Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

open field Related Abstracts

3 Studying the Effects of Ruta Graveolens on Spontaneous Motor Activity, Skeletal Muscle Tone and Strychnine Induced Convulsions in Albino Mice and Rats

Authors: Shaban Saad, Syed Ahmed, Suher Aburawi, Isabel Fong

Abstract:

Ruta graveolens is a plant commonly found in north Africa and south Europe. It is reported that Ruta graveolens is used traditionally for epilepsy and some other illnesses. The acute and sub-acute effects of alcoholic extract residue were tested for possible anti-epileptic and skeletal muscle relaxation activity. The effect of extract on rat spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also investigated using open filed. We previously proved the anti convulsant activity of the plant against pentylenetetrazol and electrically induced convulsions. Therefore in this study strychnine was used to induce convulsions in order to explore the mechanism of anti-convulsant activity of the plant. The skeletal muscle relaxation activity of Ruta graveolens was studied using pull-up and rod hanging tests in rats. At concentration of 5%w/v the extract protected mice against strychnine induced myoclonic jerks and death. The pull-up and rod hanging tests pointed to a skeletal muscle relaxant activity at higher concentrations. Ruta graveolens extract also significantly decreased the number of squares visited by rats in open field apparatus at all tested concentrations (3.5-20%w/v). However, the significant decrease in number of rearings was only noticed at concentrations of (15 and 20%w/v). The results indicate that Ruta graveolens contains compound(s) capable to inhibit convulsions, decrease SMA and/or diminish skeletal muscle tone in animal models. This data and the previously generated data together point to a general depression trend of CNS produced by Ruta graveolens.

Keywords: Ruta graveolens, open field, skeletal muscle relaxation

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2 Studies on Pesticide Usage Pattern and Farmers Knowledge on Pesticide Usage and Technologies in Open Field and Poly House Conditions

Authors: B. Raghu, Shashi Vemuri, Ch. Sreenivasa Rao

Abstract:

The survey on pesticide use pattern was carried out by interviewing farmers growing chill in open fields and poly houses based on the questionnaire prepared to assess their knowledge and practices on crop cultivation, general awareness on pesticide recommendations and use. Education levels of poly house farmers are high compared to open field farmers, where 57.14% poly house farmers are high school educated, whereas 35% open field farmers are illiterates. Majority farmers use nursery of 35 days and grow in <0.5 acre poly house in summer and rabi and < 1 acre in open field during kharif. Awareness on pesticide related issues is varying among poly house and open field farmers with some commonality, where 28.57% poly house farmers know about recommended pesticides while only 10% open field farmers are aware of this issue. However, in general, all farmers contact pesticide dealer for recommendations, poly house farmers prefer to contact scientists (35.71%) and open field farmers prefer to contact agricultural officers (33.33). Most farmers are unaware about pesticide classification and toxicity symbols on packing. Farmers are aware about endosulfan ban, but only 21.42% poly house and 11.66% open field farmers know about ban of monocrotofos on vegetables. Very few farmers know about pesticide residues and related issues, but know washing helps to reduce contamination.

Keywords: open field, pesticide usage, polyhouses, residues survey

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1 Neuro-Preservation Potential of Resveratrol Against High Fat High Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Rania F. Ahmed, Sally A. El Awdan, Gehad A. Abdel Jaleel, Dalia O. Saleh, Omar A. H. Ahmed-Farid

Abstract:

The metabolic syndrome is an important public health concern often related to obesity, improper diet, and sedentary lifestyles and can predispose individuals to the development of many dangerous health conditions, disability and early death. This research aimed to investigate the efficacy of resveratrol (RSV) to reverse the neuro-complications associated with metabolic syndrome experimentally-induced in rats using an eight weeks high fat, high fructose diet (HFHF) model. The corresponding drug treatments were administered orally during the last 10 days of the diet. Behavioural tests namely the open field test (OFT) and the forced swimming test (FST) were conducted. Brain levels of monoamines viz. serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine as well as their metabolites were assessed. 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHDG) as an indicative of DNA-fragmentation, nitric oxide (NOx) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) were estimated. Finally, brain antioxidant parameters namely malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH, GSSG) were evaluated. HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome resulted in decreased activity in the OFT and increased immobility duration in the FST. Furthermore, HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome lead to a significant increase in brain monoamines turn over as well as elevation in 8-OHDG, NOx, TNF- α, MDA and GSSG; and reduction in GSH. Ten days daily treatment with RSV (20 and 40 mg/kg p.o) dose dependently increased activity in the OFT and decreased immobility duration in the FST. Moreover, RSV normalized brain monoamines contents, reduced 8-OHDG, NOx, TNF- α, MDA and GSSG; and elevated GSH. In conclusion, we can say that RSV showed neuro-protective properties against HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome represented by monoamines preservation, prevention of neurodegeneration, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials and could be recommended as a beneficial daily dietary supplement to treat the neuronal side effects associated with HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Resveratrol, open field, DNA-fragmentation, forced swimming test, HFHF-induced metabolic syndrome, monoamines, nitric oxide (NOx), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α)

Procedia PDF Downloads 163