Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Optical Related Abstracts

5 Green, Yellow, Orange and Red Emission of Sm3+ Doped Borotellurite Glass under the 480nm Excitation Wavelength

Authors: M. R. S. Nasuha, K. Azman, H. Azhan, S. A. Senawi, A . Mardhiah


Sm3+ doped borotellurite glasses of the system (70-x) TeO2-20B2O3-10ZnO-xSm2O3 (where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mol%) have been prepared using melt-quenching method. Their physical properties such as density, molar volume and oxygen packing density as well as the optical measurements by mean of their absorption and emission characteristic have been carried out at room temperature using UV/VIS and photoluminescence spectrophotometer. The result of physical properties is found to vary with respect to Sm3+ ions content. Meanwhile, three strong absorption peaks are observed and are well resolved in the ultraviolet and visible regions due to transitions between the ground state and various excited state of Sm3+ ions. Thus, the photoluminescence spectra exhibit four emission bands from the initial state, which correspond to the 4G5/2 → 6H5/2, 4G5/2 → 6H7/2, 4G5/2 → 6H9/2 and 4G5/2 → 6H11/2 fluorescence transitions at 562 nm, 599 nm, 645 nm, and 706 nm, respectively.

Keywords: Optical, Physical, Absorption, Emission, borotellurite

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4 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat


Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: Optical, Absorption, thin film, bulk

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3 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian


Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: Optical, Thin Films, Electrical Properties, annealing, CDS

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2 Optical-Based Lane-Assist System for Rowing Boats

Authors: Stephen Tullis, M. David DiDonato, Hong Sung Park


Rowing boats (shells) are often steered by a small rudder operated by one of the backward-facing rowers; the attention required of that athlete then slightly decreases the power that that athlete can provide. Reducing the steering distraction would then increase the overall boat speed. Races are straight 2000 m courses with each boat in a 13.5 m wide lane marked by small (~15 cm) widely-spaced (~10 m) buoys, and the boat trajectory is affected by both cross-currents and winds. An optical buoy recognition and tracking system has been developed that provides the boat’s location and orientation with respect to the lane edges. This information is provided to the steering athlete as either: a simple overlay on a video display, or fed to a simplified autopilot system giving steering directions to the athlete or directly controlling the rudder. The system is then effectively a “lane-assist” device but with small, widely-spaced lane markers viewed from a very shallow angle due to constraints on camera height. The image is captured with a lightweight 1080p webcam, and most of the image analysis is done in OpenCV. The colour RGB-image is converted to a grayscale using the difference of the red and blue channels, which provides good contrast between the red/yellow buoys and the water, sky, land background and white reflections and noise. Buoy detection is done with thresholding within a tight mask applied to the image. Robust linear regression using Tukey’s biweight estimator of the previously detected buoy locations is used to develop the mask; this avoids the false detection of noise such as waves (reflections) and, in particular, buoys in other lanes. The robust regression also provides the current lane edges in the camera frame that are used to calculate the displacement of the boat from the lane centre (lane location), and its yaw angle. The interception of the detected lane edges provides a lane vanishing point, and yaw angle can be calculated simply based on the displacement of this vanishing point from the camera axis and the image plane distance. Lane location is simply based on the lateral displacement of the vanishing point from any horizontal cut through the lane edges. The boat lane position and yaw are currently fed what is essentially a stripped down marine auto-pilot system. Currently, only the lane location is used in a PID controller of a rudder actuator with integrator anti-windup to deal with saturation of the rudder angle. Low Kp and Kd values decrease unnecessarily fast return to lane centrelines and response to noise, and limiters can be used to avoid lane departure and disqualification. Yaw is not used as a control input, as cross-winds and currents can cause a straight course with considerable yaw or crab angle. Mapping of the controller with rudder angle “overall effectiveness” has not been finalized - very large rudder angles stall and have decreased turning moments, but at less extreme angles the increased rudder drag slows the boat and upsets boat balance. The full system has many features similar to automotive lane-assist systems, but with the added constraints of the lane markers, camera positioning, control response and noise increasing the challenge.

Keywords: Optical, Marine, Rowing, auto-pilot, lane-assist

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1 Characterization Techniques for Studying Properties of Nanomaterials

Authors: Nandini Sharma


Monitoring the characteristics of a nanostructured material comprises measurements of structural, morphological, mechanical, optical and electronic properties of the synthesized nanopowder and different layers and coatings of nanomaterials coated on transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) substrates like fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) or Indium doped tin oxide (ITO). This article focuses on structural and optical characterization with emphasis on measurements of the photocatalytic efficiency as a photocatalyst and their interpretation to extract relevant information about various TCOs and materials, their emitter regions, and surface passivation. It also covers a brief description of techniques based on photoluminescence that can portray high resolution pictorial graphs for application as solar energy devices. With the advancement in the scientific techniques, detailed information about the structural, morphological, and optical properties can be investigated, which is further useful for engineering and designing of an efficient device. The common principles involved in the prevalent characterization techniques aid to illustrate the range of options that can be broadened in near future for acurate device characterization and diagnosis.

Keywords: Optical, Characterization, Nanomaterial, Structural

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