Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

organic fertilizer Related Abstracts

11 Microbial Inoculants to Increase the Biomass and Nutrient Uptake of Tithonia Cultivated as Hedgerow Plants to Control Erosion in Ultisols

Authors: Y. Yulnafatmawita, H. Hermansah, Nurhajati Hakim, Kiki Amalia, A. Agustian

Abstract:

Ultisols require greater amounts of fertilizer application compared to other soils and susceptible to erosion. Unfortunately, the price of synthetic fertilizers has increased over time during the years, making them unaffordable for most Indonesian farmers. While terrace technique to control erosion very costly.Over the last century, efforts to reduce reliance on synthetic agro-chemicals fertilizers and erosion control have recently focused on Tithonia diversifolia as a fertilizer alternative, and as hedgerow plant to control erosion. Generally known by its common name of tree marigold or Mexican sunflower, this plant has attracted considerable attention for its prolific production of green biomass, rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (NPK). In pot experiments has founded some microbial such as Mycorrhizal, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, phosphate solubilizing bacterial (PSB) and fungi (PSF) are expected to play an important role in biomass production and high nutrient uptake of this plant. This issue of importance was pursued further in the following investigation in field condition. The aim of this study was to determine the type of microbial combination suitable for Tithonia cultivation as hedgerow plants in Ultisols which have higher biomass production and nutrient content, and decline soil erosion. The field experiment was conducted with 6 treatments in a randomized block design (RBD) using 3 replications. The treatments were: Tithonia rhizosphere without microbial inoculated (A); Inokulanted by Mycorrhizal + Azotobacter + Azospirillium (B); Mycorrhizal + PSF (C); Mycorrhizal + PSB(D); Mycorrhizal + PSB + PSF(E);and without hedgerow Tithonia (F).The microbial substrates were inoculated into the Tithonia rhizosphere in the nursery. The young Tithonia plants were then planted as hedgerow on Ultisols in the experimental field for 8 months, and pruned once every 2 months. Soil erosion were collected every rainy time. The differences between treatments were statistically significant by HSD test at the 95% level of probability. The result showed that treatment C (mycorrhizal + PSB) was the most effective, and followed by treatment D (mycorrhizal + PSF) in producing higher Tithonia biomass about 8 t dry matter 2000 m-2 ha-1 y-1 and declined soil erosion 71-75%.

Keywords: hedgerow tithonia, microbial inoculants, organic fertilizer, soil erosion control

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10 Response of Canola Traits to Integrated Fertilization Systems

Authors: khosro mohammadi

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of different resources of farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Talaieh cultivar), an experiment was conducted at Kurdistan region. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of two locations with difference in soil texture (L1): Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj and (L2): Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, as location levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): farmyard manure; (N2): compost; (N3): chemical fertilizers; (N4): farm yard manure + compost and (N5): farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers were considered in split plots. Four levels of biofertilizers were (B1): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida & Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control. Results showed that location, different resources of fertilizer and interactions of them have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield (4660 kg/ha) was obtained from treatment, that farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers were co application in clay loam soil (Gerizeh station). Different methods of fertilization have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. Highest amount of chlorophyll (38 Spad) was obtained from co application of farmyard manure, chemical fertilizers and compost (N5 treatment). Location, basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on N, S and N/S of canola seed. Oil content was decreased in Gerizeh station, but oil yield had a significant increasing than Azad University station. Co application of compost and farmyard manure produced highest percent of oleic acid (61.5 %) and linoleic acid (22.9 %). Co application of compost and farmyard manure has a significant increase in oleic acid and linoleic acid. Finally, L1N5B3 treatment, that compost, farmyard manure and biofertilizers were co application in Gerizeh station in compare to other treatments, selected as a best treatment of experiment.

Keywords: Oil, soil texture, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, Canola

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9 Effects of Nutrient Source and Drying Methods on Physical and Phytochemical Criteria of Pot Marigold (Calendula offiCinalis L.) Flowers

Authors: Leila Tabrizi, Farnaz Dezhaboun

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of plant nutrient source and different drying methods on physical and phytochemical characteristics of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) flowers, a factorial experiment was conducted based on completely randomized design with three replications in Research Laboratory of University of Tehran in 2010. Different nutrient sources (vermicompost, municipal waste compost, cattle manure, mushroom compost and control) which were applied in a field experiment for flower production and different drying methods including microwave (300, 600 and 900 W), oven (60, 70 and 80oC) and natural-shade drying in room temperature, were tested. Criteria such as drying kinetic, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and total carotenoid of flowers were evaluated. Results indicated that organic inputs as nutrient source for flowers had no significant effects on quality criteria of pot marigold except of total flavonoid content, while drying methods significantly affected phytochemical criteria. Application of microwave 300, 600 and 900 W resulted in the highest amount of total flavonoid content, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity, respectively, while oven drying caused the lowest amount of phytochemical criteria. Also, interaction effect of nutrient source and drying method significantly affected antioxidant activity in which the highest amount of antioxidant activity was obtained in combination of vermicompost and microwave 900 W. In addition, application of vermicompost combined with oven drying at 60oC caused the lowest amount of antioxidant activity. Based on results of drying trend, microwave drying showed a faster drying rate than those oven and natural-shade drying in which by increasing microwave power and oven temperature, time of flower drying decreased whereas slope of moisture content reduction curve showed accelerated trend.

Keywords: medicinal plant, organic fertilizer, drying kinetic, phytochemical criteria

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8 Utilization of Sugar Factory Waste as an Organic Fertilizer on Growth and Production of Baby Corn

Authors: Marliana S. Palad

Abstract:

The research purpose is to view and know the influence of giving blotong against growth and production of baby corn. The research was arranged as a factorial experiment in completely randomized block design (RBD) with three replications. The first is fertilizer type: blotong (B1), blotong+EM4 (B2) and bokashi blotong (B3), while of the blotong dose assigned as the second factor: blotong 5 ton ha -1 (D1), blotong 10 ton ha-1 (D2) and blotong 15 ton ha-1 (D3). The research result indicated that bokashi blotong gives the best influence compare to blotong+EM4 against all parameters. Interaction between fertilizers does 10 ton ha-1 to the bokashi. Blotong gives the best influence to the baby corn production 4.41 ton ha-1, bokasi blotong best anyway influence on baby corn vegetative growth, that is: plant height 113.00 cm, leaves number 8 (eight) pieces and stem diameter 6.02 cm. Results of analysis of variance showed that giving of bokashi blotong (B3) showed a better effect on the growth and production of baby corn and highly significant for plant height age of 60 days after planting, leaf number aged 60 days after planting, cob length cornhusk and without cornhusk, diameter stems and cobs, cob weight with cornhusk and without cornhusk and production are converted into ton ha-1. This is due to bokashi blotong has organic content of C, N, P, and K totalling more than the maximum treatment blotong (B1) and the blotong+EM4 (B2). Based on the research result, it can be summarised that sugar factory waste called blotong can be used to make bokashi as organic fertilizer, so the baby corn can growth and production better.

Keywords: organic fertilizer, blotong, bokashi, sugar factory waste

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7 Investigating the Effects of Density and Different Nitrogen Nutritional Systems on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.)

Authors: Mohammadreza Delfieh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy, Rouzbeh Farhoudi

Abstract:

Fennel is of most important medicinal plants which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of this valuable medicinal plant, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments and based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of: 1. N1 or control (Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, 50% at planting time and 50% at stem elongation), 2. N2 (Uniformly spreading 50% of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other 50% of urea fertilizer at stem elongation on fennel foliage), 3. N3 or cow manure, 4. N4 or biofertilizer (Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 5. N5 or Integrated-1 (Cow manure + uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot at stem elongation), 6. N6 or Integrated-2 (Cow manure + Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum) were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of: 1. FD1 (60 plant/m2), 2. FD2 (80 plant/m2) and 3. FD3 (100 plant/m2) were applied to subplots. Results showed that all of the traits were significantly affected by applied treatments (P 0.01). The interaction between treatments also were significant at 5 percent level for shoot dry weight and at 1 percent level for other traits. Based on the results, using the Integrated-1 treatment at 100 plant per m2 produced 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Utilization of such combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Density, Biofertilizer, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), nutritional system

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6 Performances of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Duanal) as Affected by Method of Planting and Source of Nutrients

Authors: Ewon Kaliyadasa, U. L. B. Jayasinghe, S. E. Peiris

Abstract:

Ashwagandha (Withania sominifera Duanal) is an important medicinal herb belongs to family Solanaceae. This plant has raised its popularity after discovering anti stress and sex stimulating properties that mainly due to the presence of biologically active alkaloid compounds. Therefore it is vital to adapt to a proper agro technological package that ensure optimum growth of ashwagandha to obtain the finest quality without degrading pharmacologically active constituents. Organic and inorganic fertilizer mixtures were combined with direct seeding and transplanting as four different treatments in this study. Tuber fresh and dry weights were recorded up to twelve months starting from two months after sowing (MAS) while shoot height, root length, number of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights and root: shoot ratio up to 6MAS. Results revealed that growth of ashwagandha was not affected significantly by method of planting or type of fertilizer or its combinations during most of the harvests. However, tubers harvested at 6MAS recorded the highest dry tuber weight per plant in all four treatments compared to early harvests where two direct seeded treatments are the best. Chemical comparison of these two treatments, direct seeding coupled with organic and inorganic fertilizer shown that direct seeding with organic treatment recorded the highest values for alkaloid and withaferine A content with lower percentage of fiber. Further these values are in concurring with the values of commercially available tuber samples. Having considered all facts, 6MAS can be recommended as the best harvesting stage to obtain high quality tubers of ashwagandha under local conditions.

Keywords: Alkaloids, inorganic fertilizer, organic fertilizer, direct seeding, dry tuber weight, transplanting, withaferine a

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5 Increasing Yam Production as a Means of Solving the Problem of Hunger in Nigeria

Authors: A. S. Akinbani, Samual Ayeni

Abstract:

At present when the price of petroleum is going down beyond bearable level, there is a need to diversify the economy towards arable crop production since Nigeria is an agrarian country. Yam plays prominent role in solving the problem of hunger in Nigeria. There is scarcity of information on the effect of fertilizers in increasing the yield of yam and maintaining soil properties in South Western Nigeria. This study was therefore set up to determine fertilizer effect on properties and yield of yam. The experiment was conducted at Adeyemi College of Education Teaching and Research Farm to compare the effect of organic, Organomineral and mineral fertilizers on yield of yam. Ten treatments were used 10t/ha Wood Ash, 10t/ha Cattle Dung, 10t/ha Poultry Manure, 10t/ha Manufactured Organic, 10t/ha Organomineral Fertilizer, 400kg/ha NPK, 400kg/ha SSP, 400kg/ha Urea and control with treatment. The treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Compared with control, Organomineral fertilizer significantly (P < 0.05) increased the soil moisture content, poultry manure, wood ash significantly decreased (< 0.05) the bulk density. Application of 10t/ha Organomineral fertilizer recorded the highest increase in the yield of yam among the treatments.

Keywords: organomineral fertilizer, organic fertilizer, bulk density, SSP

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4 Reorientation of Sustainable Livestock Management: A Case Study Applied to Wastes Management in Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia

Authors: Raka Rahmatulloh, Mohammad Ilham Nugraha, Muhammad Ifan Fathurrahman

Abstract:

The agricultural sector covers a wide area, one of them is livestock subsector that supply needs of the food source of animal protein. Animal protein is produced by the main livestock production such as meat, milk, eggs, etc. Besides the main production, livestock would produce metabolic residue, so called livestock wastes. Characteristics of livestock wastes can be either solid (feces), liquid (urine), and gas (methane) which turned out to be useful and has economical value when well-processed and well-controlled. Nowadays, this livestock wastes is considered as a source of pollutants, especially water pollution. If the source of pollutants used in an integrated way, it will have a positive impact on organic farming and a healthy environment. Management of livestock wastes can be integrated with the farming sector to the planting and caring that rely on fertilizers. Most Indonesian farmers still use chemical fertilizers, where the use of it in the long term will disturb the ecological balance of the environment. One of the main efforts is to use organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizer that conducted by the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The method is to use the solid waste of livestock and agricultural wastes into liquid organic fertilizer, feed additive, biogas and vermicompost through decomposition. The decomposition takes as long as 14 days including aeration and extraction process using water as a nutrients solvent media which contained in decomposes and disinfection media to release pathogenic microorganisms in decomposes. Liquid organic fertilizer has highly efficient for the farmers to have a ratio of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) 25/1 to 30/1 and neutral pH (6.5-7.5) which is good for plant growth. Feed additive may be given to improve the digestibility of feed so that substances can be easily absorbed by the body for production. Biogas contains methane (CH4), which has a high enough heat to produce electricity. Vermicompost is an overhaul of waste organic material that has excellent structure, porosity, aeration, drainage, and moisture holding capacity. Based on the case study above, an integrated livestock wastes management program strongly supports the Indonesian government in the achievement of sustainable livestock development.

Keywords: Integrated, organic fertilizer, livestock wastes, sustainable livestock development

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3 Sustainable Ecological Agricultural Systems in Bangladesh: Environmental, Economic and Social Perspective of Compost

Authors: Protima Chakraborty

Abstract:

The sustainability of conventional agriculture in Bangladesh is under threat from the continuous degradation of land and water resources, and from declining yields due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. NASL (Northern Agro Services Limited) is pursuing efforts to promote ecological agriculture with emphasis on better use of organic fertilizer resources and the reduction of external inputs. This paper examines the sustainability of two production systems in terms of their environmental soundness, economic viability and social acceptability based on empirical data collected through making demonstration land cultivation, a household survey, soil sample analysis, observations and discussions with key informants. Twelve indicators were selected to evaluate sustainability. Significant differences were found between the two systems in crop diversification, soil fertility management, pests and diseases management, and use of agrochemicals & Organic Compost. However, significant variations were found in other indicators such as land-use pattern, crop yield and stability, risk and uncertainties, and food security. Although crop yield and financial return were found to be slightly higher in the ecological system, the economic return and value addition per unit of land show the positive difference of using compost rather than chemical fertilizer. The findings suggest that ecological agriculture has a tendency towards becoming ecologically, economically and socially more sound than conventional agriculture, as it requires considerably fewer agro-chemicals, adds more organic matter to the soil, provides balanced food, and requires higher local inputs without markedly compromising output and financial benefits. Broad-policy measures, including the creation of mass awareness of adverse health effects of agrochemical-based products, are outlined for the promotion of ecological agriculture.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Conventional Agriculture, Bangladesh, compost, organic fertilizer, social acceptability, economic viability

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2 Assessment of Compost Usage Quality and Quality for Agricultural Use: A Case Study of Hebron District, Palestine

Authors: Issam A. Al-Khatib, Mohammed A. A. Sarhan

Abstract:

Complying with the technical specifications of compost production is of high importance not only for environmental protection but also for increasing the productivity and promotion of compost use by farmers in agriculture. This study focuses on the compost quality of the Palestinian market and farmers’ attitudes toward agricultural use of compost. The quality is assessed through selection of 20 compost samples of different suppliers and producers and lab testing for quality parameters, while the farmers’ attitudes to compost use for agriculture are evaluated through survey questionnaire of 321 farmers in the Hebron area. The results showed that the compost in the Palestinian markets is of medium quality due to partial or non-compliance with the quality standards and guidelines. The Palestinian farmers showed a positive attitude since 91.2% of them have the desire to use compost in agriculture. The results also showed that knowledge of difference between compost and chemical fertilizers, perception of compost benefits and previously experiencing problems in compost use, are significant factors affecting the farmers’ attitude toward the use of compost as an organic fertilizer.

Keywords: Manure, attitude, compost, organic fertilizer, compost quality

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1 Energy Analysis of Sugarcane Production: A Case Study in Metehara Sugar Factory in Ethiopia

Authors: Wasihun Girma Hailemariam

Abstract:

Energy is one of the key elements required for every agricultural activity, especially for large scale agricultural production such as sugarcane cultivation which mostly is used to produce sugar and bioethanol from sugarcane. In such kinds of resource (energy) intensive activities, energy analysis of the production system and looking for other alternatives which can reduce energy inputs of the sugarcane production process are steps forward for resource management. The purpose of this study was to determine input energy (direct and indirect) per hectare of sugarcane production sector of Metehara sugar factory in Ethiopia. Total energy consumption of the production system was 61,642 MJ/ha-yr. This total input energy is a cumulative value of different inputs (direct and indirect inputs) in the production system. The contribution of these different inputs is discussed and a scenario of substituting the most influential input by other alternative input which can replace the original input in its nutrient content was discussed. In this study the most influential input for increased energy consumption was application of organic fertilizer which accounted for 50 % of the total energy consumption. Filter cake which is a residue from the sugar production in the factory was used to substitute the organic fertilizer and the reduction in the energy consumption of the sugarcane production was discussed

Keywords: Resource Management, Energy Analysis, sugarcane, organic fertilizer

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