Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

oral delivery Related Abstracts

2 Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Nanosuspension to Improve Antioxidant Potential

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Md. Shadab, Mariyam N. Nashid

Abstract:

Naringenin (NAR), is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory behaviour, cholesterol-lowering and anticarcinogenic activities. However, despite the therapeutic potential of naringenin shown in a number of animal models, its clinical development has been hindered due to its low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability. Naringenin nanosuspension were produced using stabilizers Tween® 80 by high pressure homogenization techniques. The nanosuspensions were characterized with regard to size (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), size distribution, charge (zeta potential measurements), morphology, short term physical stability, dissolution profile and antioxidant potential. A nanocrystal PCS size of about 500 nm was obtained after 20 homogenization cycles at 1500 bar. The short-term stability was assessed by storage of the nanosuspensions at 4 ◦C, room temperature and 40 ◦C. Result showed that naringenin nanosuspension was physically unstable due to large fluctuations in the particle size and zeta potential after 30 days. Naringenin nanosuspension demonstrated higher drug dissolution (97.90%) compared to naringenin powder (62.76%) after 120 minutes of testing. Naringenin nanosuspension showed increased antioxidant activity compared to naringenin powder with a percentage DPPH radical scavenging activity of 49.17% and 31.45% respectively at the lowest DPPH concentration.

Keywords: Bioavailability, nanosuspension, naringenin, oral delivery

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1 Mucoadhesive Chitosan-Coated Nanostructured Lipid Carriers for Oral Delivery of Amphotericin B

Authors: S. L. J. Tan, N. Billa, C. J. Roberts

Abstract:

Oral delivery of amphotericin B (AmpB) potentially eliminates constraints and side effects associated with intravenous administration, but remains challenging due to the physicochemical properties of the drug such that it results in meagre bioavailability (0.3%). In an advanced formulation, 1) nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) were formulated as they can accommodate higher levels of cargoes and restrict drug expulsion and 2) a mucoadhesion feature was incorporated so as to impart sluggish transit of the NLC along the gastrointestinal tract and hence, maximize uptake and improve bioavailability of AmpB. The AmpB-loaded NLC formulation was successfully formulated via high shear homogenisation and ultrasonication. A chitosan coating was adsorbed onto the formed NLC. Physical properties of the formulations; particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (%EE), aggregation states and mucoadhesion as well as the effect of the variable pH on the integrity of the formulations were examined. The particle size of the freshly prepared AmpB-loaded NLC was 163.1 ± 0.7 nm, with a negative surface charge and remained essentially stable over 120 days. Adsorption of chitosan caused a significant increase in particle size to 348.0 ± 12 nm with the zeta potential change towards positivity. Interestingly, the chitosan-coated AmpB-loaded NLC (ChiAmpB NLC) showed significant decrease in particle size upon storage, suggesting 'anti-Ostwald' ripening effect. AmpB-loaded NLC formulation showed %EE of 94.3 ± 0.02 % and incorporation of chitosan increased the %EE significantly, to 99.3 ± 0.15 %. This suggests that the addition of chitosan renders stability to the NLC formulation, interacting with the anionic segment of the NLC and preventing the drug leakage. AmpB in both NLC and ChiAmpB NLC showed polyaggregation which is the non-toxic conformation. The mucoadhesiveness of the ChiAmpB NLC formulation was observed in both acidic pH (pH 5.8) and near-neutral pH (pH 6.8) conditions as opposed to AmpB-loaded NLC formulation. Hence, the incorporation of chitosan into the NLC formulation did not only impart mucoadhesive property but also protected against the expulsion of AmpB which makes it well-primed as a potential oral delivery system for AmpB.

Keywords: Mucoadhesion, amphotericin B, oral delivery, nanostructured lipid carriers

Procedia PDF Downloads 40