Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Oral Related Abstracts

5 The Role of Hausa Oral Praise Singer in Conflict Management and Social Mobilization in Nigeria

Authors: Ladan Surajo


Nigeria as a third world country is full of people who cannot read and write, thereby constituting a stumbling block to the modern way of communication. It is a well known fact that Nigeria is a heterogeneous country with an estimated 450 or more ethnic groups communicating in divergent languages. Despite this scenario, English, Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba languages are predominantly used in the country. Apart from English language, Hausa has a wider coverage of usage among the indigenous languages in Nigeria, thereby using it in the area of social mobilization and conflict management cannot be overemphasized. Hausa Oral Singers are depicting their artistic and God endowed talents through singing to mobilize and sensitize the local communities about government programmes and the ills of other social problems of the society. It is the belief of this researcher that if used properly, the Hausa Oral Singers will assist immensely in reducing to the barest minimum some social ills of the society in Nigeria. More so that music is the food of the heart and has a resounding impact in changing the behaviour of individuals and groups.

Keywords: Oral, Conflict Management, singers, praise, social mobilization

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4 Oral Health Status in Sickle Cell Anemia Subjects

Authors: Surekha Rathod


Sickle cell disease is a vascular disorder characterized by chronic, ongoing organ damage that is punctuated by episodes of acutely painful vascular complications.1 It is the most common genetic blood disorder in the United States, with about 2000 infants being identified through routine blood screenings annually, and an estimated 104,000-138,000 affected individuals living in the United States. Approximately 0.3%-1.3% of African American are affected by Sickle Cell Diseases (SCD).3 The aim of this paper is to present oral health status of patients with SCD. A total of 200 subjects of both sexes in the age group 18- 40 years were included in this study. The subjects were examined and the following indices were recorded • Oral hygiene index – Simplified (OHI-S). • Probing depths (PD). • Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). • Gingival Index - Loe and Sillness. • Turesky Gillmore Glickman Modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. (1970) • DMFT index. • Sickle Cell Disease Severity Index. A total of 1478 patients were screened of which 200 subjects were found to be diagnosed with SCD by electrophoresis. The study thus, included 200 subjects (111 females & 89 males) diagnosed with Sickle Cell Disease in the age group of 18-40 years. The probing pocket depths (PPD) were measured in millimeters. 36% had PPD in the range of 2-4mm, 48% had PPD in the range of 4-6mm while 16% had PPD of more than 6mm. Similar results were obtained for the Clinical Attachment Levels (CAL). 29.5 % subjects had CAL 2-4mm, 44.5% had 4-6mm & 26% had CAL 6mm & above. We can thus conclude that although oral health is not a priority for patients with SCD, it is supported by increased plaque accumulation. Because of the chronic anemic state of the patients with SCD, they should be encouraged to pay strict attention to oral hygiene instructions and practice.

Keywords: Genetic, Oral, Sickle cell disease, vascular, chronic

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3 Use of Oral Midazolam in Endoscopy

Authors: Alireza Javadzadeh


Background: The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the safety and efficacy of oral versus i.v. midazolam in providing sedation for pediatric upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. Methods: Sixty-one children (age < 16 years) scheduled for upper GI endoscopy were studied. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral or i.v. midazolam. Measurements were made and compared for vital signs, level of sedation, pre- and post-procedure comfort, anxiety during endoscopy, ease of separation from parents, ease and duration of procedure, and recovery time. Results: Patients were aged 1–16 years (mean 7.5 ± 3.42 years); 30 patients received oral medication, and 31 received i.v. medication. There were no statistically significant differences in age or gender between groups. There were no significant differences in level of sedation, ease of separation from parents, ease of ability to monitor the patient during the procedure, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, or respiratory rate. Oxygen saturation was significantly lower in the i.v. group than the oral group 10 and 30 min after removal of the endoscope, and recovery time was longer in the oral than the i.v. group. Conclusions: Oral administration of midazolam is a safe and effective method of sedation that significantly reduces anxiety and improves overall tolerance for children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy.

Keywords: Children, Oral, Endoscopy, Sedation, midazolam

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2 Contextualizing Communication through Culture and Social Structure: An Exploration of Media Life

Authors: Jyoti Ranjan Sahoo


Communication is a social phenomenon which mediates to our everyday life and it creates, maintains, builds, circulates, and propagates for a common identity the society. The symbolic forms of communication such as aural, sounds, oral expressions, signs, and language as means of communication are being used in everyday life in helping to identify as construction of social reality. These symbolic forms of communication are treated as the social process in everyday life. Therefore, there is an intrinsic relationship between communication and culture to understand media life for village communities. Similarly, the interface of communication with social life is reflected upon it’s formulation of the notions of social structure and culture. It has been observed that there is an overlapping and new phenomenonal change of media life among marginalized communities in general and village communities in particular. Therefore, this paper is an outcome of decadal stock of literature and an empirical investigation on understanding of communication in a tribal village in India. It has examined the idea of American scientist Edward T. Hall “the culture is communication, and the communication is culture” in village society on understanding media life. Thus, the Harold Innis’s theoretical idea of “communication” has been critically examined in these contexts since author tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinarity on understanding media life through communication and culture which is embedded in socio-cultural life bearing on epistemological and ontological implications. The paper tries to explore and understand the inter-disciplinary and historical trajectories of communication embedded with other social science disciplines; and also tries to map these studies relevant for the future directions and engagement which would have bearing on epistemological and ontological implications in the field of media and communication.

Keywords: Communication, Media, Culture, History, Oral, tradition

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1 Evaluation of Intraoral Complications of Buccal Mucosa Graft in Augmentation Urethroplasty

Authors: Dahna Alkahtani, Faryal Suraya, Fadah Alanazi


Background: Buccal mucosal graft for urethral augmentation has surpassed other grafting options, and is now considered the standard of choice for substitution Urethroplasty. The graft has gained its popularity due to its excellent short and long-term results, easy harvesting as well as its ability in withstanding wet environments. However, although Buccal mucosal grafts are an excellent option, it is not free of complications, potential intraoral complications are bleeding, pain, swelling, injury to the nerve resulting in numbness, lip deviation or retraction. Objectives: The current study aims to evaluate the intraoral complications of buccal mucosa grafts harvested from one cheek, and used in Augmentation Urethroplasty. Methodology: The study was conducted retrospectively using the medical records of patients who underwent open augmentation urethroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft at King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Data collection of demographics included the type of graft used, presence or absence of strictures and its etiological factors. Pre-operative and post-operative evaluations were carried out on the subjects including the medical history, physical examination, uroflowmetry, retrograde urethrography, voiding cystourethrography and urine cultures were also noted. Further, the quality of life and complications of the procedure including the presence or occurrence of bleeding within 3-days post-procedure, the severity of pain, oral swelling after grafting, length of return to normal daily diet, painful surgical site, intake of painkillers, presence or absence of speech disturbance, numbness in the cheeks and lips were documented. Results: Thirty-two male subjects with ages ranging from 15 years to 72 years were included in the current study. Following the procedure, a hundred percent of the subjects returned to their normal daily diet by the sixth postoperative day. Further, the majority of the patients reported experiencing mild pain accounting for 61.3%, and 90.3% of the subjects reported using painkillers to control the pain. Surgical wound Pain was reportedly more common at the perineal site as 48.4% of the subjects experienced it; on the other hand, 41.9% of the patients experienced pain in the oral mucosa. The presence of speech disorders, as assessed through medical history, was found to be present in 3.2% of patients. The presence of numbness in the cheeks and lips was found in 3.2% of patients. Other complications such as parotid duct injury, delayed wound healing, non-healing wound and suture granuloma were rare as 90.3% of the subjects denied experiencing any of them, there were nonetheless reports of parotid duct injury by 6.5% of the patients, and non-healing wound by the 3.2% of patients. Conclusion: Buccal Mucosa Graft in Augmentation Urethroplasty is an ideal source of allograft, although not entirely painless; it is considerably safe with minimal intra-oral complication and undetectable strain on the patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: Oral, augmentation, graft, buccal

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