Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Oil Related Abstracts

24 SWOT Analysis of Renewable Energy

Authors: Bahadır Aydın

Abstract:

Being one of the most important elements of social evolution, energy has a vital role for a sustainable economy and development. Energy has great importance to level up the welfare. By this importance, countries having rich resources can apply energy as an political instrument. While needs of energy is increasing, sources to respond this need is very limited. Therefore, countries seek for alternative resources to meet their needs. Renewable energy sources have firstly taken into consideration. Being clean and belonging to countries own sources, renewable energy resources have been widely applied during the last decades. However, renewable energy cannot meet all the expectation of energy needs. In this respect, energy efficiency can be seen as an alternative. Energy efficiency can minimize energy consumption without degrading standard of living, lessening quality of products and without increasing energy bills. In this article, energy resources, SWOT analysis of renewable sources, and energy efficiency topics are mainly discussed.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, International Relations, Oil, Energy Efficiency, energy regulations

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
23 Antimicrobial Activity of Oil Extracted from the Almonds of the Fruits of Argania spinosa in the West of Algeria (Mostaganem)

Authors: Nadjiba Chebouti, Nassima Behidj-Benyounes, Thoraya Dahmane, Amina Henni

Abstract:

This work examines the study of the antimicrobrial effect of oil extracted from the seeds of Argania spinosa L. (Sapotaceae) in the area of Stida (Mostaganem). This natural substance is extracted by using the Soxhlet. The antimicrobial activity of this oil is evaluated on several microorganisms. It has been tested on five bacterial strains; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The extract has been studied by using Candida albicans. It should be noted that these agents are characterized by a high frequency of contamination and pathogenicity. Through this study, we note that these microorganisms are moderately sensitive to the argan oil.

Keywords: Oil, Antimicrobial activity, Argania spinosa, several microorganisms, almonds

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
22 Boundary Motion by Curvature: Accessible Modeling of Oil Spill Evaporation/Dissipation

Authors: Gary Miller, Andriy Didenko, David Allison

Abstract:

The boundary of a region in the plane shrinks according to its curvature. A simple algorithm based upon this motion by curvature performed by a spreadsheet simulates the evaporation/dissipation behavior of oil spill boundaries.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Oil, evaporation, dissipation, boundary

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
21 To Design an Architectural Model for On-Shore Oil Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Network System

Authors: Saurabh Shukla, G. N. Pandey

Abstract:

In recent times, oil exploration and monitoring in on-shore areas have gained much importance considering the fact that in India the oil import is 62 percent of the total imports. Thus, architectural model like wireless sensor network to monitor on-shore deep sea oil well is being developed to get better estimate of the oil prospects. The problem we are facing nowadays that we have very few restricted areas of oil left today. Countries like India don’t have much large areas and resources for oil and this problem with most of the countries that’s why it has become a major problem when we are talking about oil exploration in on-shore areas also the increase of oil prices has further ignited the problem. For this the use of wireless network system having relative simplicity, smallness in size and affordable cost of wireless sensor nodes permit heavy deployment in on-shore places for monitoring oil wells. Deployment of wireless sensor network in large areas will surely reduce the cost it will be very much cost effective. The objective of this system is to send real time information of oil monitoring to the regulatory and welfare authorities so that suitable action could be taken. This system architecture is composed of sensor network, processing/transmission unit and a server. This wireless sensor network system could remotely monitor the real time data of oil exploration and monitoring condition in the identified areas. For wireless sensor networks, the systems are wireless, have scarce power, are real-time, utilize sensors and actuators as interfaces, have dynamically changing sets of resources, aggregate behaviour is important and location is critical. In this system a communication is done between the server and remotely placed sensors. The server gives the real time oil exploration and monitoring conditions to the welfare authorities.

Keywords: Sensor, Oil, Wireless Sensor Network, on-shore level

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
20 Physicochemical and Biochemical Characterization of an Oil of Pistacia Lentiscus Fruits and Its Effects on Blood Lipid Profile (10364 EJSR)

Authors: Merzougui Imene, Gherib Asma, Henchiri Cherifa

Abstract:

This study has allowed to confirm the physico chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition by GC of the oil of Pistacia lentiscus extracted by traditional method and evaluate its effect on some blood lipid parameters. The results showed that the main physico chemical characteristics of Pistacia lentiscus oil are: moisture (0.84 %), a relatively high iodine value (80,44) indicating that this oil has an important degree of unsaturation. The oil is mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) where oleic acid dominate with 47,01 % of total fatty acids and PUFA's represented by linoleic acid (19,26 %). Concerning the biological survey, oil, at 10% and 20% doses of diet for 15 and 30 days of two periods of treatment, resulted in beneficial effects on the lipid profile of Wistar albinos rats previously fed with animal and vegetable fats. We observed decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides (TGA), total lipids and LDL-C, and an increase in HDL-C "good cholesterol" probably related to the presence of a large amount of (MUFA) and (PUFA).

Keywords: Oil, lipid profile, Pistacia lentiscus, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
19 Effect of the Fluid Temperature on the Crude Oil Fouling in the Heat Exchangers of Algiers Refinery

Authors: Rima Harche, Abdelkader Mouheb

Abstract:

The Algiers refinery as all the other refineries always suffers from the problem of stopping of the tubes of heat exchanger. For that a study experimental of this phenomenon was undertaken in site on the cell of heat exchangers E101 (E101 CBA and E101 EDF) intended for the heating of the crude before its fractionation, which are exposed to the problem of the fouling on the side tubes exchangers. It is of tube-calenders type with head floating. Each cell is made up of three heat exchangers, laid out in series.

Keywords: Modeling, Oil, Fouling, heat transfer coefficient, fluid temperatue, tubular heat exchanger, fouling resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
18 Some Agricultural Characteristics of Cephalaria syriaca Lines Selected from a Population and Developed as Winter Type

Authors: Rahim Ada, Ahmet Tamkoç

Abstract:

The research was conducted in the “Randomized Complete Block Design” with three replications in research field of Agricultural Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey. In study, a total of 9 Cephalaria syriaca promised lines (9, 37, 38, 42, Beyaz 4, 5 Beyaz, 13 Beyaz, 27 Beyaz, Başaklar 2), which were taken from Sivas population, and 1 population were evaluated in two growing seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14). According to the results, the highest plant height, first branch height, first head height, number of branches per plant, number of head per plant, head diameter,1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil content and oil yield were obtained respectively from Başaklar 2 (68.37 cm), Başaklar 2 (37.80 cm), Başaklar 2 (54.83 cm), 37 (7.73 number/plant), 42 (18.03 number/plant), 9 (10.30 mm), Başaklar 2 (19.33 g), 27 Beyaz (1254.2 kg ha-1), Başaklar 2 (28.77%), and 27 Beyaz (357.9 kg ha-1).

Keywords: Population, Oil, Yield, Cephalaria syriaca

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
17 Spectral Analysis Applied to Variables of Oil Wells Profiling

Authors: Suzana Leitao Russo, José Augusto Andrade Filho, Mayara Laysa de Oliveira Silva, Vitor Hugo Simon

Abstract:

Currently, seismic methods and prospecting methods are commonly applied in the oil industry and, according to the information reported every day; oil is a source of non-renewable energy. It is easier to understand why the ownership of areas of oil extraction is coveted by many nations. It is necessary to think about ways that will enable the maximization of oil production. The technique of spectral analysis can be used to analyze the behavior of the variables already defined in oil well the profile. The main objective is to verify the series dependence of variables, and to model the variables using the frequency domain to observe the model residuals.

Keywords: Oil, Spectral Analysis, oil extraction, well

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
16 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration

Authors: Ankur Sachan

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.

Keywords: Sustainability, Oil, Carbon capture, CCUS

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
15 Kinetic Study of the Esterification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids from Salmon Oil (Salmosalar L.)

Authors: André Luis Lima de Oliveira, Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento, Victória Maura Silva Bermudez, Mauricio Nunes Kleinberg, João Carlos da Costa Assunção, José Osvaldo Beserra Carioca

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize a triglyceride with high content of unsaturated fatty acids from salmon oil (Salmo salar L.) by esterification with glycerol catalyzed dealuminized zeolite. A kinetic study was conducted to determine the reaction order and the activation energy. A statistical study was conducted to determine optimal reaction conditions. Initially, the crude oil was refined salmon physically and chemically. The crude oil was hydrolyzed and unsaturated free fatty acids were separated by urea complexation method. An experimental project to verify the parameters (temperature, glycerin and catalyst) with the greatest impact on the reaction was developed. In experiments aliquots were taken at predetermined times to measure the amount of free fatty acids. Pareto, surface, contour and hub graphs were used to determine the factors that maximized the reaction. According to the graphs the best reaction conditions were: temperature 80 ° C, the proportion glycerine/oil 5: 1 and 1% of catalyst. The kinetic data showed that the system was compatible with a second-order reaction. After analyzing the rate constant versus temperature charts a value of 85.31 kJ/mol was obtained for the reaction activation energy.

Keywords: Oil, esterification, kinect, salmon

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
14 Measurement of Viscosity and Moisture of Oil in Supradistribution Transformers Using Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Ehsan Kadkhodaie, Shahin Parvar, Soroush Senemar, Mostafa Shriat, Abdolrasoul Malekpour

Abstract:

The role of oil in supra distribution transformers is so critical and, several standards in determining the quality of oil have been offered. So far, moisture, viscosity and insulation protection of the oil have been measured based on mechanical and chemical methods and systems such as kart fisher, falling ball and TDM 4000 that most of these techniques are destructive and have many problems such as pollution. In this study, due to the properties of oil and also physical behavior of ultrasound wave new method was designed to in the determination of oil indicators including viscosity and moisture. The results show the oil viscosity can be found from the relationship μ = 42.086/√EE and moisture from (PLUS+) = −15.65 (PPM) + 26040 relationship.

Keywords: Oil, viscosity, Ultrasonic Waves, moisture

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
13 Response of Canola Traits to Integrated Fertilization Systems

Authors: khosro mohammadi

Abstract:

In order to study the effect of different resources of farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers on grain yield and quality of canola (Talaieh cultivar), an experiment was conducted at Kurdistan region. Experimental units were arranged in split-split plots design based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of two locations with difference in soil texture (L1): Agricultural Research Center of Sanandaj and (L2): Islamic Azad University of Sanandaj, as location levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): farmyard manure; (N2): compost; (N3): chemical fertilizers; (N4): farm yard manure + compost and (N5): farm yard manure + compost + chemical fertilizers were considered in split plots. Four levels of biofertilizers were (B1): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus and Pseudomonas putida & Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control. Results showed that location, different resources of fertilizer and interactions of them have a significant effect on grain yield. The highest grain yield (4660 kg/ha) was obtained from treatment, that farmyard manure, compost and biofertilizers were co application in clay loam soil (Gerizeh station). Different methods of fertilization have a significant effect on leaf chlorophyll. Highest amount of chlorophyll (38 Spad) was obtained from co application of farmyard manure, chemical fertilizers and compost (N5 treatment). Location, basal fertilizers and biofertilizers have a significant effect on N, S and N/S of canola seed. Oil content was decreased in Gerizeh station, but oil yield had a significant increasing than Azad University station. Co application of compost and farmyard manure produced highest percent of oleic acid (61.5 %) and linoleic acid (22.9 %). Co application of compost and farmyard manure has a significant increase in oleic acid and linoleic acid. Finally, L1N5B3 treatment, that compost, farmyard manure and biofertilizers were co application in Gerizeh station in compare to other treatments, selected as a best treatment of experiment.

Keywords: Oil, soil texture, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, Canola

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
12 Comparative Analysis of the Treatment of Okra Seed and Soy Beans Oil with Crude Enzyme Extract from Malted Rice

Authors: Eduzor Esther, Uhiara Ngozi, Ya’u Abubakar Umar, Anayo Jacob Gabriel, Umar Ahmed

Abstract:

The study investigated the characteristic effect of treating okra seed and soybeans seed oil with crude enzymes extract from malted rice. The oils from okra seeds and soybeans were obtained by solvent extraction method using N-hexane solvent. Soybeans seeds had higher percentage oil yield than okra seed. 250ml of each oil was thoroughly mixed with 5ml of the malted rice extract at 400C for 5mins and then filtered and regarded as treated oil while another batch of 250ml of each oil was not mixed with the malted rice extract and regarded as untreated oil. All the oils were analyzed for specific gravity, refractive index, emulsification capacity, absortivity, TSS and viscosity. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil gave higher values for specific gravity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. The emulsification capacity values were also higher for treated oils, when compared to the untreated oil, for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. Treated okra seed and soybeans oil also had higher range of values for absorptivity, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The ranges of T.S.S values of the treated oil were also higher, than those of the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans respectively. The results of viscosity showed that the treated oil had higher values, than the untreated oil for okra seed and soybeans oil respectively. However, the results of refractive index showed that the untreated oils had higher values ranges of than the treated oils for okra seed and soybeans respectively. Treated oil show better quality in respect to the parameters analyst, except the refractive index which is slightly less but also is within the rangiest of standard, the oils are high in unsaturation especially okra oil when compared with soya beans oil. It is recommended that, treated oil of okra seeds and soya beans can serve better than many oils that presently in use such as ground nut oil, palm oil and cotton seeds oil.

Keywords: Oil, Seed, Rice, extract, soybeans, malted, okra

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
11 Physical Parameters Influencing the Yield of Nigella Sativa Oil Extracted by Hydraulic Pressing

Authors: Hadjadj Naima, K. Mahdi, D. Belhachat, F. S. Ait Chaouche, A. Ferradji

Abstract:

The Nigella Sativa oil yield extracted by hydraulic pressing is influenced by the pressure temperature and size particles. The optimization of oil extraction is investigated. The rate of extraction of the whole seeds is very weak, a crushing of seeds is necessary to facilitate the extraction. This rate augments with the rise of the temperature and the pressure, and decrease of size particles. The best output (66%) is obtained for a granulometry lower than 1mm, a temperature of 50°C and a pressure of 120 bars.

Keywords: Optimization, Oil, Extraction, temperature, Pressure, Nigella sativa

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
10 As a Secure Bridge Country about Oil and Gas Sources Transfer after Arab Spring: Turkey

Authors: Fatih Ercin Guney, Hami Karagol

Abstract:

Day by day, humanity's energy needs increase, to facilitate access to energy sources by energy importing countries is of great importance in terms of issues both in terms of economic security and political security. The geographical location of the oil exporting countries in the Middle East (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar) today, it is observed that evaluated by emerging Arab Spring(from Tunisia to Egypt) and freedom battles(in Syria) with security issues arise sourced from terrorist activities(ISIS). Progresses related with limited natural resources, energy and it's transportation issues which worries the developing countries, the energy in the region is considered to how to transfer safely. North Region of the Black Sea , the beginning of the conflict in the regional nature formed between Russia and Ukraine (2010), followed by the relevant regions of the power transmission line (From Russia to Europe) the discovery is considered to be the east's hand began to strengthen in terms of both the economical and political sides. With the growing need for safe access to the west of the new energy transmission lines are followed by Turkey, re-interest is considered to be shifted to the Mediterranean and the Middle East by West. Also, Russia, Iran and China (three axis of east) are generally performing as carry out parallel policies about energy , economical side and security in both United Nations Security Council (Two of Five Permanent Members are Russia and China) and Shanghai Cooperation Organization. In addition, Eastern Mediterranean Region Tension are rapidly increasing about research new oil and natural gas sources by Israel, Egypt, Cyprus, Lebanon. This paper provides, new energy corridor(s) are needed to transfer sources (Oil&Natural Gas) by Europe from East to West. So The West needs either safe bridge country to transfer natural sources to Europe in region or is needed to discovery new natural sources in extraterritorial waters of Eastern Mediterranean Region. But in two opportunities are evaluated with secure transfer corridors form region to Europe in safely. Even if the natural sources can be discovered, they are considered to transfer in safe manner. This paper involved, Turkey’s importance as a leader country in region over both of political and safe energy transfer sides as bridge country between south and north of Turkey why natural sources shall be transferred over Turkey, Even if diplomatic issues-For Example; Cyprus membership in European Union, Turkey membership candidate duration, Israel-Cyprus- Egypt-Lebanon researches about new natural sources in Mediterranean - occurred. But politic balance in Middle-East is changing quickly because of lack of democratic governments in region. So it is evaluated that the alliance of natural sources researches may not be long-time relations due to share sources after discoveries. After evaluating over causes and reasons, aim to reach finding foresight about future of region for energy transfer periods in secure manner.

Keywords: Middle East, Turkey, Natural Gas, Oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
9 Assesment of the Economic Potential of Lead Contaminated Brownfield for Growth of Oil Producing Crop Like Helianthus annus (Sunflower)

Authors: Shahenaz Sidi, S. K. Tank

Abstract:

When sparsely used industrial and commercial facilities are retired or abandoned, one of the biggest issues that arise is what to do with the remaining land. This land, referred to as a ‘Brownfield site’ or simply ‘Brownfield’ is often contaminated with waste and pollutants left behind by the defunct industrial facilities and factories that stand on the land. Phytoremediation has been proved a promising greener and cleaner technology in remediating the land unlike other chemical excavation methods. Helianthus annus is a hyper accumulator of lead. Helianthus annus can be used for remediation procedures in metal contaminated soils. It is a fast-growing crop which would favour soil stabilization. Its tough leaves and stems are rarely eaten by animals. The seeds (actively eaten by birds) have very low concentrations of potentially toxic elements, and represent low risk for the food web. The study is conducted to determine the phytoextraction potentials of the plant and the eventual seed harvesting and commercial oil production on remediated soil.

Keywords: Oil, Commercial, phytoextraction, brownfield, helianthus

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
8 Oil Contents, Mineral Compositions, and Their Correlations in Wild and Cultivated Safflower Seeds

Authors: Rahim Ada, Mustafa Harmankaya, Sadiye Ayse Celik

Abstract:

The safflower seed contains about 25-40% solvent extract and 20-33% fiber. It is well known that dietary phospholipids lower serum cholesterol levels effectively. The nutrient composition of safflower seed changes depending on region, soil and genotypes. This research was made by using of six natural selected (A22, A29, A30, C12, E1, F4, G8, G12, J27) and three commercial (Remzibey, Dincer, Black Sun1) varieties of safflower genotypes. The research was conducted on field conditions for two years (2009 and 2010) in randomized complete block design with three replications in Konya-Turkey ecological conditions. Oil contents, mineral contents and their correlations were determined in the research. According to the results, oil content was ranged from 22.38% to 34.26%, while the minerals were in between the following values: 1469, 04-2068.07 mg kg-1 for Ca, 7.24-11.71 mg kg-1 for B, 13.29-17.41 mg kg-1 for Cu, 51.00-79.35 mg kg-1 for Fe, 3988-6638.34 mg kg-1 for K, 1418.61-2306.06 mg kg-1 for Mg, 11.37-17.76 mg kg-1 for Mn, 4172.33-7059.58 mg kg-1 for P and 32.60-59.00 mg kg-1 for Zn. Correlation analysis that was made separately for the commercial varieties and wild lines showed that high level of oil content was negatively affected by all the investigated minerals except for K and Zn in the commercial varieties.

Keywords: Oil, Quality, safflower, mineral content

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
7 Diversifying Nigeria's Economy Using Tourism as a Richer Alternative to Oil

Authors: Aly Audu Fada

Abstract:

The mono-economic structure of Nigerian economy has made it depend on oil for so many years. Apart from the negative effect of its exploitation, relying solely on oil as the major source of revenue for peddling the ship of development is myopic. The crumbling oil price in the world market is one proof of the dangers of this over-dependence. This paper highlights the consequences of the oil-driven economy and explores the various opportunities that are accessible in tourism through a contextual analysis. It is recommended that those at the helm of affairs should initiate collaboration between the public and private sectors to explore and harness the rich tourism resources naturally dispersed across the country to achieve the objectives of economic transformation agenda of the Federal Government.

Keywords: Economic, Tourism, Oil, diversifying

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
6 Agronomic Evaluation of Flax Cultivars (Linum Usitatissimum L.) in Response to Irrigation Intervals

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Emad Rashwan, M. Mousa

Abstract:

Flax is a potential winter crop for Egypt that can be grown for both seed and fiber. The study was conducted during two successive winter seasons of 2013/2014, and 2014/2015 in the experimental farm of El-Gemmeiza Agricultural Research Station, Agriculture research Centre, Egypt. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of irrigation intervals (25, 35 and 45) on the seed yield and quality of flax cultivars (Sakha1, Giza9 and Giza10). Obtained results indicate that highly significant for all studied traits among irrigation intervals except oil percentage that was not significant in both seasons. Irrigated flax plants every 35 days gave the maximum values for all characters. In contrast, irrigation every 45 days gave the minimum values for all studied characters under this study. In respect to cultivars, significant differences in most yield and quality characters were found. Furthermore, the performance of Sakha1 cultivar was superior in total plant height, main stem diameter, seed index, seed, oil, biological and straw yield /ha as well as fiber length and fiber fineness. Meanwhile, Giza9 and Giza10 cultivars were surpassed in fiber yield/hand fiber percentage, respectively. The interactions between irrigation intervals and flax cultivars were highly significant for total plant height, main stem diameter, seed, oil, biological and straw yields /ha. Based on the results, all flax cultivars recorded the maximum values for major traits were measured under irrigation of flax plants every 35 days.

Keywords: Oil, Fiber, seed yield, irrigation intervals, flax

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
5 The Curse of Oil: Unpacking the Challenges to Food Security in the Nigeria's Niger Delta

Authors: Abosede Omowumi Babatunde

Abstract:

While the Niger Delta region satisfies the global thirst for oil, the inhabitants have not been adequately compensated for the use of their ancestral land. Besides, the ruthless exploitation and destruction of the natural environment upon which the inhabitants of the Niger Delta depend for their livelihood and sustenance by the activities of oil multinationals, pose major threats to food security in the region and by implication, Nigeria in general, Africa, and the world, given the present global emphasis on food security. This paper examines the effect of oil exploitation on household food security, identify key gaps in measures put in place to address the changes to livelihoods and food security and explore what should be done to improve the local people access to sufficient, safe and culturally acceptable food in the Niger Delta. Data is derived through interviews with key informants and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) conducted with respondents in the local communities in the Niger Delta states of Delta, Bayelsa and Rivers as well as relevant extant studies. The threat to food security is one important aspect of the human security challenges in the Niger Delta which has received limited scholarly attention. In addition, successive Nigerian governments have not meaningfully addressed the negative impacts of oil-induced environmental degradation on traditional livelihoods given the significant linkages between environmental sustainability, livelihood security, and food security. The destructive impact of oil pollution on the farmlands, crops, economic trees, creeks, lakes, and fishing equipment is so devastating that the people can no longer engage in productive farming and fishing. Also important is the limited access to modern agricultural methods for fishing and subsistence farming as fishing and farming are done using mostly crude implements and traditional methods. It is imperative and urgent to take stock of the negative implications of the activities of oil multinationals for environmental and livelihood sustainability, and household food security in the Niger Delta.

Keywords: Challenges, Food Security, Oil, Nigeria's Niger delta

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
4 Treatment of High Concentration Cutting Fluid Wastewater by Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Shiao-Shing Chen, Hung-Te Hsu, Saikat Sinha Ray, Kai-Shiang Chang

Abstract:

In recent years, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been widely utilized as it can effectively replace conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is found to be more effective technology compared to other conventional activated sludge process and advanced membrane separation technique. Additionally, as far as the MBR is concerned, it is having excellent control of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and conducive to the retention of high concentration of sludge biomass. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can effectively reduce footprint in terms of area and omit the secondary processing procedures in the conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Currently, as per the membrane technology, the ceramic membrane is found to have highly strong anti-acid-base properties, and it is more suitable than polymeric membrane while using for backwash and chemical cleaning. This study is based upon the treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater, as the Cutting Fluid is widely used in the cutting equipment. However, the Cutting Fluid wastewater is very difficult to treat. In this study, the ceramic membrane was used and combine with of MBR system to treat the Cutting Fluid wastewater. In this present study, different kind of chemical coagulants have been utilized for pretreatment purpose in order to get the supernatant and simultaneously this wastewater (supernatant) was treated by MBR process. Nevertheless, ceramic membrane has three advantages such as high mechanical strength, drug resistance and reuse. During the experiment, the backwash technique was used for every interval of 10 minutes in order to avoid fouling of the membrane. In this study, during pretreatment the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was found to be 71-86% and oil removal efficiency was analyzed to be 83-92%. This pretreatment study suggests that it is quiet effective methodology to reduce COD and oil concentration. Finally, In the MBR system when the HRT is more than 7.5 hour, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 87-93% and could achieve 100% oil removal efficiency. Coagulation test series were seen in Refs coagulants for the treatment of wastewater containing cutting oil with better oil and COD removal efficiency. The results also showed that the oil removal efficiency in the MBR system could reduce the oil content to less than 1 mg / L when the oil quality was 126 mg / L. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of membrane bioreactor by utilizing ceramic membrane has been demonstrated for treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater.

Keywords: Oil, membrane bioreactor, chemical oxygen demand, cutting fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
3 Developing a GIS-Based Tool for the Management of Fats, Oils, and Grease (FOG): A Case Study of Thames Water Wastewater Catchment

Authors: Thomas D. Collin, Rachel Cunningham, Bruce Jefferson, Raffaella Villa

Abstract:

Fats, oils and grease (FOG) are by-products of food preparation and cooking processes. FOG enters wastewater systems through a variety of sources such as households, food service establishments, and industrial food facilities. Over time, if no source control is in place, FOG builds up on pipe walls, leading to blockages, and potentially to sewer overflows which are a major risk to the Environment and Human Health. UK water utilities spend millions of pounds annually trying to control FOG. Despite UK legislation specifying that discharge of such material is against the law, it is often complicated for water companies to identify and prosecute offenders. Hence, it leads to uncertainties regarding the attitude to take in terms of FOG management. Research is needed to seize the full potential of implementing current practices. The aim of this research was to undertake a comprehensive study to document the extent of FOG problems in sewer lines and reinforce existing knowledge. Data were collected to develop a model estimating quantities of FOG available for recovery within Thames Water wastewater catchments. Geographical Information System (GIS) software was used in conjunction to integrate data with a geographical component. FOG was responsible for at least 1/3 of sewer blockages in Thames Water waste area. A waste-based approach was developed through an extensive review to estimate the potential for FOG collection and recovery. Three main sources were identified: residential, commercial and industrial. Commercial properties were identified as one of the major FOG producers. The total potential FOG generated was estimated for the 354 wastewater catchments. Additionally, raw and settled sewage were sampled and analysed for FOG (as hexane extractable material) monthly at 20 sewage treatment works (STW) for three years. A good correlation was found with the sampled FOG and population equivalent (PE). On average, a difference of 43.03% was found between the estimated FOG (waste-based approach) and sampled FOG (raw sewage sampling). It was suggested that the approach undertaken could overestimate the FOG available, the sampling could only capture a fraction of FOG arriving at STW, and/or the difference could account for FOG accumulating in sewer lines. Furthermore, it was estimated that on average FOG could contribute up to 12.99% of the primary sludge removed. The model was further used to investigate the relationship between estimated FOG and number of blockages. The higher the FOG potential, the higher the number of FOG-related blockages is. The GIS-based tool was used to identify critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages). As reported in the literature, FOG was one of the main causes of sewer blockages. By identifying critical areas (i.e. high FOG potential and high number of FOG blockages) the model further explored the potential for source-control in terms of ‘sewer relief’ and waste recovery. Hence, it helped targeting where benefits from implementation of management strategies could be the highest. However, FOG is still likely to persist throughout the networks, and further research is needed to assess downstream impacts (i.e. at STW).

Keywords: Oil, GIS, fat, fog, grease, sewer blockages, sewer networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
2 Oil Demand Forecasting in China: A Structural Time Series Analysis

Authors: Tehreem Fatima, Enjun Xia

Abstract:

The research investigates the relationship between total oil consumption and transport oil consumption, GDP, oil price, and oil reserve in order to forecast future oil demand in China. Annual time series data is used over the period of 1980 to 2015, and for this purpose, an oil demand function is estimated by applying structural time series model (STSM). The technique also uncovers the Underline energy demand trend (UEDT) for China oil demand and GDP, oil reserve, oil price and UEDT are considering important drivers of China oil demand. The long-run elasticity of total oil consumption with respect to GDP and price are (0.5, -0.04) respectively while GDP, oil reserve, and price remain (0.17; 0.23; -0.05) respectively. Moreover, the Estimated results of long-run elasticity of transport oil consumption with respect to GDP and price are (0.5, -0.00) respectively long-run estimates remain (0.28; 37.76;-37.8) for GDP, oil reserve, and price respectively. For both model estimated underline energy demand trend (UEDT) remains nonlinear and stochastic and with an increasing trend of (UEDT) and based on estimated equations, it is predicted that China total oil demand somewhere will be 9.9 thousand barrel per day by 2025 as compare to 9.4 thousand barrel per day in 2015, while transport oil demand predicting value is 9.0 thousand barrel per day by 2020 as compare to 8.8 thousand barrel per day in 2015.

Keywords: Forecasting, Oil, China, structural time series model (STSM), underline energy demand trend (UEDT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1 Effect of Irrigation Interval on Jojoba Plants under Circumstance of Sinai

Authors: E. Khattab, S. Halla

Abstract:

Jojoba plants are characterized by a tolerance of water stress, but due to the conditions of the Sinai in which the water is less, an irrigation interval study was carried out the jojoba plant from water stress without affecting the yield of oil. The field experiment was carried out at Maghara Research Station at North Sinai, Desert Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, Egypt, to study the effect of irrigation interval on five clones of jojoba plants S-L, S-610, S- 700, S-B and S-G on growth and yield characters. Results showed that the clone S-700 has increase of all growth and yield characters under all interval irrigation compare with other clones. All variable of studied confirmed that clones of jojoba had significant effect with irrigation interval at one week but decrease value with three weeks. Jojoba plants tolerance to water stress but irrigation interval every week increased seed yield.

Keywords: Oil, Sinai, Jojoba, interval irrigation, growth and yield characters

Procedia PDF Downloads 65