Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

oil spill response Related Abstracts

3 Incident Management System: An Essential Tool for Oil Spill Response

Authors: Ali Heyder Alatas, D. Xin, L. Nai Ming

Abstract:

An oil spill emergency can vary in size and complexity, subject to factors such as volume and characteristics of spilled oil, incident location, impacted sensitivities and resources required. A major incident typically involves numerous stakeholders; these include the responsible party, response organisations, government authorities across multiple jurisdictions, local communities, and a spectrum of technical experts. An incident management team will encounter numerous challenges. Factors such as limited access to location, adverse weather, poor communication, and lack of pre-identified resources can impede a response; delays caused by an inefficient response can exacerbate impacts caused to the wider environment, socio-economic and cultural resources. It is essential that all parties work based on defined roles, responsibilities and authority, and ensure the availability of sufficient resources. To promote steadfast coordination and overcome the challenges highlighted, an Incident Management System (IMS) offers an essential tool for oil spill response. It provides clarity in command and control, improves communication and coordination, facilitates the cooperation between stakeholders, and integrates resources committed. Following the preceding discussion, a comprehensive review of existing literature serves to illustrate the application of IMS in oil spill response to overcome common challenges faced in a major-scaled incident. With a primary audience comprising practitioners in mind, this study will discuss key principles of incident management which enables an effective response, along with pitfalls and challenges, particularly, the tension between government and industry; case studies will be used to frame learning and issues consolidated from previous research, and provide the context to link practice with theory. It will also feature the industry approach to incident management which was further crystallized as part of a review by the Joint Industry Project (JIP) established in the wake of the Macondo well control incident. The authors posit that a common IMS which can be adopted across the industry not only enhances response capacity towards a major oil spill incident but is essential to the global preparedness effort.

Keywords: command and control, incident management system, oil spill response, response organisation

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2 Efficiency of Maritime Simulator Training in Oil Spill Response Competence Development

Authors: Antti Lanki, Justiina Halonen, Juuso Punnonen, Emmi Rantavuo

Abstract:

Marine oil spill response operation requires extensive vessel maneuvering and navigation skills. At-sea oil containment and recovery include both single vessel and multi-vessel operations. Towing long oil containment booms that are several hundreds of meters in length, is a challenge in itself. Boom deployment and towing in multi-vessel configurations is an added challenge that requires precise coordination and control of the vessels. Efficient communication, as a prerequisite for shared situational awareness, is needed in order to execute the response task effectively. To gain and maintain adequate maritime skills, practical training is needed. Field exercises are the most effective way of learning, but especially the related vessel operations are resource-intensive and costly. Field exercises may also be affected by environmental limitations such as high sea-state or other adverse weather conditions. In Finland, the seasonal ice-coverage also limits the training period to summer seasons only. In addition, environmental sensitiveness of the sea area restricts the use of real oil or other target substances. This paper examines, whether maritime simulator training can offer a complementary method to overcome the training challenges related to field exercises. The objective is to assess the efficiency and the learning impact of simulator training, and the specific skills that can be trained most effectively in simulators. This paper provides an overview of learning results from two oil spill response pilot courses, in which maritime navigational bridge simulators were used to train the oil spill response authorities. The simulators were equipped with an oil spill functionality module. The courses were targeted at coastal Fire and Rescue Services responsible for near shore oil spill response in Finland. The competence levels of the participants were surveyed before and after the course in order to measure potential shifts in competencies due to the simulator training. In addition to the quantitative analysis, the efficiency of the simulator training is evaluated qualitatively through feedback from the participants. The results indicate that simulator training is a valid and effective method for developing marine oil spill response competencies that complement traditional field exercises. Simulator training provides a safe environment for assessing various oil containment and recovery tactics. One of the main benefits of the simulator training was found to be the immediate feedback the spill modelling software provides on the oil spill behaviour as a reaction to response measures.

Keywords: Simulation, oil spill response, maritime training, vessel manoeuvring

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1 Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Evaluations for Oily Waste Management of Marine Oil Spill

Authors: Naznin Sultana Daisy, Mohammad Hesam Hafezi, Lei Liu

Abstract:

Nowadays, oily solid waste management has become an important issue for many countries due to frequent oil spill accidents and the increase of industrial oily wastewater. The historical oil spill data show that marine oil spills that affect the shoreline can, in extreme cases, produce up to 30 or 40 times more waste than the volume of oil initially released. Hence, responsive authorities aim to develop the most effective oily waste management solution in a timely manner to manage and minimize the waste generated. In this study initially, we tried to develop the roadmap of oily waste management for three-tiered spill scenarios for Atlantic Canada. For that purpose, three oily waste disposal scenarios are evaluated via six criteria which are determined according to the opinions of the experts from the field. Consequently, through sustainable response strategies, the most appropriate and feasible scenario is determined. The results of this study will assist to develop an integrated oily waste management system for identifying the optimal waste-generation-allocation-disposal schemes and generating the optimal management alternatives based on the holistic consideration of environmental, technological, economic, social, and regulatory factors.

Keywords: multi-criteria decision making, oil spill response, oily waste management, marine oil spill

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