Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

oral glucose tolerance test Related Abstracts

3 Evaluation of Insulin Sensitizing Effects of Different Fractions from Total Alcoholic Extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Bark in Dexamethasone-Induced Insulin Resistant Rats

Authors: Hasanpasha N. Sholapur, Basanagouda M.Patil

Abstract:

Alcoholic extract of the bark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (MO), (Moringaceae), has been evaluated experimentally in the past for its insulin sensitizing potentials. In order to explore the possibility of the class of phytochemical(s) responsible for this experimental claim, the alcoholic extract was fractionated into non-polar [petroleum ether (PEF)], moderately non-polar [ethyl acetate (EAF)] and polar [aqueous (AQF)] fractions. All the fractions and pioglitazone (PIO) as standard (10mg/kg were p.o., once daily for 11 d) were investigated for their chronic effect on fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, insulin, oral glucose tolerance and acute effect on oral glucose tolerance in dexamethasone-induced (1 mg/kg s.c., once daily for 11 d) chronic model and acute model (1 mg/kg i.p., for 4 h) respectively for insulin resistance (IR) in rats. Among all the fractions tested, chronic treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced IR, indicated by prevention of hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia and oral glucose intolerance, whereas treatment with AQF (95 mg/kg) prevented hepatic IR but not peripheral IR. In acute study single dose treatment with EAF (140 mg/kg) and PIO (10 mg/kg) prevented dexamethasone-induced oral glucose intolerance, fraction PEF did not show any effect on these parameters in both the models. The present study indicates that the triterpenoidal and the phenolic class of phytochemicals detected in EAF of alcoholic extract of MO bark may be responsible for the prevention of dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in rats.

Keywords: insulin resistance, insulin, Moringa oleifera, dexamethasone, serum triglyceride, oral glucose tolerance test

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2 Stress as Risk Factor for Onset of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Visakhapatnam Tribal Community of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Vijaya Nirmala Pangi, K. V. Subhramanyam, C. Vijay Lakshmi

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing drastically at a vigorous rate all over the world population. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus in Paderu tribal area population of Visakhapatnam district, located in northeastern region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A random sampling method was followed in 1025 subjects including controls (n=25) and determined 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of anthropometric factors like age, gender, literacy, socio economic status, and environmental risk factors such as body fat response, hypertension and psychophysical stress response were determined in the studied subjects. Results: 78 (7.8%) were diabetic. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was found to be comparable between the two genders. Prevalence of diabetes was observed to be high in illiterate, low economic status subjects. Body fat response was comparable between control and diabetic subjects. However hypertension, stress associated enzymes showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in diabetic subjects compared to controls in both the genders. Conclusion: It appears that there is a rising pattern in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in tribal area, Paderu, Andhra Pradesh, India compared to previous rural studies.

Keywords: Hypertension, Anthropometric Studies, oral glucose tolerance test, stress enzymes, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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1 Acute Antihyperglycemic Activity of a Selected Medicinal Plant Extract Mixture in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: S. Jayasinghe, A. P. Attanayake, D. S. N. K. Liyanagamage, V. Karunaratne

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus is an ever increasing global health problem which causes disability and untimely death. Current treatments using synthetic drugs have caused numerous adverse effects as well as complications, leading research efforts in search of safe and effective alternative treatments for diabetes mellitus. Even though there are traditional Ayurvedic remedies which are effective, due to a lack of scientific exploration, they have not been proven to be beneficial for common use. Hence the aim of this study is to evaluate the traditional remedy made of mixture of plant components, namely leaves of Murraya koenigii L. Spreng (Rutaceae), cloves of Allium sativum L. (Amaryllidaceae), fruits of Garcinia queasita Pierre (Clusiaceae) and seeds of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) used for the treatment of diabetes. We report herein the preliminary results for the in vivo study of the anti-hyperglycaemic activity of the extracts of the above plant mixture in Wistar rats. A mixture made out of equal weights (100 g) of the above mentioned medicinal plant parts were extracted into cold water, hot water (3 h reflux) and water: acetone mixture (1:1) separately. Male wistar rats were divided into six groups that received different treatments. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin at a dose of 70 mg/ kg in male Wistar rats in group two, three, four, five and six. Group one (N=6) served as the healthy untreated and group two (N=6) served as diabetic untreated control and both groups received distilled water. Cold water, hot water, and water: acetone plant extracts were orally administered in diabetic rats in groups three, four and five, respectively at different doses of 0.5 g/kg (n=6), 1.0 g/kg(n=6) and 1.5 g/kg(n=6) for each group. Glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg) was administered to diabetic rats in group six (N=6) served as the positive control. The acute anti-hyperglycemic effect was evaluated over a four hour period using the total area under the curve (TAUC) method. The results of the test group of rats were compared with the diabetic untreated control. The TAUC of healthy and diabetic rats were 23.16 ±2.5 mmol/L.h and 58.31±3.0 mmol/L.h, respectively. A significant dose dependent improvement in acute anti-hyperglycaemic activity was observed in water: acetone extract (25%), hot water extract ( 20 %), and cold water extract (15 %) compared to the diabetic untreated control rats in terms of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). Therefore, the results suggest that the plant mixture has a potent antihyperglycemic effect and thus validating their used in Ayurvedic medicine for the management of diabetes mellitus. Future studies will be focused on the determination of the long term in vivo anti-diabetic mechanisms and isolation of bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-diabetic activity.

Keywords: oral glucose tolerance test, herbal mixture, acute antihyperglycemic activity, Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts

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