Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

oil yield Related Abstracts

4 Effect of Weed Control and Different Plant Densities the Yield and Quality of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Hasan Dalgiç, Fikret Akinerdem


This trial was made to determine effect of different plant density and weed control on yield and quality of winter sowing safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Selcuk University, Agricultural Faculty trial fields and the effective substance of Trifluran was used as herbicide. Field trial was made during the vegetation period of 2009-2010 with three replications according to 'Split Plots in Randomized Blocks' design. The weed control techniques were made on main plots and row distances was set up on sub-plots. The trial subjects were consisting from three weed control techniques as fallowing: herbicide application (Trifluran), hoeing and control beside the row distances of 15 cm and 30 cm. The results were ranged between 59.0-76.73 cm in plant height, 40.00-47.07 cm in first branch height, 5.00-7.20 in number of branch per plant, 6.00-14.73 number of head per plant, 19.57-21.87 mm in head diameter, 2125.0-3968.3 kg ha-1 in seed yield, 27.10-28.08 % in crude oil rate and 531.7-1070.3 kg ha-1. According to the results, Remzibey safflower cultivar showed the highest seed yield on 30 cm of row distance and herbicide application by means of the direct effects of plant height, first branch height, number of branch per plant, number of head per plant, table diameter, crude oil rate and crude oil yield.

Keywords: Herbicide, seed yield, safflower, row spacing, oil ratio, oil yield

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3 Effect of Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Parameters on the Moringa oleifera Oil Yield and Formation of Emulsion

Authors: Masni Mat Yusoff, Michael H. Gordon, Keshavan Niranjan


The study reports on the effect of aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) parameters on the Moringa oleifera (MO) oil yield and the formation of emulsion at the end of the process. A mixture of protease and cellulase enzymes was used at 3:1 (w/w) ratio. The highest oil yield of 19% (g oil/g sample) was recovered with the use of a mixture of pH 6, 1:4 material/moisture ratio, and incubation temperature, time, and shaking speed of 50 ⁰C, 12.5 hr, and 300 stroke/min, respectively. The use of pH 6 and 8 resulted in grain emulsions, while solid-intact emulsion was observed at pH 4. Upon fixing certain parameters, higher oil yield was extracted with the use of lower material/moisture ratio and higher shaking speed. Longer incubation time of 24 hr resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) similar oil yield with that of 12.5 hr, and an incubation temperature of 50 ⁰C resulted in significantly (p < 0.05) higher oil yield than that of 60 ⁰C. In overall, each AEE parameter showed significant effects on both the MO oil yields and the emulsions formed. One of the major disadvantages of an AEE process is the formation of emulsions which require further de-emulsification step for higher oil recovery. Therefore, critical studies on the effect of each AEE parameter may assist in minimizing the amount of emulsions formed whilst extracting highest total MO oil yield possible.

Keywords: enzyme, oil yield, Moringa oleifera, emulsion

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2 Modeling Palm Oil Quality During the Ripening Process of Fresh Fruits

Authors: Afshin Keshvadi, Johari Endan, Haniff Harun, Desa Ahmad, Farah Saleena


Experiments were conducted to develop a model for analyzing the ripening process of oil palm fresh fruits in relation to oil yield and oil quality of palm oil produced. This research was carried out on 8-year-old Tenera (Dura × Pisifera) palms planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board Research Station. Fresh fruit bunches were harvested from designated palms during January till May of 2010. The bunches were divided into three regions (top, middle and bottom), and fruits from the outer and inner layers were randomly sampled for analysis at 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks after anthesis to establish relationships between maturity and oil development in the mesocarp and kernel. Computations on data related to ripening time, oil content and oil quality were performed using several computer software programs (MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel). Nine nonlinear mathematical models were utilized using MATLAB software to fit the data collected. The results showed mean mesocarp oil percent increased from 1.24 % at 8 weeks after anthesis to 29.6 % at 20 weeks after anthesis. Fruits from the top part of the bunch had the highest mesocarp oil content of 10.09 %. The lowest kernel oil percent of 0.03 % was recorded at 12 weeks after anthesis. Palmitic acid and oleic acid comprised of more than 73 % of total mesocarp fatty acids at 8 weeks after anthesis, and increased to more than 80 % at fruit maturity at 20 weeks. The Logistic model with the highest R2 and the lowest root mean square error was found to be the best fit model.

Keywords: Modeling, Fatty Acids, oil yield, ripening process, oil palm, anthesis

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1 Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Oil from Spent Coffee Grounds Using a Central Composite Rotatable Design

Authors: Malek Miladi, Miguel Vegara, Maria Perez-Infantes, Khaled Mohamed Ramadan, Antonio Ruiz-Canales, Damaris Nunez-Gomez


Coffee is the second consumed commodity worldwide, yet it also generates colossal waste. Proper management of coffee waste is proposed by converting them into products with higher added value to achieve sustainability of the economic and ecological footprint and protect the environment. Based on this, a study looking at the recovery of coffee waste is becoming more relevant in recent decades. Spent coffee grounds (SCG's) resulted from brewing coffee represents the major waste produced among all coffee industry. The fact that SCGs has no economic value be abundant in nature and industry, do not compete with agriculture and especially its high oil content (between 7-15% from its total dry matter weight depending on the coffee varieties, Arabica or Robusta), encourages its use as a sustainable feedstock for bio-oil production. The bio-oil extraction is a crucial step towards biodiesel production by the transesterification process. However, conventional methods used for oil extraction are not recommended due to their high consumption of energy, time, and generation of toxic volatile organic solvents. Thus, finding a sustainable, economical, and efficient extraction technique is crucial to scale up the process and to ensure more environment-friendly production. Under this perspective, the aim of this work was the statistical study to know an efficient strategy for oil extraction by n-hexane using indirect sonication. The coffee waste mixed Arabica and Robusta, which was used in this work. The temperature effect, sonication time, and solvent-to-solid ratio on the oil yield were statistically investigated as dependent variables by Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) 23. The results were analyzed using STATISTICA 7 StatSoft software. The CCRD showed the significance of all the variables tested (P < 0.05) on the process output. The validation of the model by analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed good adjustment for the results obtained for a 95% confidence interval, and also, the predicted values graph vs. experimental values confirmed the satisfactory correlation between the model results. Besides, the identification of the optimum experimental conditions was based on the study of the surface response graphs (2-D and 3-D) and the critical statistical values. Based on the CCDR results, 29 ºC, 56.6 min, and solvent-to-solid ratio 16 were the better experimental conditions defined statistically for coffee waste oil extraction using n-hexane as solvent. In these conditions, the oil yield was >9% in all cases. The results confirmed the efficiency of using an ultrasound bath in extracting oil as a more economical, green, and efficient way when compared to the Soxhlet method.

Keywords: Optimization, oil yield, coffee waste, statistical planning

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