Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Organic Matter Related Abstracts

9 Impacts Of Salinity on Co2 Turnover in Some Gefara Soils of Libya

Authors: Fathi Elyaagubi

Abstract:

Salinization is a major threat to the productivity of agricultural land. The Gefara Plain located in the northwest of Libya; comprises about 80% of the total agricultural activity. The high water requirements for the populations and agriculture are depleting the groundwater aquifer, resulting in intrusion of seawater in the first few kilometers along the coast. Due to increasing salinity in the groundwater used for irrigation, the soils of the Gefara Plain are becoming increasingly saline. This research paper investigated the sensitivity of these soils to increased salinity using Co2 evolution as an integrating measure of soil function. Soil was collected from four sites located in the Gefara Plain, Almaya, Janzur, Gargaresh and Tajura. Soil collected from Tajura had the highest background salinity, and Janzur had the highest organic matter content. All of the soils had relatively low organic matter content, ranging between 0.49-%1.25. The cumulative rate of 14CO2 of added 14C-labelled Lolium shoots (Lolium perenne L.) to soils was decreased under effects of water containing different concentrations of NaCl at 20, 50, 70, 90, 150, and 200 mM compared to the control at any time of incubation in four sites.

Keywords: Organic Matter, soil salinity, gefara plain

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8 Fire Effects on Soil Properties of Meshchera Plain, Russia

Authors: Anna Tsibart, Timur Koshovskii

Abstract:

The properties of soils affected by the wildfires of 2002, 2010, and 2012 in Meshchera plain (Moscow region, Russia) were considered in a current research. The formation of ash horizons instead of organic peat horizons was detected both in histosols and histic podzols. The increase of pH and magnetic susceptibility was observed in soil profiles. Significant burning out of organic matter was observed, but already two years after the fire the new stage of organic matter accumulation started.

Keywords: Organic Matter, wildfires, peat soils, Meshchera plain

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7 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Microorganisms, Organic Matter, Salinity, Mineralization, arid regions

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6 Study of the Effect of Humic Acids on Soil Salinity Reduction

Authors: S. El Hasini, M. El Azzouzi, M. De Nobili, K. Azim, A. Zouahri

Abstract:

Soil salinization is one of the most severe environmental hazards which threaten sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid regions, including Morocco. In this regard the application of organic matter to saline soil has confirmed its effectiveness. The present study was aimed to examine the effect of humic acid which represent, among others, the important component of organic matter that contributes to reduce soil salinity. In fact, different composts taken from Agadir (Morocco), with different C/N ratio, were tested. After extraction and purification of humic acid, the interaction with Na2CO3 was carried out. The reduction of salinity is calculated as a value expressed in mg Na2CO3 equivalent/g HA. The results showed that humic acid had generally a significant effect on salinity. In that respect, the hypothesis proposed that carboxylic groups of humic acid create bonds with excess sodium in the soil to form a coherent complex which descends by leaching operation. The comparison between composts was based on C/N ratio, it showed that the compost with the lower ratio C/N had the most important effect on salinity reduction, whereas the compost with higher C/N ratio was less effective. The study is attended also to evaluate the quality of each compost by determining the humification index, we noticed that the compost which have the lowest C/N (20) ratio was relatively less stable, where a greater predominance of the humified substances, when the compost with C/N ratio is 35 exhibited higher stability.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Humic Acid , Salinity, compost

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5 Geochemical Characterization of the Fahdene Formation in the Kef-Tedjerouine Area (Northwestern Tunisia)

Authors: Dhaou Akrout, Riadh Ahmadi, Mabrouk Montacer, Tahani Hallek

Abstract:

The present work is an organo-geochemical study of the Fahdene Formation outcrops at the Mahjouba region belonging to the Eastern part of the Kalaat Senan structure in northwestern Tunisia (the Kef-Tedjerouine area). The analytical study of the organic content of the samples collected, allowed us to point out that the Formation in question is characterized by an average to good oil potential. This fossilized organic matter has a planktonic marine origin (type II), as indicated by the relatively high values of hydrogen index. Tmax values are in the range 440°C and attest a thermal stage of the oil window beginning. Mineralogical study found the existence of macro and micro fractures that are parallel to rock stratification or oblique with a high density. Fill standpoint, the major component of the mineralized veins is the fibrous calcite with bitumen traces. The composition of these fractures is mainly due to the availability of chemical elements scattered in the surrounding rock. As for the origin of these fractures, we assume that fluid pressure processes are heavily involved, together with the regional compressional tectonic stress regime. The Fahdene Formation has a great importance in conventional oil development as a potential source rock, and even in terms of unconventional oil exploitation through the intense fracturing allowing the percolation of gas shale and facilitating its exploitation.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Oil Exploration, Fluid Pressure, fracturation

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4 Ecological Study of Habitat Conditions and Distribution of Cistanche tubulosa (Rare Plant Species) in Pakpattan District, Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor

Abstract:

C. tubulosa is a rare parasitic plant. It is found to be endangered and it acquires nutrition by penetrating roots deep in host roots. It has momentous potential to fulfill local and national health needs. This specie became endangered due to its parasitic mode of life and lack of awareness. Investigation of distribution and habitat conditions of C. tubulosa from District Pakpattan is the objective of this study. To explore its habitat conditions and community ecology phytosociological survey of C. tubulosa in different habitats i.e roadsides and graveyards was carried out. It was found that C. tubulosa occurs successfully in different habitats like graveyards and roadsides with specific neighboring species. Soil analysis was carried out by taking soil samples from seven sites. Soil was analyzed for pH, EC, soil texture, OM, N %age, Ca, Mg, P and K, which shows that soil of C. tubulosa is rich in all these nutrients.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Magnesium, Phosphorus, potassium

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3 The Effect of Organic Matter Maturation and Porosity Evolution on Methane Storage Potential in Shale-Gas Reservoirs

Authors: T. Topór, A. Derkowski, P. Ziemiański

Abstract:

Formation of organic matter (OM)-hosted nanopores upon thermal maturation are one of the key factor controlling methane storage potential in unconventional shale-gas reservoirs. In this study, the subcritical CO₂ and N₂ gas adsorption measurements combined with scanning electron microscopy and supercritical methane adsorption have been used to characterize pore system and methane storage potential in black shales from the Baltic Basin (Poland). The samples were collected from a virtually equivalent Llandovery strata across the basin and represent a complete digenetic sequence, from thermally immature to overmature. The results demonstrate that the thermal maturation is a dominant mechanism controlling the formation of OM micro- and mesopores in the Baltic Basin shales. The formation of micro- and mesopores occurs in the oil window (vitrinite reflectance; leavedVR; ~0.5-0.9%) as a result of oil expulsion from kerogenleft OM highly porous. The generated hydrocarbons then turn into solid bitumen causing pore blocking and substantial decrease in micro- and mesopore volume in late-mature shales (VR ~0.9-1.2%). Both micro- and mesopores are regenerated in a middle of the catagenesis range (VR 1.4-1.9%) due to secondary cracking of OM and gas formation. The micropore volume in investigated shales is almost exclusively controlled by the OM content. The contribution of clay minerals to micropore volume is insignificant and masked by a strong contribution from OM. Methane adsorption capacity in the Baltic Basin shales is predominantly controlled by microporous OM with pores < 1.5 nm. The mesopore volume (2-50 nm) and mesopore surface area have no effect on methane sorption behavior. The adsorbed methane density equivalent, calculated as absolute methane adsorption divided by micropore volume, reviled a decrease of the methane loading potential in micropores with increasing maturity. The highest methane loading potential in micropores is observed for OM before metagenesis (VR < 2%), where the adsorbed methane density equivalent is greater than the density of liquid methane. This implies that, in addition to physical adsorption, absorption of methane in OM may occur before metagenesis. After OM content reduction using NaOCl solution methane adoption capacity substantially decreases, suggesting significantly greater adsorption potential for OM microstructure than for the clay minerals matrix.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Maturation, Shales, porosity, methane sorption

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2 Dynamics of Soil Fertility Management in India: An Empirical Analysis

Authors: B. Suresh Reddy

Abstract:

The over dependence on chemical fertilizers for nutrient management in crop production for the last few decades has led to several problems affecting soil health, environment and farmers themselves. Based on the field work done in 2012-13 with 1080 farmers of different size-classes in semi-arid regions of Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh states of India, this paper reveals that the farmers in semi-arid regions of India are actively managing soil fertility and other soil properties through a wide range of practices that are based on local resources and knowledge. It also highlights the socio-economic web woven around these soil fertility management practices. This study highlights the contribution of organic matter by traditional soil fertility management practices in maintaining the soil health. Livestock has profound influence on the soil fertility enhancement through supply of organic manure. Empirical data of this study has clearly revealed how farmers’ soil fertility management options are being undermined by government policies that give more priority to chemical fertiliser-based strategies. Based on the findings it is argued that there should be a 'level playing field' for both organic and inorganic soil fertility management methods by promoting and supporting farmers in using organic methods. There is a need to provide credit to farmers for adopting his choice of soil fertility management methods which suits his socio-economic conditions and that best suits the long term productivity of soils. The study suggests that the government policies related to soil fertility management must be enabling, creating the conditions for development based more on locally available resources and local skills and knowledge. This will not only keep Indian soils in healthy condition but also support the livelihoods of millions of people, especially the small and marginal farmers.

Keywords: Livestock, soil fertility, Organic Matter, small farmers

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1 Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand

Authors: Charirat Kusonwiriyawong, Supha Photichan, Wannarut Chutibutr

Abstract:

Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.

Keywords: Organic Matter, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, modified single extractant, soil test kits

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