Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

optimism Related Abstracts

5 Can Illusions of Control Make Us Happy?

Authors: Martina Kaufmann, Thomas Goetz, Anastasiya A. Lipnevich, Reinhard Pekrun

Abstract:

Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory. The current research investigated the impact of illusions of control on positive emotions. There is empirical evidence showing that people are more emotionally attentive to losses than to gains. Hence, we expected that, compared to gains, losses in illusory control would have a stronger impact on positive emotions. The results of two experimental studies support this assumption: Participants who experienced gains in illusory control showed no substantial change in positive emotions. However, positive emotions decreased when they perceived a loss in illusory control. These results suggest that a loss of illusory control (but not a gain thereof) mediates the impact of the situation on individuals’ positive emotions. Implications for emotion theory and practice are discussed.

Keywords: Control, cognitive appraisal, illusions, optimism, positive emotions

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4 Optimism, Hope and Mental Health: Optimism, Hope, Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Distress among Students, University of Pune, India

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationships between hope, optimism and mental health (psychological well-being and psychological distress) among students. A total of 222 students (132 males and 90 females) at the University of Pune from India completed inventories Revision of the Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), the Trait Hope Scale (THS) and the Mental Health Inventory (MHI) that assessed their optimism, hope and psychological well-being and psychological distress. The results of the study showed that optimism and hope were significantly correlated with each other. Optimism is positively related to psychological well-being and optimism is negatively related to psychological distress. Also, hope was positively related to psychological well-being. However, the findings suggest that optimism and hope could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Psychological distress, psychological well-being, hope, optimism

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3 Impact of Positive Psychology Education and Interventions on Well-Being: A Study of Students Engaged in Pastoral Care

Authors: Inna R. Edara, Haw-Lin Wu

Abstract:

Positive psychology investigates human strengths and virtues and promotes well-being. Relying on this assumption, positive interventions have been continuously designed to build pleasure and happiness, joy and contentment, engagement and meaning, hope and optimism, satisfaction and gratitude, spirituality, and various other positive measures of well-being. In line with this model of positive psychology and interventions, this study investigated certain measures of well-being in a group of 45 students enrolled in an 18-week positive psychology course and simultaneously engaged in service-oriented interventions that they chose for themselves based on the course content and individual interests. Students’ well-being was measured at the beginning and end of the course. The well-being indicators included positive automatic thoughts, optimism and hope, satisfaction with life, and spirituality. A paired-samples t-test conducted to evaluate the impact of class content and service-oriented interventions on students’ scores of well-being indicators indicated statistically significant increase from pre-class to post-class scores. There were also significant gender differences in post-course well-being scores, with females having higher levels of well-being than males. A two-way between groups analysis of variance indicated a significant interaction effect of age by gender on the post-course well-being scores, with females in the age group of 56-65 having the highest scores of well-being in comparison to the males in the same age group. Regression analyses indicated that positive automatic thought significantly predicted hope and satisfaction with life in the pre-course analysis. In the post-course regression analysis, spiritual transcendence made a significant contribution to optimism, and positive automatic thought made a significant contribution to both hope and satisfaction with life. Finally, a significant test between pre-course and post-course regression coefficients indicated that the regression coefficients at pre-course were significantly different from post-course coefficients, suggesting that the positive psychology course and the interventions were helpful in raising the levels of well-being. The overall results suggest a substantial increase in the participants’ well-being scores after engaging in the positive-oriented interventions, implying a need for designing more positive interventions in education to promote well-being.  

Keywords: Well-being, Spirituality, hope, optimism, positive automatic thoughts, satisfaction with life

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2 Psychological Capital: Convergent and Discriminant Validity of a Reconfigured Measure

Authors: Anton Grobler

Abstract:

Background: Psychological capital (PsyCap), consisting of Hope, Optimism, Resilience, and Self-efficacy, is a popular positive organisational behaviour construct utilised in the studying employee work and behavioral attitudes. Various scholars believe however that further validity research should be conducted on the PsyCap questionnaire (PCQ), outside of the founding research team and in more diverse settings, for the purpose of this paper, within the diverse South African (SA) context. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity of the PCQ with specific reference to its psychometric properties within the diverse SA context. Setting: The sample includes a total of 1 749 respondents, ± 60 each from 30 organisations in South Africa. Method: This study utilised a cross-sectional design and quantitative analysis. The sample is relatively representative (in terms of race, gender) of the South African workforce. A multi-factorial model was statistically explored and confirmed (with exploratory factor analysis [EFA] and confirmatory factor analysis [CFA] respectively). Results: The study yielded a three-factor solution, with Hope and Optimism as a combined factor and Resilience and Self-efficacy made up of a reconfigured set of substantively justifiable items. Three items of the original 24 items were found not to be suitable. The three factors showed good psychometric properties, good fit (in support of construct validity) and acceptable levels of convergent and discriminant validity. Conclusion: The results support the original conceptualisation of PsyCap, although with a unique structural configuration. This resonates with the notion of scholars that further research should be conducted within diverse settings. This is necessary to ensure the valid measurement of the construct, which is considered to be one of the four criteria for a construct to be categorised as a positive organisational behaviour construct.

Keywords: Resilience, Self-efficacy, hope, construct validity, psychological capital, optimism, positive organisational behaviour

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1 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

Abstract:

This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: Emotional Intelligence, optimism, entrepreneurial intentions, dispositional optimism

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