Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Optical Sensor Related Abstracts

3 Integrated Flavor Sensor Using Microbead Array

Authors: Ziba Omidi, Min-Ki Kim


This research presents the design, fabrication and application of a flavor sensor for an integrated electronic tongue and electronic nose that can allow rapid characterization of multi-component mixtures in a solution. The odor gas and liquid are separated using hydrophobic porous membrane in micro fluidic channel. The sensor uses an array composed of microbeads in micromachined cavities localized on silicon wafer. Sensing occurs via colorimetric and fluorescence changes to receptors and indicator molecules that are attached to termination sites on the polymeric microbeads. As a result, the sensor array system enables simultaneous and near-real-time analyses using small samples and reagent volumes with the capacity to incorporate significant redundancies. One of the key parts of the system is a passive pump driven only by capillary force. The hydrophilic surface of the fluidic structure draws the sample into the sensor array without any moving mechanical parts. Since there is no moving mechanical component in the structure, the size of the fluidic structure can be compact and the fabrication becomes simple when compared to the device including active microfluidic components. These factors should make the proposed system inexpensive to mass-produce, portable and compatible with biomedical applications.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, Semiconductor Manufacturing, smell sensor, taste sensor

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2 Force Sensor for Robotic Graspers in Minimally Invasive Surgery

Authors: Naghmeh M. Bandari, Javad Dargahi, Muthukumaran Packirisamy


Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (RMIS) has been widely performed around the world during the last two decades. RMIS demonstrates significant advantages over conventional surgery, e.g., improving the accuracy and dexterity of a surgeon, providing 3D vision, motion scaling, hand-eye coordination, decreasing tremor, and reducing x-ray exposure for surgeons. Despite benefits, surgeons cannot touch the surgical site and perceive tactile information. This happens due to the remote control of robots. The literature survey identified the lack of force feedback as the riskiest limitation in the existing technology. Without the perception of tool-tissue contact force, the surgeon might apply an excessive force causing tissue laceration or insufficient force causing tissue slippage. The primary use of force sensors has been to measure the tool-tissue interaction force in real-time in-situ. Design of a tactile sensor is subjected to a set of design requirements, e.g., biocompatibility, electrical-passivity, MRI-compatibility, miniaturization, ability to measure static and dynamic force. In this study, a planar optical fiber-based sensor was proposed to mount at the surgical grasper. It was developed based on the light intensity modulation principle. The deflectable part of the sensor was a beam modeled as a cantilever Euler-Bernoulli beam on rigid substrates. A semi-cylindrical indenter was attached to the bottom surface the beam at the mid-span. An optical fiber was secured at both ends on the same rigid substrates. The indenter was in contact with the fiber. External force on the sensor caused deflection in the beam and optical fiber simultaneously. The micro-bending of the optical fiber would consequently result in light power loss. The sensor was simulated and studied using finite element methods. A laser light beam with 800nm wavelength and 5mW power was used as the input to the optical fiber. The output power was measured using a photodetector. The voltage from photodetector was calibrated to the external force for a chirp input (0.1-5Hz). The range, resolution, and hysteresis of the sensor were studied under monotonic and harmonic external forces of 0-2.0N with 0 and 5Hz, respectively. The results confirmed the validity of proposed sensing principle. Also, the sensor demonstrated an acceptable linearity (R2 > 0.9). A minimum external force was observed below which no power loss was detectable. It is postulated that this phenomenon is attributed to the critical angle of the optical fiber to observe total internal reflection. The experimental results were of negligible hysteresis (R2 > 0.9) and in fair agreement with the simulations. In conclusion, the suggested planar sensor is assessed to be a cost-effective solution, feasible, and easy to use the sensor for being miniaturized and integrated at the tip of robotic graspers. Geometrical and optical factors affecting the minimum sensible force and the working range of the sensor should be studied and optimized. This design is intrinsically scalable and meets all the design requirements. Therefore, it has a significant potential of industrialization and mass production.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, Robotic Surgery, Minimally Invasive Surgery, force sensor, tactile sensor

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1 Ionophore-Based Materials for Selective Optical Sensing of Iron(III)

Authors: Natalia Lukasik, Ewa Wagner-Wysiecka


Development of selective, fast-responsive, and economical sensors for diverse ions detection and determination is one of the most extensively studied areas due to its importance in the field of clinical, environmental and industrial analysis. Among chemical sensors, vast popularity has gained ionophore-based optical sensors, where the generated analytical signal is a consequence of the molecular recognition of ion by the ionophore. Change of color occurring during host-guest interactions allows for quantitative analysis and for 'naked-eye' detection without the need of using sophisticated equipment. An example of application of such sensors is colorimetric detection of iron(III) cations. Iron as one of the most significant trace elements plays roles in many biochemical processes. For these reasons, the development of reliable, fast, and selective methods of iron ions determination is highly demanded. Taking all mentioned above into account a chromogenic amide derivative of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was synthesized, and its ability to iron(III) recognition was tested. To the best of authors knowledge (according to chemical abstracts) the obtained ligand has not been described in the literature so far. The catechol moiety was introduced to the ligand structure in order to mimic the action of naturally occurring siderophores-iron(III)-selective receptors. The ligand–ion interactions were studied using spectroscopic methods: UV-Vis spectrophotometry and infrared spectroscopy. The spectrophotometric measurements revealed that the amide exhibits affinity to iron(III) in dimethyl sulfoxide and fully aqueous solution, what is manifested by the change of color from yellow to green. Incorporation of the tested amide into a polymeric matrix (cellulose triacetate) ensured effective recognition of iron(III) at pH 3 with the detection limit 1.58×10⁻⁵ M. For the obtained sensor material parameters like linear response range, response time, selectivity, and possibility of regeneration were determined. In order to evaluate the effect of the size of the sensing material on iron(III) detection nanospheres (in the form of nanoemulsion) containing the tested amide were also prepared. According to DLS (dynamic light scattering) measurements, the size of the nanospheres is 308.02 ± 0.67 nm. Work parameters of the nanospheres were determined and compared with cellulose triacetate-based material. Additionally, for fast, qualitative experiments the test strips were prepared by adsorption of the amide solution on a glass microfiber material. Visual limit of detection of iron(III) at pH 3 by the test strips was estimated at the level 10⁻⁴ M. In conclusion, reported here amide derived from 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid proved to be an effective candidate for optical sensing of iron(III) in fully aqueous solutions. N. L. kindly acknowledges financial support from National Science Centre Poland the grant no. 2017/01/X/ST4/01680. Authors thank for financial support from Gdansk University of Technology grant no. 032406.

Keywords: Optical Sensor, nanospheres, ion-selective optode, iron(III) recognition

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