Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Organic Related Abstracts

10 The Relationship of Anthocyanins with Color of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potatoes

Authors: I. Murniece, L. Tomsone, I. Skrabule, A. Vaivode

Abstract:

Many of the compounds present in potato are important because of their beneficial effects on health, therefore, are highly desirable in the human diet. Potato tubers contain significant amounts of anthocyanins. The aim of this research was to determine the content of anthocyanins and its relationship with the colour of organically and conventionally cultivated potato varieties. In the research eight potato samples of three potato varieties were analysed on anthocyanins, dry matter content and colour. Obtained results show that there was no significant influence on amount of anthocyanins between different cultivation environments (p>0.05) while between varieties-significant difference (p<0.05). Strong correlation between the amount of anthocyanins and colour was determined.

Keywords: Organic, Conventional, potato variety, anthocyanins, dry matter

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9 Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkadir Sarauta

Abstract:

Almost every type of industrial process involves the release of trace quantity of toxic organic and inorganic compound that up in receiving water bodies, this study was aimed at assessing the Persistent Organic Pollutant Level in Challawa River Basin of Kano State, Nigeria. And the research formed the basis of identifying the presence of PCBs and PAHs in receiving water bodies in the study area, assessing the PCBs and PAHs concentration in receiving water body of Challawa system, evaluate the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in fishes in the study area, determine the concentration level of PCBs and PAHs in crops irrigated in the study area as well as compare the concentration of PCBs and PAHs with the acceptable limit set by Nigerian, EU, U.S and WHO standard. Data were collected using reconnaissance survey, site inspection, field survey, laboratory experiment as well as secondary data source. A total of 78 samples were collected through stratified systematic random sampling (i.e., 26 samples for each of water, crops and fish) three sampling points were chosen and designated A, B and C along the stretch of the river (i.e. up, middle, and downstream) from Yan Danko Bridge to Tambirawa bridge. The result shows that the Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was not detected while, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was detected in the whole samples analysed at the trench of Challawa River basin in order to assess the contribution of human activities to global environmental pollution. The total concentrations of ΣPAH and ΣPCB ranges between 0.001 to 0.087mg/l and 0.00 to 0.00mg/l of water samples While, crops samples ranges between 2.0ppb to 8.1ppb and fish samples ranges from 2.0 to 6.7ppb.The whole samples are polluted because most of the parameters analyzed exceed the threshold limits set by WHO, Nigerian, U.S and EU standard. The analytical results revealed that some chemicals are present in water, crops and fishes are significantly very high at Zamawa village which is very close to Challawa industrial estate and also is main effluent discharge point and drinking water around study area is not potable for consumption. Analysis of Variance was obtained by Bartlett’s test performance. There is only significant difference in water because the P < 0.05 level of significant, But there is no difference in crops concentration they have the same performance, likes wise in the fishes. It is said to be of concern to health hazard which will increase incidence of tumor related diseases such as skin, lungs, bladder, gastrointestinal cancer, this show there is high failure of pollution abatement measures in the area. In conclusion, it can be said that industrial activities and effluent has impact on Challawa River basin and its environs especially those that are living in the immediate surroundings. Arising from the findings of this research some recommendations were made the industries should treat their liquid properly by installing modern treatment plants.

Keywords: Organic, pollutant, Challawa River Basin, persistent

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8 Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizers on the Growth and Yield of Physic Nut (Jatropha curcas)

Authors: Oliver Echezona Ngwu

Abstract:

The research was conducted in 2011 cropping season at the Teaching and Research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria to study the effect of organic and inorganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of physic Nut (Jatropha curcas). There were five treatments namely, control, (no application of treatment), NPK 20:10:10, NPK 15:15;15, poultry droppings and goat dung. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The total land area used was 228m2 (19x12m) while the plot size was 3mx2 (6m2). The growth parameters measured were plant height, number of leaves, and leaf area, index (LAI). The results obtained showed that there were significant differences at P=0.05 among the different treatments in 30, to and 90 DAP. Based on the results T4 (poultry droppings) had higher effect at P=0.05 at 30, 60, 90 DAP than the other treatments when compared and is hereby recommended as the best type of fertilizer for the optimum growth and production of physic Nut (Jatropha Curcas) in South Eastern Nigeria.

Keywords: Organic, Growth, Yield, jatropha curcas, inorganic fertilizers

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7 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: Organic, inorganic, traditional farming, paddy cultivation

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6 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Based Metabolomics and 13C Isotopic Ratio Evaluation to Differentiate Conventional and Organic Soy Sauce

Authors: XU ZHANG, Jie Wang, Ghulam Mustafa Kamal, Xiaohua Wang, Bin Yuan, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, Shahzad Ali Shahid Chatha, Maili Liu

Abstract:

Organic food products are becoming increasingly popular in recent years, as consumers have turned more health conscious and environmentally aware. A lot of consumers have understood that the organic foods are healthier than conventionally produced food stuffs. Price difference between conventional and organic foods is very high. So, it is very common to cheat the consumers by mislabeling and adulteration. Our study describes the 1H NMR based approach to characterize and differentiate soy sauce prepared from organically and conventionally grown raw materials (wheat and soybean). Commercial soy sauce samples fermented from organic and conventional raw materials were purchased from local markets. Principal component analysis showed clear separation among organic and conventional soy sauce samples. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis showed a significant (p < 0.01) separation among two types of soy sauce yielding leucine, isoleucine, ethanol, glutamate, lactate, acetate, β-glucose, sucrose, choline, valine, phenylalanine and tyrosine as important metabolites contributing towards this separation. Abundance ratio of 13C to 12C was also evaluated by 1H NMR spectroscopy which showed an increased ratio of 13C isotope in organic soy sauce samples indicating the organically grown wheat and soybean used for the preparation of organic soy sauce. Results of the study can be helpful to the end users to select the soy sauce of their choice. This information could also pave the way to further trace and authenticate the raw materials used in production of soy sauce.

Keywords: Organic, Conventional, Multivariate analysis, Soy sauce

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5 Antibacterial Effects of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Extracts on Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Pear Orchards

Authors: Kubilay Kurtulus Bastas

Abstract:

Bacterial diseases are very destructive and cause economic losses on pears. Promising plant extracts for the management of plant diseases are environmentally safe, long-lasting and extracts of certain plants contain alkaloids, tannins, quinones, coumarins, phenolic compounds, and phytoalexins. In this study, bacteria were isolated from different parts of pear exhibiting characteristic symptoms of bacterial diseases from the Central Anatolia, Turkey. Pathogenic bacteria were identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular methods as fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (39%)), bacterial blossom blast and blister bark (Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (22%)), crown gall (Rhizobium radiobacter (1%)) from different pear cultivars, and determined virulence levels of the pathogens with pathogenicity tests. The air-dried 25 plant material was ground into fine powder and extraction was performed at room temperature by maceration with 80% (v/v) methanol/distilled water. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by using modified disc diffusion method at five different concentrations and streptomycin sulphate was used as control chemical. Bacterial suspensions were prepared as 108 CFU ml⁻¹ densities and 100 µl bacterial suspensions were spread to TSA medium. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by measuring the inhibition zones in reference to the test organisms. Among the tested plants, Origanum vulgare, Hedera helix, Satureja hortensis, Rhus coriaria, Eucalyptus globulus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Salvia officinalis, Cuminum cyminum and Thymus vulgaris showed a good antibacterial activity and they inhibited the growth of the pathogens with inhibition zone diameter ranging from 7 to 27 mm at 20% (w/v) in absolute methanol in vitro conditions. In vivo, the highest efficacy was determined as 27% on reducing tumor formation of R. radiobacter, and 48% and 41% on reducing shoot blight of E. amylovora and P. s. pv. syringae on pear seedlings, respectively. Obtaining data indicated that some plant extracts may be used against the bacterial diseases on pome fruits within sustainable and organic management programs.

Keywords: Organic, Bacteria, plant extract, pear, eco-friendly management

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4 Development of a Plant-Based Dietary Supplement to Address Critical Micronutrient Needs of Women of Child-Bearing Age in Europe

Authors: Sara D. Garduño-Diaz, Ramona Milcheva, Chanyu Xu

Abstract:

Women’s reproductive stages (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, and lactation) represent a time of higher micronutrient needs. With a healthy food selection as the first path of choice to cover these increased needs, tandem micronutrient supplementation is often required. Because pregnancy and lactation should be treated with care, all supplements consumed should be of quality ingredients and manufactured through controlled processes. This work describes the process followed for the development of plant-based multiple micronutrient supplements aimed at addressing the growing demand for natural ingredients of non-animal origin. A list of key nutrients for inclusion was prioritized, followed by the identification and selection of qualified raw ingredient providers. Nutrient absorption into the food matrix was carried out through natural processes. The outcome is a new line of products meeting the set criteria of being gluten and lactose-free, suitable for vegans/vegetarians, and without artificial conservatives. In addition, each product provides the consumer with 10 vitamins, 6 inorganic nutrients, 1 source of essential fatty acids, and 1 source of phytonutrients each (maca, moringa, and chlorella). Each raw material, as well as the final product, was submitted to microbiological control three-fold (in-house and external). The final micronutrient mix was then tested for human factor contamination, pesticides, total aerobic microbial count, total yeast count, and total mold count. The product was created with the aim of meeting product standards for the European Union, as well as specific requirements for the German market in the food and pharma fields. The results presented here reach the point of introduction of the newly developed product to the market, with acceptability and effectiveness results to be published at a later date.

Keywords: Organic, pregnancy, Fertility, Lactation, vegetarian

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3 Estimation of Mobility Parameters and Threshold Voltage of an Organic Thin Film Transistor Using an Asymmetric Capacitive Test Structure

Authors: Rajesh Agarwal

Abstract:

Carrier mobility at the organic/insulator interface is essential to the performance of organic thin film transistors (OTFT). The present work describes estimation of field dependent mobility (FDM) parameters and the threshold voltage of an OTFT using a simple, easy to fabricate two terminal asymmetric capacitive test structure using admittance measurements. Conventionally, transfer characteristics are used to estimate the threshold voltage in an OTFT with field independent mobility (FIDM). Yet, this technique breaks down to give accurate results for devices with high contact resistance and having field dependent mobility. In this work, a new technique is presented for characterization of long channel organic capacitor (LCOC). The proposed technique helps in the accurate estimation of mobility enhancement factor (γ), the threshold voltage (V_th) and band mobility (µ₀) using capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement in OTFT. This technique also helps to get rid of making short channel OTFT or metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures for making C-V measurements. To understand the behavior of devices and ease of analysis, transmission line compact model is developed. The 2-D numerical simulation was carried out to illustrate the correctness of the model. Results show that proposed technique estimates device parameters accurately even in the presence of contact resistance and field dependent mobility. Pentacene/Poly (4-vinyl phenol) based top contact bottom-gate OTFT’s are fabricated to illustrate the operation and advantages of the proposed technique. Small signal of frequency varying from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and gate potential ranging from +40 V to -40 V have been applied to the devices for measurement.

Keywords: Mobility, Organic, Capacitance, thin film transistor

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2 Invasive Asian Carp Fish Species: A Natural and Sustainable Source of Methionine for Organic Poultry Production

Authors: Komala Arsi, Dan J. Donoghue, Ann M. Donoghue

Abstract:

Methionine is an essential dietary amino acid necessary to promote growth and health of poultry. Synthetic methionine is commonly used as a supplement in conventional poultry diets and is temporarily allowed in organic poultry feed for lack of natural and organically approved sources of methionine. It has been a challenge to find a natural, sustainable and cost-effective source for methionine which reiterates the pressing need to explore potential alternatives of methionine for organic poultry production. Fish have high concentrations of methionine, but wild-caught fish are expensive and adversely impact wild fish populations. Asian carp (AC) is an invasive species and its utilization has the potential to be used as a natural methionine source. However, to our best knowledge, there is no proven technology to utilize this fish as a methionine source. In this study, we co-extruded Asian carp and soybean meal to form a dry-extruded, methionine-rich AC meal. In order to formulate rations with the novel extruded carp meal, the product was tested on cecectomized roosters for its amino acid digestibility and total metabolizable energy (TMEn). Excreta was collected and the gross energy, protein content of the feces was determined to calculate Total Metabolizable Energy (TME). The methionine content, digestibility and TME values were greater for the extruded AC meal than control diets. Carp meal was subsequently tested as a methionine source in feeds formulated for broilers, and production performance (body weight gain and feed conversion ratio) was assessed in comparison with broilers fed standard commercial diets supplemented with synthetic methionine. In this study, broiler chickens were fed either a control diet with synthetic methionine or a treatment diet with extruded AC meal (8 replicates/treatment; n=30 birds/replicate) from day 1 to 42 days of age. At the end of the trial, data for body weights, feed intake and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Fisher LSD test for multiple comparisons. Results revealed that birds on AC diet had body weight gains and feed intake comparable to diets containing synthetic methionine (P > 0.05). Results from the study suggest that invasive AC-derived fish meal could potentially be an effective and inexpensive source of sustainable natural methionine for organic poultry farmers.

Keywords: Organic, Poultry, methionine, Asian carp

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1 Investigating the Feasibility of Berry Production in Central Oregon under Protected and Unprotected Culture

Authors: Clare S. Sullivan

Abstract:

The high desert of central Oregon, USA is a challenging growing environment: short growing season (70-100 days); average annual precipitation of 280 mm; drastic swings in diurnal temperatures; possibility of frost any time of year; and sandy soils low in organic matter. Despite strong demand, there is almost no fruit grown in central Oregon due to potential yield loss caused by early and late frosts. Elsewhere in the USA, protected culture (i.e., high tunnels) has been used to extend fruit production seasons and improve yields. In central Oregon, high tunnels are used to grow multiple high-value vegetable crops, and farmers are unlikely to plant a perennial crop in a high tunnel unless proven profitable. In May 2019, two berry trials were established on a farm in Alfalfa, OR, to evaluate raspberry and strawberry yield, season length, and fruit quality in protected (high tunnels) vs. unprotected culture (open field). The main objective was to determine whether high tunnel berry production is a viable enterprise for the region. Each trial was arranged using a split-plot design. The main factor was the production system (high tunnel vs. open field), and the replicated, subplot factor was berry variety. Four day-neutral strawberry varieties and four primocane-bearing raspberry varieties were planted for the study and were managed using organic practices. Berries were harvested once a week early in the season, and twice a week as production increased. Harvested berries were separated into ‘marketable’ and ‘unmarketable’ in order to calculate percent cull. First-year results revealed berry yield and quality differences between varieties and production systems. Strawberry marketable yield and berry fruit size increased significantly in the high tunnel compared to the field; percent yield increase ranged from 7-46% by variety. Evie 2 was the highest yielding strawberry, although berry quality was lower than other berries. Raspberry marketable yield and berry fruit size tended to increase in the high tunnel compared to the field, although variety had a more significant effect. Joan J was the highest yielding raspberry and out-yielded the other varieties by 250% outdoor and 350% indoor. Overall, strawberry and raspberry yields tended to improve in high tunnels as compared to the field, but data from a second year will help determine whether high tunnel investment is worthwhile. It is expected that the production system will have more of an effect on berry yield and season length for second-year plants in 2020.

Keywords: Organic, Local food, berries, high tunnel

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