Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 372

Optimization Related Abstracts

372 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Sungho Kim, Jong Min Lee, Taekyoon Park, Ung Lee, Chonghun Han, Seokgoo Lee

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: Simulation, Optimization, Carbon capture and storage, CCS, caron dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
371 Removal of Copper from Wastewaters by Nano-Micro Bubble Ion Flotation

Authors: A. Khodadadi, M. Abdollahi, R. Ahmadi

Abstract:

The removal of copper from a dilute synthetic wastewater (10 mg/L) was studied by ion flotation at laboratory scale. Anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a collector and ethanol as a frother. Different parameters such as pH, collector and frother concentrations, foam height and bubble size distribution (multi bubble ion flotation) were tested to determine the optimum flotation conditions in a Denver type flotation machine. To see into the effect of bubbles size distribution in this paper, a nano-micro bubble generator was designed. The nano and microbubbles that are generated in this way were combined with normal size bubbles generated mechanically. Under the optimum conditions (concentration of SDS: 192mg/l, ethanol: 0.5%v/v, pH value: 4 and froth height=12.5 cm) the best removal obtained for the system Cu/SDS with a dry foam (water recovery: 15.5%) was 85.6%. Coalescence of nano-microbubbles with bubbles of normal size belonging to mechanical flotation cell improved the removal of Cu to a maximum floatability of 92.8% and reduced the water recovery to a 13.1%.The flotation time decreased considerably at 37.5% when the multi bubble ion flotation was used.

Keywords: Optimization, Recycling, Water Treatment, Copper, froth flotation

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
370 Geometric Design to Improve the Temperature

Authors: H. Ghodbane, A. A. Taleb, O. Kraa

Abstract:

This paper presents geometric design of induction heating system. The objective of this design is to improve the temperature distribution in the load. The study of such a device requires the use of models or modeling representation, physical, mathematical, and numerical. This modeling is the basis of the understanding, the design, and optimization of these systems. The optimization technique is to find values of variables that maximize or minimize the objective function.

Keywords: Modeling, Optimization, geometric design system, temperature increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
369 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of Microcantilever Based Resonator

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, Manjula Sutagundar, D. S. Jangamshetti

Abstract:

Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) resonators have shown the potential of replacing quartz crystal technology for sensing and high frequency signal processing applications because of inherent advantages like small size, high quality factor, low cost, compatibility with integrated circuit chips. This paper presents the optimization and modelling and simulation of the optimized micro cantilever resonator. The objective of the work is to optimize the dimensions of a micro cantilever resonator for a specified range of resonant frequency and specific quality factor. Optimization is carried out using genetic algorithm. The genetic algorithm is implemented using MATLAB. The micro cantilever resonator is modelled in CoventorWare using the optimized dimensions obtained from genetic algorithm. The modeled cantilever is analysed for resonance frequency.

Keywords: Optimization, Modelling and simulation, Genetic Algorithm, MEMS resonator

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368 Comparative Analysis of Two Modeling Approaches for Optimizing Plate Heat Exchangers

Authors: Fábio A. S. Mota, Mauro A. S. S. Ravagnani, E. P. Carvalho

Abstract:

In the present paper the design of plate heat exchangers is formulated as an optimization problem considering two mathematical modeling. The number of plates is the objective function to be minimized, considering implicitly some parameters configuration. Screening is the optimization method used to solve the problem. Thermal and hydraulic constraints are verified, not viable solutions are discarded and the method searches for the convergence to the optimum, case it exists. A case study is presented to test the applicability of the developed algorithm. Results show coherency with the literature.

Keywords: Modeling, Simulation, Optimization, plate heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
367 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting Biogas Production from Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste via Anaerobic Digestion

Authors: G. Madhu, B. Sajeena Beevi, P. P. Jose

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal conditions for biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) using response surface methodology (RSM). The parameters studied were initial pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon (TOC). The experimental results showed that the linear model terms of initial pH and substrate concentration and the quadratic model terms of the substrate concentration and TOC had significant individual effect (p < 0.05) on biogas yield. However, there was no interactive effect between these variables (p > 0.05). The highest level of biogas produced was 53.4 L/Kg VS at optimum pH, substrate concentration and total organic carbon of 6.5, 99gTS/L, and 20.32 g/L respectively.

Keywords: Optimization, Biogas, Anaerobic Digestion, response surface methodology

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
366 Optimal Trailing Edge Flap Positions of Helicopter Rotor for Various Thrust Coefficient to Solidity (Ct/σ) Ratios

Authors: K. Prabhakaran Nair, K. K. Saijaand

Abstract:

This study aims to determine change in optimal lo-cations of dual trailing-edge flaps for various thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratios of helicopter to achieve minimum hub vibration levels, with low penalty in terms of required trailing-edge flap control power. Polynomial response functions are used to approximate hub vibration and flap power objective functions. Single objective and multi-objective optimization is carried with the objective of minimizing hub vibration and flap power. The optimization results shows that the inboard flap location at low Ct/σ ratio move farther from the baseline value and at high Ct/σ ratio move towards the root of the blade for minimizing hub vibration.

Keywords: Optimization, helicopter rotor, trailing-edge flap, thrust coefficient to solidity (Ct /σ) ratio

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365 Energy Conservation Strategies of Buildings in Hot, Arid Region: Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: M. H. Shwehdi, S. Raja Mohammad

Abstract:

Recently energy savings have become more pronounced as a result of the world financial crises as well the unstable oil prices. Certainly all entities needs to adapt Energy Conservation and Management Strategies due to high monthly consumption of their spread locations and advancements of its telecom systems. These system improvements necessitate the establishment of more exchange centers as well provide energy savings. This paper investigates the impact of HVAC System Characteristics, Operational Strategies, the impact of Envelope Thermal Characteristics, and energy conservation measures. These are classified under three types of measures i.e. Zero-Investment; Low-Investment and High-Investment Energy Conservation Measures. The study shows that the Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) pertaining to the HVAC system characteristics and operation represent the highest potential for energy reduction, attention should be given to window thermal and solar radiation characteristics when large window areas are used. The type of glazing system needs to be carefully considered in the early design phase of future buildings. Paper will present the thermal optimization of different size centers in the two hot-dry and hot-humid Saudi Arabian city of Al Khobar, East province.

Keywords: Optimization, Energy Conservation, Saudi Arabia, thermal design, intermittent operation, exchange centers, hot-humid climate

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364 Fructooligosaccharide Prebiotics: Optimization of Different Cultivation Parameters on Their Microbial Production

Authors: Elsayed Ahmed Elsayed, Azza Noor El-Deen, Mohamed A. Farid, Mohamed A. Wadaan

Abstract:

Recently, a great attention has been paid to the use of dietary carbohydrates as prebiotic functional foods. Among the new commercially available products, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), which are microbial produced from sucrose, have attracted special interest due to their valuable properties and, thus, have a great economic potential for the sugar industrial branch. They are non-cariogenic sweeteners of low caloric value, as they are not hydrolyzed by the gastro-intestinal enzymes, promoting selectively the growth of the bifidobacteria in the colon, helping to eliminate the harmful microbial species to human and animal health and preventing colon cancer. FOS has been also found to reduce cholesterol, phospholipids and triglyceride levels in blood. FOS has been mainly produced by microbial fructosyltransferase (FTase) enzymes. The present work outlines bioprocess optimization for different cultivation parameters affecting the production of FTase by Penicillium aurantiogriseum AUMC 5605. The optimization involves both traditional as well as fractional factorial design approaches. Additionally, the production process will be compared under batch and fed-batch conditions. Finally, the optimized process conditions will be applied to 5-L stirred tank bioreactor cultivations.

Keywords: Optimization, cultivation, Prebiotics, Fructooligosaccharides

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363 An Enhanced Harmony Search (ENHS) Algorithm for Solving Optimization Problems

Authors: Talha A. Taj, Talha A. Khan, M. Imran Khalid

Abstract:

Optimization techniques attract researchers to formulate a problem and determine its optimum solution. This paper presents an Enhanced Harmony Search (ENHS) algorithm for solving optimization problems. The proposed algorithm increases the convergence and is more efficient than the standard Harmony Search (HS) algorithm. The paper discusses the novel techniques in detail and also provides the strategy for tuning the decisive parameters that affects the efficiency of the ENHS algorithm. The algorithm is tested on various benchmark functions, a real world optimization problem and a constrained objective function. Also, the results of ENHS are compared to standard HS, and various other optimization algorithms. The ENHS algorithms prove to be significantly better and more efficient than other algorithms. The simulation and testing of the algorithms is performed in MATLAB.

Keywords: Optimization, Electronic, MATLAB, harmony search algorithm

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362 Optimization of Multi Commodities Consumer Supply Chain: Part 1-Modelling

Authors: Romeo Marian, Zeinab Haji Abolhasani, Lee Luong

Abstract:

This paper and its companions (Part II, Part III) will concentrate on optimizing a class of supply chain problems known as Multi- Commodities Consumer Supply Chain (MCCSC) problem. MCCSC problem belongs to production-distribution (P-D) planning category. It aims to determine facilities location, consumers’ allocation, and facilities configuration to minimize total cost (CT) of the entire network. These facilities can be manufacturer units (MUs), distribution centres (DCs), and retailers/end-users (REs) but not limited to them. To address this problem, three major tasks should be undertaken. At the first place, a mixed integer non-linear programming (MINP) mathematical model is developed. Then, system’s behaviors under different conditions will be observed using a simulation modeling tool. Finally, the most optimum solution (minimum CT) of the system will be obtained using a multi-objective optimization technique. Due to the large size of the problem, and the uncertainties in finding the most optimum solution, integration of modeling and simulation methodologies is proposed followed by developing new approach known as GASG. It is a genetic algorithm on the basis of granular simulation which is the subject of the methodology of this research. In part II, MCCSC is simulated using discrete-event simulation (DES) device within an integrated environment of SimEvents and Simulink of MATLAB® software package followed by a comprehensive case study to examine the given strategy. Also, the effect of genetic operators on the obtained optimal/near optimal solution by the simulation model will be discussed in part III.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Simulation, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, discrete event system

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361 Application of Optimization Techniques in Overcurrent Relay Coordination: A Review

Authors: Syed Auon Raza, Tahir Mahmood, Syed Basit Ali Bukhari

Abstract:

In power system properly coordinated protection scheme is designed to make sure that only the faulty part of the system will be isolated when abnormal operating condition of the system will reach. The complexity of the system as well as the increased user demand and the deregulated environment enforce the utilities to improve system reliability by using a properly coordinated protection scheme. This paper presents overview of over current relay coordination techniques. Different techniques such as Deterministic Techniques, Meta Heuristic Optimization techniques, Hybrid Optimization Techniques, and Trial and Error Optimization Techniques have been reviewed in terms of method of their implementation, operation modes, nature of distribution system, and finally their advantages as well as the disadvantages.

Keywords: Optimization, Distribution System, relay coordination, Plug Setting Multiplier (PSM)

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360 Uncertain Time-Cost Trade off Problems of Construction Projects Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram

Abstract:

The development of effective decision support tools that adopted in the construction industry is vital in the world we live in today, since it can lead to substantial cost reduction and efficient resource consumption. Solving the time-cost trade off problems and its related variants is at the heart of scientific research for optimizing construction planning problems. In general, the classical optimization techniques have difficulties in dealing with TCT problems. One of the main reasons of their failure is that they can easily be entrapped in local minima. This paper presents an investigation on the application of meta-heuristic techniques to two particular variants of the time-cost trade of analysis, the time-cost trade off problem (TCT), and time-cost trade off optimization problem (TCO). In first problem, the total project cost should be minimized, and in the second problem, the total project cost and total project duration should be minimized simultaneously. Finally it is expected that, the optimization models developed in this paper will contribute significantly for efficient planning and management of construction project.

Keywords: Optimization, Fuzzy Sets, Uncertainty, time cost trade off problems

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359 Reduction of Differential Column Shortening in Tall Buildings

Authors: Hansoo Kim, Seunghak Shin

Abstract:

The differential column shortening in tall buildings can be reduced by improving material and structural characteristics of the structural systems. This paper proposes structural methods to reduce differential column shortening in reinforced concrete tall buildings; connecting columns with rigidly jointed horizontal members, using outriggers, and placing additional reinforcement at the columns. The rigidly connected horizontal members including outriggers reduce the differential shortening between adjacent vertical members. The axial stiffness of columns with greater shortening can be effectively increased by placing additional reinforcement at the columns, thus the differential column shortening can be reduced in the design stage. The optimum distribution of additional reinforcement can be determined by applying a gradient based optimization technique.

Keywords: Optimization, column shortening, long-term behavior, tall building

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358 Transformer Design Optimization Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Zakir Husain

Abstract:

Main objective of a power transformer design optimization problem requires minimizing the total overall cost and/or mass of the winding and core material by satisfying all possible constraints obligatory by the standards and transformer user requirement. The constraints include appropriate limits on winding fill factor, temperature rise, efficiency, no-load current and voltage regulation. The design optimizations tasks are a constrained minimum cost and/or mass solution by optimally setting the parameters, geometry and require magnetic properties of the transformer. In this paper, present the above design problems have been formulated by using genetic algorithm (GA) and simulated annealing (SA) on the MATLAB platform. The importance of the presented approach is stems for two main features. First, proposed technique provides reliable and efficient solution for the problem of design optimization with several variables. Second, it guaranteed to obtained solution is global optimum. This paper includes a demonstration of the application of the genetic programming GP technique to transformer design.

Keywords: Optimization, power transformer, genetic algorithm (GA), simulated annealing technique (SA)

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357 Optimization of the Numerical Fracture Mechanics

Authors: Li Jia, H. Hentati, R. Abdelmoula, A. Maalej

Abstract:

In this work, we present numerical simulations of the quasi-static crack propagation based on the variation approach. We perform numerical simulations of a piece of brittle material without initial crack. An alternate minimization algorithm is used. Based on these numerical results, we determine the influence of numerical parameters on the location of crack. We show the importance of trying to optimize the time of numerical computation and we present the first attempt to develop a simple numerical method to optimize this time.

Keywords: Optimization, Fracture Mechanics, mechanic, variation approach

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356 Modeling and Optimization of Algae Oil Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: I. F. Ejim, F. L. Kamen

Abstract:

Aims: In this experiment, algae oil extraction with a combination of n-hexane and ethanol was investigated. The effects of extraction solvent concentration, extraction time and temperature on the yield and quality of oil were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Experimental Design: Optimization of algae oil extraction using Box-Behnken design was used to generate 17 experimental runs in a three-factor-three-level design where oil yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value were evaluated as the response. Result: In this result, a minimum oil yield of 17% and maximum of 44% was realized. The optimum values for yield, specific gravity, acid value and saponification value from the overlay plot were 40.79%, 0.8788, 0.5056 mg KOH/g and 180.78 mg KOH/g respectively with desirability of 0.801. The maximum point prediction was yield 40.79% at solvent concentration 66.68 n-hexane, temperature of 40.0°C and extraction time of 4 hrs. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results showed that the linear and quadratic coefficient were all significant at p<0.05. The experiment was validated and results obtained were with the predicted values. Conclusion: Algae oil extraction was successfully optimized using RSM and its quality indicated it is suitable for many industrial uses.

Keywords: Optimization, Extraction, response surface methodology, algae oil, Box-Bohnken

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355 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Sudhir Kumar, Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj

Abstract:

This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.

Keywords: Optimization, Drilling, surface roughness, metal matrix composite, step drill, burr height, hole diameter error

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354 A New Multi-Target, Multi-Agent Search and Rescue Path Planning Approach

Authors: Jean Berger, Nassirou Lo, Martin Noel

Abstract:

Perfectly suited for natural or man-made emergency and disaster management situations such as flood, earthquakes, tornadoes, or tsunami, multi-target search path planning for a team of rescue agents is known to be computationally hard, and most techniques developed so far come short to successfully estimate optimality gap. A novel mixed-integer linear programming (MIP) formulation is proposed to optimally solve the multi-target multi-agent discrete search and rescue (SAR) path planning problem. Aimed at maximizing cumulative probability of successful target detection, it captures anticipated feedback information associated with possible observation outcomes resulting from projected path execution, while modeling agent discrete actions over all possible moving directions. Problem modeling further takes advantage of network representation to encompass decision variables, expedite compact constraint specification, and lead to substantial problem-solving speed-up. The proposed MIP approach uses CPLEX optimization machinery, efficiently computing near-optimal solutions for practical size problems, while giving a robust upper bound obtained from Lagrangean integrality constraint relaxation. Should eventually a target be positively detected during plan execution, a new problem instance would simply be reformulated from the current state, and then solved over the next decision cycle. A computational experiment shows the feasibility and the value of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Optimization, Multi-Agent, search and rescue, search path planning, mixed-integer linear programming

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353 FEM for Stress Reduction by Optimal Auxiliary Holes in a Uniaxially Loaded Plate

Authors: Basavaraj R. Endigeri, Shriharsh Desphande

Abstract:

Optimization and reduction of stress concentration around holes in a uniaxially loaded plate is one of the important design criteria in many of the engineering applications. These stress risers will lead to failure of the component at the region of high stress concentration which has to be avoided by means of providing auxiliary holes on either side of the parent hole. By literature survey it is known that till date, there is no analytical solution documented to reduce the stress concentration by providing auxiliary holes expect for fever geometries. In the present work, plate with a hole subjected to uniaxial load is analyzed with the numerical method to determine the optimum sizes and locations for the auxillary holes for different center hole diameter to plate width ratios. The introduction of auxiliary holes at a optimum location and radii with its effect on stress concentration is also represented graphically. The finite element analysis package ANSYS 8.0 is used to carry out analysis and optimization is performed to determine the location and radii for optimum values of auxiliary holes to reduce stress concentration. All the results for different diameter to plate width ratio are presented graphically. It is found from the work that introduction of auxiliary holes on either side of central circular hole will reduce stress concentration factor by a factor of 19 to 21 percentage.

Keywords: Optimization, Finite Element Method, stress concentration factor, auxiliary holes

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352 A Firefly Based Optimization Technique for Optimal Planning of Voltage Controlled Distributed Generators

Authors: M. M. Othman, Y. G. Hegazy, A. Y. Abdelaziz, Walid El-Khattam

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for finding the optimal location and capacity of dispatchable DGs connected to the distribution feeders for optimal planning for a specified power loss without violating the system practical constraints. The distributed generation units in the proposed algorithm is modeled as voltage controlled node with the flexibility to be converted to constant power node in case of reactive power limit violation. The proposed algorithm is implemented in MATLAB and tested on the IEEE 37-nodes feeder. The results that are validated by comparing it with results obtained from other competing methods show the effectiveness, accuracy and speed of the proposed method.

Keywords: Optimization, power loss, distributed generators, firefly technique

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351 Safety Approach Highway Alignment Optimization

Authors: Seyed Abbas Tabatabaei, Marjan Naderan Tahan, Arman Kadkhodai

Abstract:

An efficient optimization approach, called feasible gate (FG), is developed to enhance the computation efficiency and solution quality of the previously developed highway alignment optimization (HAO) model. This approach seeks to realistically represent various user preferences and environmentally sensitive areas and consider them along with geometric design constraints in the optimization process. This is done by avoiding the generation of infeasible solutions that violate various constraints and thus focusing the search on the feasible solutions. The proposed method is simple, but improves significantly the model’s computation time and solution quality. On the other, highway alignment optimization through Feasible Gates, eventuates only economic model by considering minimum design constrains includes minimum reduce of circular curves, minimum length of vertical curves and road maximum gradient. This modelling can reduce passenger comfort and road safety. In most of highway optimization models, by adding penalty function for each constraint, final result handles to satisfy minimum constraint. In this paper, we want to propose a safety-function solution by introducing gift function.

Keywords: Optimization, Safety, alignment, highway geometry

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350 Collaborative Planning and Forecasting

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Collaborative planning and forecasting are the innovative and systematic approaches towards productive integration and assimilation of data synergized into information. The changing and variable market dynamics have persuaded global business chains to incorporate collaborative planning and forecasting as an imperative tool. Thus, it is essential for the supply chains to constantly improvise, update its nature, and mould as per changing global environment.

Keywords: Supply Chain Management, Optimization, Forecasting, Information Transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
349 A Review of Transformer Modeling for Power Line Communication Applications

Authors: Balarabe Nkom, Adam P. R. Taylor, Craig Baguley

Abstract:

Power Line Communications (PLC) is being employed in existing power systems, despite the infrastructure not being designed with PLC considerations in mind. Given that power transformers can last for decades, the distribution transformer in particular exists as a relic of un-optimized technology. To determine issues that may need to be addressed in subsequent designs of such transformers, it is essential to have a highly accurate transformer model for simulations and subsequent optimization for the PLC environment, with a view to increase data speed, throughput, and efficiency, while improving overall system stability and reliability. This paper reviews various methods currently available for creating transformer models and provides insights into the requirements of each for obtaining high accuracy. The review indicates that a combination of traditional analytical methods using a hybrid approach gives good accuracy at reasonable costs.

Keywords: Modelling, Optimization, distribution transformer, power line communications

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348 A New Optimization Algorithm for Operation of a Microgrid

Authors: Sirus Mohammadi, Rohala Moghimi

Abstract:

The main advantages of microgrids are high energy efficiency through the application of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), high quality and reliability of the delivered electric energy and environmental and economic advantages. This study presents an energy management system (EMS) to optimize the operation of the microgrid (MG). In this paper an Adaptive Modified Firefly Algorithm (AMFA) is presented for optimal operation of a typical MG with renewable energy sources (RESs) accompanied by a back-up Micro-Turbine/Fuel Cell/Battery hybrid power source to level the power mismatch or to store the energy surplus when it’s needed. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear constraint problem to minimize the total operating cost. The management of Energy storage system (ESS), economic load dispatch and operation optimization of distributed generation (DG) are simplified into a single-object optimization problem in the EMS. The proposed algorithm is tested on a typical grid-connected MG including WT/PV/Micro Turbine/Fuel Cell and Energy Storage Devices (ESDs) then its superior performance is compared with those from other evolutionary algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Fuzzy Self Adaptive PSO (FSAPSO), Chaotic Particle PSO (CPSO), Adaptive Modified PSO (AMPSO), and Firefly Algorithm (FA).

Keywords: Optimization, Microgrid, Operation Management, firefly algorithm (AMFA)

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347 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera, Shweta Kumari

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: Optimization, Yeast, response surface methodology, β-galactosidase, permeabilization

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346 Robotic Arm Control with Neural Networks Using Genetic Algorithm Optimization Approach

Authors: Arbnor Pajaziti, Hasan Cana

Abstract:

In this paper, the structural genetic algorithm is used to optimize the neural network to control the joint movements of robotic arm. The robotic arm has also been modeled in 3D and simulated in real-time in MATLAB. It is found that Neural Networks provide a simple and effective way to control the robot tasks. Computer simulation examples are given to illustrate the significance of this method. By combining Genetic Algorithm optimization method and Neural Networks for the given robotic arm with 5 D.O.F. the obtained the results shown that the base joint movements overshooting time without controller was about 0.5 seconds, while with Neural Network controller (optimized with Genetic Algorithm) was about 0.2 seconds, and the population size of 150 gave best results.

Keywords: Optimization, Neural Network, Genetic Algorithm, robotic arm

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345 Predictive Modeling of Flank Wear in Hard Turning Using the Taguchi Method

Authors: Zahid A. Khan, Suha K. Shihab, Aas Mohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut) on flank wear (VB) in turning of 52100 hard alloy steel using multilayer coated carbide insert under dry condition. Nine experiments were performed based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the effects of the cutting parameters on flank wear. The results of the study revealed that the cutting speed (A) and feed rate (B) are the dominant factors affecting flank wear, while the depth of cut (C) has not a significant effect. The optimal combination of the cutting parameters for flank wear is found to be A1B1C1. The mathematical model for flank wear is found to be statistically significant. The predicted and measured values of flank wear are found to be very close to each other.

Keywords: Optimization, flank wear, hard turning, Taguchi approach

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344 Numerical Optimization of Trapezoidal Microchannel Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Shu-Ching Liao

Abstract:

This study presents the numerical simulation of three-dimensional incompressible steady and laminar fluid flow and conjugate heat transfer of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink using water as a cooling fluid in a silicon substrate. Navier-Stokes equations with conjugate energy equation are discretized by finite-volume method. We perform numerical computations for a range of 50 ≦ Re ≦ 600, 0.05W ≦ P ≦ 0.8W, 20W/cm2 ≦ ≦ 40W/cm2. The present study demonstrates the numerical optimization of a trapezoidal microchannel heat sink design using the response surface methodology (RSM) and the genetic algorithm method (GA). The results show that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase in the Reynolds number or pumping power, and the thermal resistance decreases as the pumping power increases. The thermal resistance of a trapezoidal microchannel is minimized for a constant heat flux and constant pumping power.

Keywords: Optimization, Conjugate Heat Transfer, microchannel heat sinks, genetic algorithm method

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343 Mathematical Modeling of the AMCs Cross-Contamination Removal in the FOUPs: Finite Element Formulation and Application in FOUP’s Decontamination

Authors: N. Santatriniaina, J. Deseure, H. Fontaine, C. Beitia, L. Rakotomanana, T. Q. Nguyen

Abstract:

Nowadays, with the increasing of the wafer's size and the decreasing of critical size of integrated circuit manufacturing in modern high-tech, microelectronics industry needs a maximum attention to challenge the contamination control. The move to 300 mm is accompanied by the use of Front Opening Unified Pods for wafer and his storage. In these pods an airborne cross contamination may occur between wafers and the pods. A predictive approach using modeling and computational methods is very powerful method to understand and qualify the AMCs cross contamination processes. This work investigates the required numerical tools which are employed in order to study the AMCs cross-contamination transfer phenomena between wafers and FOUPs. Numerical optimization and finite element formulation in transient analysis were established. Analytical solution of one dimensional problem was developed and the calibration process of physical constants was performed. The least square distance between the model (analytical 1D solution) and the experimental data are minimized. The behavior of the AMCs intransient analysis was determined. The model framework preserves the classical forms of the diffusion and convection-diffusion equations and yields to consistent form of the Fick's law. The adsorption process and the surface roughness effect were also traduced as a boundary condition using the switch condition Dirichlet to Neumann and the interface condition. The methodology is applied, first using the optimization methods with analytical solution to define physical constants, and second using finite element method including adsorption kinetic and the switch of Dirichlet to Neumann condition.

Keywords: Optimization, Numerical Analysis, Adsorption, AMCs, FOUP, cross-contamination, diffusion, wafers, Dirichlet to Neumann, finite elements methods, Fick’s law

Procedia PDF Downloads 360