Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Organic Farming Related Abstracts

14 Organic Farming Profitability: Evidence from South Korea

Authors: Thanh Nguyen, Saem Lee, Hio-Jung Shin, Thomas Koellner

Abstract:

Land-use management has an influence on the provision of ecosystem service in dynamic, agricultural landscapes. Agricultural land use is important for maintaining the productivity and sustainability of agricultural ecosystems. However, in Korea, intensive farming activities in this highland agricultural zone, the upper stream of Soyang has led to contaminated soil caused by over-use pesticides and fertilizers. This has led to decrease in water and soil quality, which has consequences for ecosystem services and human wellbeing. Conventional farming has still high percentage in this area and there is no special measure to prevent low water quality caused by farming activities. Therefore, the adoption of environmentally friendly farming has been considered one of the alternatives that lead to improved water quality and increase in biomass production. Concurrently, farm households with environmentally friendly farming have occupied still low rates. Therefore, our research involved a farm household survey spanning conventional farming, the farm in transition and organic farming in Soyang watershed. Another purpose of our research was to compare economic advantage of the farmers adopting environmentally friendly farming and non-adaptors and to investigate the different factors by logistic regression analysis with socio-economic and benefit-cost ratio variables. The results found that farmers with environmentally friendly farming tended to be younger than conventional farming and farmer in transition. They are similar in terms of gender which was predominately male. Farmers with environmentally friendly farming were more educated and had less farming experience than conventional farming and farmer in transition. Based on the benefit-cost analysis, total costs that farm in transition farmers spent for one year are about two times as much as the sum of costs in environmentally friendly farming. The benefit of organic farmers was assessed with 2,800 KRW per household per year. In logistic regression, the factors having statistical significance are subsidy and district, residence period and benefit-cost ratio. And district and residence period have the negative impact on the practice of environmentally friendly farming techniques. The results of our research make a valuable contribution to provide important information to describe Korean policy-making for agricultural and water management and to consider potential approaches to policy that would substantiate ways beneficial for sustainable resource management.

Keywords: Profitability, Organic Farming, Logistic Regression, agricultural land-use

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13 Organic Paddy Production as a Coping Strategy to the Adverse Impact of Climate Change

Authors: Thapa M., J.P. Dutta, K.R. Pandey and R.R. Kattel

Abstract:

Nepal is extremely vulnerable to the impact of climate change. To mitigate the climate change effects on agricultural production and productivity a range of adaptive strategies needs to be considered. The study was conducted to assess organic paddy production as a coping strategy to the adverse impact of climate change in Phulbari, VDC of Chitwan district. Altogether, 120 respondents (60 adopters of organic farming and 60 from non adopter) were selected using snowball technique of sampling. Pre- tested interview schedule, direct observation, focus group discussion, key informant interview as well as secondary data were used to collect the required information. Factors determining the adoption of organic farming were found to be age, year of schooling, training, frequency of extension contact, perception about climate change, economically active members and poor. A unit increase in these factors except poor would increase the probability of adoption by 4.1%, 7.5%, 7.8%, 43.1%, 41.8% and 7% respectively. However, for poor, it would decrease the probability of adoption of organic farming by 5.1%. Average organic matter content in the adopters' field was higher (2.7%) than the non-adopters' field (2.5%). The regression result showed that type of farmer, price and area under rice cultivation had positive and significant relationship with income; however dependency ratio had negative relationship. As the year of adoption of organic farming increases, the production of rice decline in the first two years then after goes on increasing but the cost of production goes on decreasing with the year of adoption. The respondents adapted to the changing climate through diversification of crops, use of resistance varieties and following good cropping pattern. Gradually growing consumers' awareness about health, preference towards quality food products are the strong points behind organic farming, whereas lacks of bio-fertilizers, lack of effective extension services, no price differentiation between organic and inorganic products were the weak points. There is need for more training and education to change the attitude of farmers and enhance their confidence about the role of organic farming to cope with climate change impact.

Keywords: Climate Change, Sustainable Development, Organic Farming

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12 Grains of Winter Wheat Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) for Save Food Production

Authors: D. Jablonskytė-Raščė, A. Mankevičienė, S. Supronienė, I. Kerienė, S. Maikštėnienė, S. Bliznikas, R. Česnulevičienė

Abstract:

Organic farming does not allow the use of conventional mineral fertilizers and crop protection products. As a result, in our experiments we chose to grow different species of cereals and to see how cereal species affects mycotoxin accumulation. From the phytopathological and entomological viewpoint, the glumes of spelt grain perform a positive role since they protect grain from the infection of pathogenic microorganisms. On the background of the above-mentioned infection, there were more Fusarium–affected grains of spelt than of common wheat. It can be assumed that spelt is more susceptible to the Fusarium fungi infection than common wheat. This study describes the occurrence of DON, ZEA and T2/HT2 toxin in a survey of spelt and common wheat and their bran as well as flour. The analysis was conducted using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The concentrations of DON, ZEA, and T2/HT2 in Triticum spelta and Triticum aestivum are influenced by species, cereal type and year interaction. The highest concentration of mycotoxin was found in spelt grain with glumes. The obtained results indicate the significantly higher concentrations of Fusarium toxins in glumes than in dehulled grain which implicate the possible protective effect of spelt wheat glumes. The lowest DON, ZEA, and T2/HT2 concentration was determined in spelt grain without glumes.

Keywords: Organic Farming, Fusarium mycotoxins, spelt

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11 De-Commoditisation of Food: How Organic Farmers from the Madrid Region Reconnect Products and Places through Web Marketing

Authors: Salvatore Pinna

Abstract:

The growth of organic farming practices in the last few decades is continuing to stimulate the international debate about this alternative food market. As a part of a PhD project research about embeddedness in Alternative Food Networks (AFNs), this paper focuses on the promotional aspects of organic farms websites from the Madrid region. As a theoretical tool, some knowledge categories drawn on the geographic studies literature are used to classify the many ideas expressed in the web pages. By analysing texts and pictures of 30 websites, the study aims to question how and to what extent actors from organic world communicate to the potential customers their personal beliefs about farming practices, products qualities, and ecological and social benefits. Moreover, the paper raises the question of whether organic farming laws and regulations lack of completeness about the social and cultural aspects of food.

Keywords: Organic Farming, alternative food networks, de-commoditisation, madrid, reconnection of food

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10 On-Farm Research on Organic Fruits Production in the Eastern Thailand

Authors: Sali Chinsathit, Haruthai Kaenla

Abstract:

Organic agriculture has become a major policy theme for agricultural development in Thailand since October 2005. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda, to promote safe food and national export, and many government authorities have initiated projects and activities centered on organic farming promotion. Currently, Thailand has the market share of about 32 million US$ a year by exporting organic products of rice, vegetables, tea, fruits and a few medicinal herbs. There is high potential in organic crop production as there is the tropical environment promoting crop growth and leader farmer in organic farming. However, organic sector is relatively small (0.2%) comparing with conventional agricultural area, since there are many factors affecting farmers’ adoption and success in organic farming. The objective of this project was to get the organic production technology for at least 3 organic crops. The treatment and method were complied with Thai Organic Standard, and were mainly concerned on increase plant biodiversity and soil improvement by using organic fertilizer and bio-extract from fish, egg, plant and fruits. The bio-logical control, plant-extracts, and cultural practices were used to control insect pests and diseases of 3 crops including mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), longkong (Aglaia dookoo Griff.) and banana (Musa (AA group)). The experiments were carried out at research centers of Department of Agriculture and farmers’ farms in Rayong and Chanthaburi provinces from 2009 to 2013. We found that both locations, plant biodiversity by intercropping mangosteen or longkong with banana and soil improvement with composts and bio-extract from fish could increased yield and farmers’ income by 6,835 US$/ha/year. Farmers got knowledge from these technologies to produce organic crops. The organic products were sold both in domestic and international countries. The organic production technologies were also environmental friendly and could be used as an alternative way for farmers in Thailand.

Keywords: Organic Farming, banana, longkong, mangosteen

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9 Yield Parameters of Hulled Wheat Species, Grown in Organic Farming

Authors: Petr Konvalina, Jan Moudry

Abstract:

As organic farmers are searching foregoing crops for horticultural crops, there is possible to choice neglected wheat species and also have a new market and sale opportunities. Concerning wheat, there are landraces so called hulled wheat species (einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt) comprising parts of collections of the world gene banks. The advantage of this wheat species are small demands on growing conditions and also droughtiness in conditions of changing climate. Our paper aims at presenting the results of the study and the assessment of spring wheat forms, four einkorn cultivars, eight emmer wheat cultivars, seven spelt wheat cultivars in particular, as compared to modern bread wheat variety. Small-plot trials were established at two different localities within the Czech Republic and Austria in 2009 and 2012. The results of the trials show that some varieties were inclined to lodging. On the other hand, they were resistant to common wheat diseases (mildew, brown rust). Hulls served as barriers and obstacles against the DON grain contamination. The yield rate was lower. The grains were characterized by a high proportion of protein in grain (up to 18.1 %). However, they may be difficult to use for common baking. Moreover, new food products demonstrating a different technological quality of the hulled wheat species have to be launched on the market. They will be suitable for regional marketing.

Keywords: Organic Farming, spelt, hulled wheat species, einkorn, emmer

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8 Contribution for Rural Development Trough Training in Organic Farming

Authors: Raquel P. F. Guiné, Paula M. R. Correia, Daniela V. T. A. Costa, Moisés Castro, Luis T. Guerra, Cristina A. Costa

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to characterize a potential target group of people interested in participating into a training program in organic farming in the context of mobile-learning. The information sought addressed in particular, but not exclusively, possible contents, formats and forms of evaluation that will contribute to define the course objectives and curriculum, as well as to ensure that the course meets the needs of the learners and their preferences. The sample was selected among different European countries. The questionnaires were delivered electronically for answering online and in the end 135 consented valid questionnaires were obtained. The results allowed characterizing the target group and identifying their training needs and preferences towards m-learning formats, giving valuable tools to design the training offer.

Keywords: Rural development, Organic Farming, Survey, mobile-learning

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7 The Influense of Alternative Farming Systems on Physical Parameters of the Soil

Authors: L. Masilionytė, S. Maikštėnienė

Abstract:

Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high quality food products and retain the viability and fertility of soil. The field experiments of different farming systems were conducted at Joniškėlis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2013. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In different farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and green manure catch crops used for fertilization both in the soil low in humus and in the soil moderate in humus. In the 0–20 cm depth layer, it had a more significant effect on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, in which catch crops had been grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil moderate in humus content, compared with the soil low in humus, bulk density was by 1.4 % lower, and porosity by 1.8 % higher. The research findings create a possibility to make improvements in alternative cropping systems by choosing organic fertilizers and catch crops’ combinations that have the sustainable effect on soil and that maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote a development of organic agriculture.

Keywords: Organic Farming, Sustainable Farming, agro-measures, soil physical parameters

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6 Establishing Community-Based Pro-Biodiversity Enterprise in the Philippines: A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy towards Agro-Biodiversity Conservation and Local Green Economic Development

Authors: Dina Magnaye

Abstract:

In the Philippines, the performance of the agricultural sector is gauged through crop productivity and returns from farm production rather than the biodiversity in the agricultural ecosystem. Agricultural development hinges on the overall goal of increasing productivity through intensive agriculture, monoculture system, utilization of high yielding varieties in plants, and genetic upgrading in animals. This merits an analysis of the role of agro-biodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. These enterprises conserve biodiversity while equitably sharing production income in the utilization of biological resources. The study aims to determine how community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises become instrumental in local climate change adaptation and agro-biodiversity conservation as input to local green economic development planning. It also involves an assessment of the role of agrobiodiversity in terms of increasing productivity, food security and economic returns from community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises. The perceptions of the local community members both in urban and upland rural areas on community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises were evaluated. These served as a basis in developing a planning modality that can be mainstreamed in the management of local green economic enterprises to benefit the environment, provide local income opportunities, conserve species diversity, and sustain environment-friendly farming systems and practices. The interviews conducted with organic farmer-owners, entrepreneur-organic farmers, and organic farm workers revealed that pro-biodiversity enterprise such as organic farming involved the cyclic use of natural resources within the carrying capacity of a farm; recognition of the value of tradition and culture especially in the upland rural area; enhancement of socio-economic capacity; conservation of ecosystems in harmony with nature; and climate change mitigation. The suggested planning modality for community-based pro-biodiversity enterprises for a green economy encompasses four (4) phases to include community resource or capital asset profiling; stakeholder vision development; strategy formulation for sustained enterprises; and monitoring and evaluation.

Keywords: Organic Farming, Agro-Biodiversity, agro-biodiversity conservation, local green economy, pro-biodiversity enterprise

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5 Climate Change Impact on Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) Population Infesting Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus) in Sub-Himalayan India and Their Sustainable Management Using Biopesticides

Authors: Sunil Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentus L.) is an annual vegetable crop grown in the sub-Himalayan region of north east India throughout the year except rainy season in normal field cultivation. The crop is susceptible to various insect pests of which whitefly (Bemesia tabaci Genn.) causes heavy damage. Thus, a study on its occurrence and sustainable management is needed for successful cultivation. The pest was active throughout the growing period. During 38th standard week to 41st standard week that is during 3rd week of September to 2nd week of October minimum population was observed. The maximum population level was maintained during 11th standard week to 18th standard week that is during 2nd week of March to 3rd week of March with peak population (0.47/leaf) was recorded. Weekly population counts on white fly showed non-significant negative correlation (p=0.05) with temperature and weekly total rainfall where as significant negative correlation with relative humidity. Eight treatments were taken to study the management of the white fly pest such as botanical insecticide azadirachtin botanical extracts, Spilanthes paniculata flower, Polygonum hydropiper L. flower, tobacco leaf and garlic and mixed formulation like neem and floral extract of Spilanthes were evaluated and compared with the ability of acetamiprid. The insectide acetamiprid was found most lethal against whitefly providing 76.59% suppression, closely followed by extracts of neem + Spilanthes providing 62.39% suppression. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Polygonum flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals like Spirilloxanthin, Quercentin diglycoside, Quercentin 3-O-rutinoside, Procyanidin B1 and Isorhamnetin 3-O-rutinoside. These chemicals are responsible for pest control. Spectophotometric scanning of crude methanolic extract of Spilanthes flower showed strong absorbance wave length between 645-675 nm. Considering the level of peaks of wave length the flower extract contain some important chemicals of which polysulphide compounds are important and responsible of pest control. Neem and Spilanthes individually did not produce good results but when used as a mixture they recorded better results. Highest yield (30.15 t/ha) were recorded from acetamiprid treated plots followed by neem + Spilanthes (27.55 t/ha). Azadirachtin and Plant extracts are biopesticides having less or no hazardous effects on human health and environment. Thus they can be incorporated in IPM programmes and organic farming in vegetable cultivation.

Keywords: Biopesticides, Organic Farming, seasonal fluctuation, vegetable IPM

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4 Chemometric Analysis of Raw Milk Quality Originating from Conventional and Organic Dairy Farming in AP Vojvodina, Serbia

Authors: Strahinja Kovačević, Lidija Jevrić, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Milica Karadzic, Denis Kučević

Abstract:

The present study describes the application of chemometric methods in analysis of milk samples which were collected in a conventional dairy farm and an organic dairy farm in AP Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia. The chemometric analysis included the application of univariate regression modeling and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The ANOVA was used in order to determine the differences in fatty acids content in the milk samples from conventional and organic farm. The results of the ANOVA testing indicate that there is a highly statistically significant difference between the content of fatty acid (saturated fatty acid vs. unsaturated fatty acids) in different dairy farming. Besides, the linear univariate models have been obtained as a result of modeling the linear relationships between the milk fat content and saturated fatty acids content, and the linear relationships between the milk fat content and unsaturated fatty acids content. The models obtained on the basis of the milk samples which originate from the organic farming are statistically better than the models based on the milk samples from conventional farming.

Keywords: Quality Control, Organic Farming, Milk, hemometrics

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3 Effect of Organic Manure on Production of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

Authors: R. Behrooz, D. Jahanfar, D. Reza

Abstract:

Organic farming is a fundamental principle in sustainable agriculture. Preventing excessive contamination of water and soil with pesticides and chemical fertilizers is important in order to produce healthy food. For this purpose, two potato cultivars (Sante and Marfona) and seven levels of fertilizer (non-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, granulated chicken manure, common manure, compost, vermicompost and tea compost) were evaluated by factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. According to the results, the effect of different manure was significant on number of tubers per plant, tuber weight per plant and tuber yield. The highest value of these traits was obtained by using of chicken manure which was significantly superior to other treatments. However, there was no significant difference between the two varieties. According to the results, the use of chicken manure has produced the highest potato yield even in comparison with the use of chemical fertilizer.

Keywords: Organic Farming, potato, organic manure, tuber yield

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2 Training Manual of Organic Agriculture Farming for the Farmers: A Case Study from Kunjpura and Surrounding Villages

Authors: Rishi Pal Singh

Abstract:

In Indian Scenario, Organic agriculture is growing by the conscious efforts of inspired people who are able to create the best promising relationship between the earth and men. Nowadays, the major challenge is its entry into the policy-making framework, its entry into the global market and weak sensitization among the farmers. But, during the last two decades, the contamination in environment and food which is linked with the bad agricultural potential/techniques has diverted the mind set of farmers towards the organic farming. In the view of above concept, a small-scale project has been installed to promote the 20 farmers from the Kunjura and surrounding villages for organic farming. This project is working since from the last 3 crops (starting from October, 2016) and found that it can meet both demands and complete development of rural areas. Farmers of this concept are working on the principles such that the nature never demands unreasonable quantities of water, mining and to destroy the microbes and other organisms. As per details of Organic Monitor estimates, global sales reached in billion in the present analysis. In this initiative, firstly, wheat and rice were considered for farming and observed that the production of crop has grown almost 10-15% per year from the last crop production. This is not linked only with the profit or loss but also emphasized on the concept of health, ecology, fairness and care of soil enrichment. Several techniques were used like use of biological fertilizers instead of chemicals, multiple cropping, temperature management, rain water harvesting, development of own seed, vermicompost and integration of animals. In the first year, to increase the fertility of the land, legumes (moong, cow pea and red gram) were grown in strips for the 60, 90 and 120 days. Simultaneously, the mixture of compost and vermicompost in the proportion of 2:1 was applied at the rate of 2.0 ton per acre which was enriched with 5 kg Azotobacter and 5 kg Rhizobium biofertilizer. To complete the amount of phosphorus, 250 kg rock phosphate was used. After the one month, jivamrut can be used with the irrigation water or during the rainy days. In next season, compost-vermicompost mixture @ 2.5 ton/ha was used for all type of crops. After the completion of this treatment, now the soil is ready for high value ordinary/horticultural crops. The amount of above stated biofertilizers, compost-vermicompost and rock phosphate may be increased for the high alternative fertilizers. The significance of the projects is that now the farmers believe in cultural alternative (use of disease-free their own seed, organic pest management), maintenance of biodiversity, crop rotation practices and health benefits of organic farming. This type of organic farming projects should be installed at the level of gram/block/district administration.

Keywords: Organic Farming, compost, Kunjpura, bio-fertilizers

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1 Agro-Measures Influence Soil Physical Parameters in Alternative Farming

Authors: Laura Masilionyte, Danutė Jablonskytė-Raščė, Kestutis Venslauskas, Zita Kriauciuniene

Abstract:

Alternative farming systems are used to cultivate high-quality food products and sustain the viability and fertility of the soil. Plant nutrition in all ecosystems depends not only on fertilization intensity or soil richness in organic matter but also on soil physical parameters –bulk density, structure, pores with the optimum moisture and air ratio available to plants. The field experiments of alternative (sustainable and organic) farming systems were conducted at Joniskelis Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry in 2006–2016. The soil of the experimental site was Endocalcari-Endohypogleyic Cambisol (CMg-n-w-can). In alternative farming systems, farmyard manure, straw and catch crops for green manure were used for fertilization both in the soil with low and moderate humus contents. It had a more significant effect in the 0–20 cm depth layer on soil moisture than on other physical soil properties. In the agricultural systems, where catch crops were grown, soil physical characteristics did not differ significantly before their biomass incorporation, except for the moisture content, which was lower in rainy periods and higher in drier periods than in the soil of farming systems without catch crops. Soil bulk density and porosity in the topsoil layer were more dependent on soil humus content than on agricultural measures used: in the soil with moderate humus content, compared with the soil with low humus content, bulk density was by 1.4% lower, and porosity by 1.8% higher. The research findings allow to make improvements in alternative farming systems by choosing appropriate combinations of organic fertilizers and catch crops that have a sustainable effect on soil and maintain the sustainability of soil productivity parameters. Rational fertilization systems, securing the stability of soil productivity parameters and crop rotation productivity will promote the development of organic agriculture.

Keywords: Organic Farming, Sustainable Farming, agro-measures, soil physical parameters

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