Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

OPC Related Abstracts

4 The Effect of Rice Husk Ash on the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul


Portland cement is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world today; however, manufacture of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) emission significant amount of CO2 resulting environmental impact. On the other hand, rice husk ash (RHA), which is produce as by product material is generally considered to be an environmental issue as a waste material. This material (RHA) consists of non-crystalline silicon dioxide with high specific surface area and high pozzolanic reactivity. These RHA properties can demonstrate a significant influence in improving the mechanical and durability properties of mortar and concrete. Furthermore, rice husk ash can provide a cost effective and give concrete more sustainability. In this paper, chemical composition, reactive silica and fineness effect was assessed by examining five different types of RHA. Mortars and concrete specimens were molded with 5% to 50% of ash, replacing the Portland cement, and measured their compressive and tensile strength behavior. Beyond it, another two parameters had been considered: the durability of concrete blended RHA, and effect of temperature on the transformed of amorphous structure to crystalline form. To obtain the rice husk ash properties, these different types were subjected to X-Ray fluorescence to determine the chemical composition, while pozzolanic activity obtained by using X-Ray diffraction test. On the other hand, finesses and specific surface area were obtained by used Malvern Mastersizer 2000 test. The measured parameters properties of fresh mortar and concrete obtained by used flow table and slump test. While, for hardened mortar and concrete the compressive and tensile strength determined pulse the chloride ions penetration for concrete using NT Build 492 (Nord Test) – non-steady state migration test (RMT Test). The obtained test results indicated that RHA can be used as a cement replacement material in concrete with considerable proportion up to 50% percentages without compromising concrete strength. The use of RHA in the concrete as blending materials improved the different characteristics of the concrete product. The paper concludes that to exhibits a good compressive strength of OPC mortar or concrete with increase RHA replacement ratio rice husk ash should be consist of high silica content with high pozzolanic activity. Furthermore, with high amount of carbon content (12%) could be improve the strength of concrete when the silica structure is totally amorphous. As well RHA with high amount of crystalline form (25%) can be used as cement replacement when the silica content over 90%. The workability and strength of concrete increased by used of superplasticizer and it depends on the silica structure and carbon content. This study therefore is an investigation of the effect of partially replacing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with Rice hush Ash (RHA) on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. This paper gives satisfactory results to use RHA in sustainable construction in order to reduce the carbon footprint associated with cement industry.

Keywords: CO2, Carbon Dioxide, OPC, ordinary Portland cement, RHA rice husk ash, W/B water to binder ratio

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3 The Development of a Low Carbon Cementitious Material Produced from Cement, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and High Calcium Fly Ash

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, William Atherton, Ali Shubbar, Anmar Dulaimi, Ali Al-Rifaie


This research represents experimental work for investigation of the influence of utilising Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) and High Calcium Fly Ash (HCFA) as a partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and produce a low carbon cementitious material with comparable compressive strength to OPC. Firstly, GGBS was used as a partial replacement to OPC to produce a binary blended cementitious material (BBCM); the replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of OPC. The optimum BBCM was mixed with HCFA to produce a ternary blended cementitious material (TBCM). The replacements were 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50% by the dry mass of BBCM. The compressive strength at ages of 7 and 28 days was utilised for assessing the performance of the test specimens in comparison to the reference mixture using 100% OPC as a binder. The results showed that the optimum BBCM was the mix produced from 25% GGBS and 75% OPC with compressive strength of 32.2 MPa at the age of 28 days. In addition, the results of the TBCM have shown that the addition of 10, 15, 20 and 25% of HCFA to the optimum BBCM improved the compressive strength by 22.7, 11.3, 5.2 and 2.1% respectively at 28 days. However, the replacement of optimum BBCM with more than 25% HCFA have showed a gradual drop in the compressive strength in comparison to the control mix. TBCM with 25% HCFA was considered to be the optimum as it showed better compressive strength than the control mix and at the same time reduced the amount of cement to 56%. Reducing the cement content to 56% will contribute to decrease the cost of construction materials, provide better compressive strength and also reduce the CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.

Keywords: compressive strength, GGBS, cementitious material, OPC, HCFA

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2 Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Portland Cement Modified Cold Bitumen Emulsion Mixture

Authors: William Atherton, Hayder Kamil Shanbara, Felicite Ruddock, Nassier A. Nassir


Cold bitumen emulsion mixture (CBEM) offers a series benefits as compared with hot mix asphalt (HMA); these include environmental factors, energy saving, the resolution of logistical challenges that can characterise hot mix, and the potential to reserve funds. However, this mixture has some problems similar to any bituminous mixtures as it has low early strength, long curing time that needed to obtain the maximum performance, high air voids and considered inferior to HMA. Thus, CBEM has been used in limited applications such as lightly trafficked roads, footways and reinstatements. This laboratory study describes the development of CBEM using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) instead of the traditional mineral filler. Stiffness modulus, moisture damage and temperature sensitivity tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the produced mixtures. The study concluded that there is a substantial improvement in the mechanical properties and moisture damage resistance of CBEMs containing OPC. Also, the produced cement modified CBEM shows a considerable lower thermal sensitivity than the conventional CBEM.

Keywords: moisture damage, stiffness modulus, OPC, cold bitumen emulsion mixture, temperature sensitivity

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1 Effect of Steel Slag on Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix

Authors: Amol Rakhunde, Namdeo Hedaoo


Cold bituminous emulsion mixes (CBEM) are preferred due to their low cost for the construction of low volume roads in India. Due to the low strength of CBEM’s, the strength is generally increased by the addition of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and hydrated lime. To improve the performance of CBEM’s, the use of industrial waste material is also an alternative. Steel slag is by product of steel industry which is sustainable construction material. Due to limited modes of practice of utilization steel slag, huge amount of steel slag dumped in yards of each steel industry and engaging of important agricultural land and gave pollution to whole environment. The effective use of steel slag as additives in CBEM’s has ultimate benefits such improvement in strength of CBEM’s, waste disposal steel slag, saving natural aggregate and lowering cost of roadways. Studies carried out in the past have shown a significant improvement in the strength of CBEM’s prepared with the replacement of natural aggregate with industrial waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. In this study, effect of modified mix which is mixes prepared with steel slag compared with the control mix and the mixes prepared with OPC. Experimental work was carried out on the sample of control mix, OPC mix, and modified mix. For modified mix, aggregate was replaced with steel slag by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of weight of aggregate of same size as of steel slag in aggregate gradation. For OPC mix, filler was replaced by 1%, 2% and 3% of weight of total aggregate with OPC. Optimum emulsion content of each mix obtained by using Marshall stability test and comparison of stability values were carried out. Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength test, and retained stability tests are performed on control mixes, OPC mixes and modified mixes. Significant improvement in Marshall stability retained stability and indirect tensile strength of modified mix compared to control mix and OPC mix.

Keywords: steel slag, OPC, CBEM, indirect tensile strength test, Marshall stability test, optimum emulsion content, retained stability test

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