyze the data relating to the external environment and consumer behavior in a crisis. Another important objective for possessory risk management systems of FMCG companies is to develop measures and mechanisms to maintain and stimulate sales. In this regard, analysis of risks and threats which consumers define as the main reasons affecting their level of consumption become important. It is obvious that in crisis conditions the effective risk management systems responsible for development and implementation of strategies for consumer demand stimulation, as well as the identification, analysis, assessment and management of other types of risks of economic security will be the key to sustainability of a company. In terms of financial and economic crisis, the problem of forming and developing possessory risk management systems becomes critical not only in the context of management models of FMCG companies, but for all the companies operating in other sectors of the Russian economy. This study attempts to analyze the specifics of formation and development of company possessory risk management systems. In the modern economy, special importance among all the types of owner’s risks has the risk of reduction in consumer activity. This type of risk is common not only for the consumer goods trade. Study of consumer activity decline is especially important for Russia due to domestic market of consumer goods being still in the development stage, despite its significant growth. In this regard, it is especially important to form and develop possessory risk management systems for FMCG companies. The authors offer their own interpretation of the process of forming and developing possessory risk management systems within owner’s management models of FMCG companies as well as in Russian economy in general. Proposed methods and mechanisms of problem analysis of formation and development of possessory risk management systems in FMCG companies and the results received can be helpful for researchers interested in problems of consumer goods market development in Russia and overseas.

Keywords: Development, Risk management, System, Organization, Formation, FMCG companies, marketing budget, owner, Russian economy

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15 Current Situation of Midwifery Student Organization in Turkey

Authors: Sibel Icke, Yeliz Cakir Kocak, Hafize Ozturk Can, Ummahan Yucel, Esin Ceber Turfan

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Introduction: Midwifery organization in Turkey became official in 1954 with the foundation of Midwifery Association. Today there are two Professional organizations representing midwives: ‘Midwifery Association’ and ‘Association for Education, Research and Development in Midwifery (AERDM)’. In recent years, conjuction with the increase in the numbers of midwives, professional consciousness and professional organization conscious is increasing. The undergraduates of Midwifery Department of Ege University İzmir Ataturk School of Health have come together for their professions when they’re stil students, so they founded ‘Midwifery Community of Ege University (MCEU) (EGEBET in Turkish)’ in counseling within structors and the confirmation of the university in 2013. Objective: The aim of this presentation is to reveal the activities and grades of an undergraduate community in-three-years, founded by the undergraduates in order to raise awareness in pregraduate Professional organization. Thus it is aimed to be aware towards postgraduate Professional organization, and to reflect Professional unity and solidarity, alongside personal development to midwifery services by maintaining Professional development. In-the-presentation it is aimed to explain what dimension the organization of midwifery students in Turkey is, and to be a stimulus so that ICM can be more active on undergraduate communities. Findings: MCEU’s an activity that has launched in the scope of Social Responsibility Lecture instructed in curricula of second grade in the Midwifery Department. The community have performed lots activities to reach their objectives between the years of 2013-2016. MCEU have had 65 members in a very-soon period. Today the community that goes on its activities on social network in order to abolish the distances and reach more midwifery students’ve 444 members. MCEU aiming to make all the students of the Midwifery Department a member of this association also accepts the applications of national and international midwifery students. More over the community has published two student periodical magazine and carries out activities on Midwifery Day each year. Conclusion: In conjuction with the national introduction of MCEU in the student congress in 2013, it has received consultancy from the members of MCEU as a sample model in the student organization of midwifery department of other universities in Turkey, and stil remains receiving. Furthermore a student community has been founded under the roof of association with the demand of community’s members. Also academician has a responsibility to give direction to the future and shape the future. Therefore, it is thought that the study can be an instance for all branches of science students and academics. Acknowledgment: We thank to founder members of MCEU and all the other students remaining to perform activities because of their contributions to Professional organization.

Keywords: Organization, Midwifery, Student, current situation

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14 The Process of Crisis: Model of Its Development in the Organization

Authors: M. Mikusova

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper is to present a clear and comprehensive picture of the process of a crisis in the organization which will help to better understand its possible developments. For a description of the sequence of individual steps and an indication of their causation and possible variants of the developments, a detailed flow diagram with verbal comment is applied. For simplicity, the process of the crisis is observed in four basic phases called: symptoms of the crisis, diagnosis, action and prevention. The model highlights the complexity of the phenomenon of the crisis and that the various phases of the crisis are interweaving.

Keywords: Management, Organization, model, Crisis

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13 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: Organization, Performance, Cost Reduction, Budget, cost control, profit

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12 Examining the Importance of the Structure Based on Grid Computing Service and Virtual Organizations

Authors: Sajjad Baghernezhad, Saeideh Baghernezhad

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Vast changes and developments achieved in information technology field in recent decades have made the review of different issues such as organizational structures unavoidable. Applying informative technologies such as internet and also vast use of computer and related networks have led to new organizational formations with a nature completely different from the traditional, great and bureaucratic ones; some common specifications of such organizations are transfer of the affairs out of the organization, benefiting from informative and communicative networks and centered-science workers. Such communicative necessities have led to network sciences development including grid computing. First, the grid computing was only to relate some sites for short – time and use their sources simultaneously, but now it has gone beyond such idea. In this article, the grid computing technology was examined, and at the same time, virtual organization concept was discussed.

Keywords: Software Engineering, Grid Computing, Organization, Virtual Organizations

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11 Development of Mechanisms of Value Creation and Risk Management Organization in the Conditions of Transformation of the Economy of Russia

Authors: Mikhail V. Khachaturyan, Inga A. Koryagina, Eugenia V. Klicheva

Abstract:

In modern conditions, scientific judgment of problems in developing mechanisms of value creation and risk management acquires special relevance. Formation of economic knowledge has resulted in the constant analysis of consumer behavior for all players from national and world markets. Effective mechanisms development of the demand analysis, crucial for consumer's characteristics of future production, and the risks connected with the development of this production are the main objectives of control systems in modern conditions. The modern period of economic development is characterized by a high level of globalization of business and rigidity of competition. At the same time, the considerable share of new products and services costs has a non-material intellectual nature. The most successful in Russia is the contemporary development of small innovative firms. Such firms, through their unique technologies and new approaches to process management, which form the basis of their intellectual capital, can show flexibility and succeed in the market. As a rule, such enterprises should have very variable structure excluding the tough scheme of submission and demanding essentially new incentives for inclusion of personnel in innovative activity. Realization of similar structures, as well as a new approach to management, can be constructed based on value-oriented management which is directed to gradual change of consciousness of personnel and formation from groups of adherents included in the solution of the general innovative tasks. At the same time, valuable changes can gradually capture not only innovative firm staff, but also the structure of its corporate partners. Introduction of new technologies is the significant factor contributing to the development of new valuable imperatives and acceleration of the changing values systems of the organization. It relates to the fact that new technologies change the internal environment of the organization in a way that the old system of values becomes inefficient in new conditions. Introduction of new technologies often demands change in the structure of employee’s interaction and training in their new principles of work. During the introduction of new technologies and the accompanying change in the value system, the structure of the management of the values of the organization is changing. This is due to the need to attract more staff to justify and consolidate the new value system and bring their view into the motivational potential of the new value system of the organization.

Keywords: Organization, Risk, Value, Problems, Creation

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10 Indigenous Nigeria's Oil Sector: Stages, Opportunities, and Obstacles regarding Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: Laura Dumuje

Abstract:

The ongoing debate in terms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiative in Niger Delta originates from existing gap between stated objectives of organizations in the Nigerian oil sector and the activities that threaten the economy. CSR in developing countries is becoming popular, and to contribute to scientific knowledge, we need to research on CSR practices and discourse in indigenous Nigeria that is scarce. Despite governments mandate in terms of unofficial gas blazing, methane is being released into the atmosphere which contributes to global warming. Does this practice apply to indigenous companies? In this context, we need to investigate CSR policies in local Nigeria. To get a better understanding of CSR among indigenous oil companies in Nigeria, our study focuses on discourse and rhetoric in terms of CSR, as well as growth regarding CSR. This current study contribution is twofold: on the one hand, it aims to better understand practitioner’s rationale and fundamentals of CSR in Nigerian oil companies. On the other hand, it intends to identify the stages of CSR initiatives, advantages and difficulties of CSR implementation in indigenous Nigeria oil sector. This study will use the qualitative research as methodological strategy. Instrument for data collection is semi-structured interview. Besides interview, we will conduct some focus group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Participants for this study consist of employees, managers and top level executives of indigenous oil companies in Nigeria. Key informants such as government institutions, environmental organizations and community leaders will take part of our samples. It is important to note that despite significant findings in some studies, there are still some gaps. To help filling this existing gaps, we have formulated some research questions, as follows: ‘What are the stages, opportunities and obstacles of having corporate social responsibility practice in indigenous oil companies in Nigeria?’ This ongoing research sub-questions as follows: What are the CSR discourses and practices among indigenous companies in the Nigerian oil sector? What is the actual status regarding CSR development? What are the main perceptions of opportunities and obstacles with regard to CSR in indigenous Nigerian oil companies? Who are the main stakeholders of indigenous Nigerian oil companies and their different meanings and understandings of CSR practices? Important to note regarding the above questions, the following objectives have been determined: This research conducts a literature review with the aim of uncovering, understanding and identifying importance of CSR practices in western and developing countries; It aims to identify specific characteristics of the national context in respect to CSR engagement in Nigeria; Relevant to perform empirical research with employees, managers, executives, and key informants in indigenous Nigerian oil companies in order to identify different understandings of CSR initiatives and its relevance to the society; To conclude, provide managerial recommendations regarding the adoption of CSR in Nigeria.

Keywords: Organization, Corporate Social Responsibility, Indigenous, Nigeria

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9 The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of College Freshman Students

Authors: Lota Largavista

Abstract:

This study entitled, ‘The Organizational Structure, Development Features, and Metadiscoursal Elements in the Expository Writing of Freshman College Writers’ aimed to examine essays written by college students. It seeks to examine the organizational structure and development features of the essays and describe their defining characteristics, the linguistic elements at both macrostructural and microstructural discourse levels and the types of textual and interpersonal metadiscourse markers that are employed in order to negotiate meanings with their prospective readers. The different frameworks used to analyze the essays include Toulmin’s ( 1984) model for argument structure, Olson’s ( 2003) three-part essay structure; Halliday and Matthiesen (2004) in Herriman (2011) notions of thematic structure, Danes (1974) thematic progression or method of development, Halliday’s (2004) concept of grammatical and lexical cohesion ;Hyland’s (2005) metadiscourse strategies; and Chung and Nation’s( 2003) four-step scale for technical vocabulary. This descriptive study analyzes qualitatively and quantitatively how freshman students generally express their written compositions. Coding of units is done to determine what linguistic features are present in the essays. Findings revealed that students’ expository essays observe a three-part structure having all three moves, the Introduction, the Body and the Conclusion. Stance assertion, stance support, and emerging moves/strategies are found to be employed in the essays. Students have more marked themes on the essays and also prefer constant theme progression as their method of development. The analysis of salient linguistic elements reveals frequently used cohesive devices and metadiscoursal strategies. Based on the findings, an instructional learning plan is being proposed. This plan is characterized by a genre approach that focuses on expository and linguistic conventions.

Keywords: Organization, Structure, metadiscourse, theme progression

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8 A Comparative Analysis Of Da’wah Methodology Applied by the Two Variant Factions of Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah in Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Alhaji Bala

Abstract:

The Jama’atu Izalatil Bid’ah Wa-Iqamatis Sunnah is a Da’wah organization and reform movement launched in Jos - Nigeria in 1978 as a purely reform movement under the leadership of late Shaykh Ismai’la Idris. The organization started a full fledge preaching sessions at National, State and Local Government levels immediately after its formation. The contributions of this organization to da'wah activities in Nigeria are paramount. The organization conducted its preaching under the council of preaching with the help of the executives, elders and patrons of the movement. Teaching and preaching have been recognized as the major programs of the society. Its preaching activities are conducted from ward, local, state and national levels throughout the states of Nigeria and beyond. It also engaged itself in establishing Mosques, schools and offers sermons during Friday congregation and Eid days throughout its mosques where its sermon is translated into vernacular language, this attracted many Muslims who don’t understand Arabic to patronize the its activities. The organization however split into two faction due to different approaches to Da’wah methodology and some seemingly selfish interests among its leaders. It is upon this background that this research was conducted using analytical method to compare and contrast the da’wah methodology applied by the two factions of the organization. The research discussed about the formation, Da’wah activities of the organization. It also compared and contrast the Da’wah approach and methodology of the two factions. The research finding reveals that different approach and methods applied by these factions is one of the main reason of their split in addition to other selfish interest among its leaders.

Keywords: Methodology, Organization, activities, Da’wah

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7 Sharing Tacit Knowledge: The Essence of Knowledge Management

Authors: Ayesha Khatun

Abstract:

In 21st century where markets are unstable, technologies rapidly proliferate, competitors multiply, products and services become obsolete almost overnight and customers demand low cost high value product, leveraging and harnessing knowledge is not just a potential source of competitive advantage rather a necessity in technology based and information intensive industries. Knowledge management focuses on leveraging the available knowledge and sharing the same among the individuals in the organization so that the employees can make best use of it towards achieving the organizational goals. Knowledge is not a discrete object. It is embedded in people and so difficult to transfer outside the immediate context that it becomes a major competitive advantage. However, internal transfer of knowledge among the employees is essential to maximize the use of knowledge available in the organization in an unstructured manner. But as knowledge is the source of competitive advantage for the organization it is also the source of competitive advantage for the individuals. People think that knowledge is power and sharing the same may lead to lose the competitive position. Moreover, the very nature of tacit knowledge poses many difficulties in sharing the same. But sharing tacit knowledge is the vital part of knowledge management process because it is the tacit knowledge which is inimitable. Knowledge management has been made synonymous with the use of software and technology leading to the management of explicit knowledge only ignoring personal interaction and forming of informal networks which are considered as the most successful means of sharing tacit knowledge. Factors responsible for effective sharing of tacit knowledge are grouped into –individual, organizational and technological factors. Different factors under each category have been identified. Creating a positive organizational culture, encouraging personal interaction, practicing reward system are some of the strategies that can help to overcome many of the barriers to effective sharing of tacit knowledge. Methodology applied here is completely secondary. Extensive review of relevant literature has been undertaken for the purpose.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge, Organization, Knowledge sharing, sustainable competitive advantage, tacit knowledge

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