Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

oil production Related Abstracts

6 Preliminary Study of Water-Oil Separation Process in Three-Phase Separators Using Factorial Experimental Designs and Simulation

Authors: Caroline M. B. de Araujo, Helenise A. Do Nascimento, Claudia J. Da S. Cavalcanti, Mauricio A. Da Motta Sobrinho, Maria F. Pimentel


Oil production is often followed by the joint production of water and gas. During the journey up to the surface, due to severe conditions of temperature and pressure, the mixing between these three components normally occurs. Thus, the three phases separation process must be one of the first steps to be performed after crude oil extraction, where the water-oil separation is the most complex and important step, since the presence of water into the process line can increase corrosion and hydrates formation. A wide range of methods can be applied in order to proceed with oil-water separation, being more commonly used: flotation, hydrocyclones, as well as the three phase separator vessels. Facing what has been presented so far, it is the aim of this paper to study a system consisting of a three-phase separator, evaluating the influence of three variables: temperature, working pressure and separator type, for two types of oil (light and heavy), by performing two factorial design plans 23, in order to find the best operating condition. In this case, the purpose is to obtain the greatest oil flow rate in the product stream (m3/h) as well as the lowest percentage of water in the oil stream. The simulation of the three-phase separator was performed using Aspen Hysys®2006 simulation software in stationary mode, and the evaluation of the factorial experimental designs was performed using the software Statistica®. From the general analysis of the four normal probability plots of effects obtained, it was observed that interaction effects of two and three factors did not show statistical significance at 95% confidence, since all the values were very close to zero. Similarly, the main effect "separator type" did not show significant statistical influence in any situation. As in this case, it has been assumed that the volumetric flow of water, oil and gas were equal in the inlet stream, the effect separator type, in fact, may not be significant for the proposed system. Nevertheless, the main effect “temperature” was significant for both responses (oil flow rate and mass fraction of water in the oil stream), considering both light and heavy oil, so that the best operation condition occurs with the temperature at its lowest level (30oC), since the higher the temperature, the liquid oil components pass into the vapor phase, going to the gas stream. Furthermore, the higher the temperature, the higher the formation water vapor, so that ends up going into the lighter stream (oil stream), making the separation process more difficult. Regarding the “working pressure”, this effect showed to be significant only for the oil flow rate, so that the best operation condition occurs with the pressure at its highest level (9bar), since a higher operating pressure, in this case, indicated a lower pressure drop inside the vessel, generating lower level of turbulence inside the separator. In conclusion, the best-operating condition obtained for the proposed system, at the studied range, occurs for temperature is at its lowest level and the working pressure is at its highest level.

Keywords: Simulation, factorial experimental design, oil production, three-phase separator

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5 R Software for Parameter Estimation of Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Atje Setiawan Abdullah, Budi Nurani Ruchjana, I. Gede Nyoman Mindra Jaya, Eddy Hermawan


In this paper, we propose the application package to estimate parameters of spatiotemporal model based on the multivariate time series analysis using the R open-source software. We build packages mainly to estimate the parameters of the Generalized Space Time Autoregressive (GSTAR) model. GSTAR is a combination of time series and spatial models that have parameters vary per location. We use the method of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) and use the Mean Average Percentage Error (MAPE) to fit the model to spatiotemporal real phenomenon. For case study, we use oil production data from volcanic layer at Jatibarang Indonesia or climate data such as rainfall in Indonesia. Software R is very user-friendly and it is making calculation easier, processing the data is accurate and faster. Limitations R script for the estimation of model parameters spatiotemporal GSTAR built is still limited to a stationary time series model. Therefore, the R program under windows can be developed either for theoretical studies and application.

Keywords: MAPE, oil production, GSTAR Model, OLS method, R software

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4 A First Step towards Automatic Evolutionary for Gas Lifts Allocation Optimization

Authors: Younis Elhaddad, Alfonso Ortega


Oil production by means of gas lift is a standard technique in oil production industry. To optimize the total amount of oil production in terms of the amount of gas injected is a key question in this domain. Different methods have been tested to propose a general methodology. Many of them apply well-known numerical methods. Some of them have taken into account the power of evolutionary approaches. Our goal is to provide the experts of the domain with a powerful automatic searching engine into which they can introduce their knowledge in a format close to the one used in their domain, and get solutions comprehensible in the same terms, as well. These proposals introduced in the genetic engine the most expressive formal models to represent the solutions to the problem. These algorithms have proven to be as effective as other genetic systems but more flexible and comfortable for the researcher although they usually require huge search spaces to justify their use due to the computational resources involved in the formal models. The first step to evaluate the viability of applying our approaches to this realm is to fully understand the domain and to select an instance of the problem (gas lift optimization) in which applying genetic approaches could seem promising. After analyzing the state of the art of this topic, we have decided to choose a previous work from the literature that faces the problem by means of numerical methods. This contribution includes details enough to be reproduced and complete data to be carefully analyzed. We have designed a classical, simple genetic algorithm just to try to get the same results and to understand the problem in depth. We could easily incorporate the well mathematical model, and the well data used by the authors and easily translate their mathematical model, to be numerically optimized, into a proper fitness function. We have analyzed the 100 curves they use in their experiment, similar results were observed, in addition, our system has automatically inferred an optimum total amount of injected gas for the field compatible with the addition of the optimum gas injected in each well by them. We have identified several constraints that could be interesting to incorporate to the optimization process but that could be difficult to numerically express. It could be interesting to automatically propose other mathematical models to fit both, individual well curves and also the behaviour of the complete field. All these facts and conclusions justify continuing exploring the viability of applying the approaches more sophisticated previously proposed by our research group.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithms, oil production, evolutionary automatic programming, gas lift

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3 Effect of Wettability Alteration on Production Performance in Unconventional Tight Oil Reservoirs

Authors: Rashid S. Mohammad, Shicheng Zhang, Xinzhe Zhao


In tight oil reservoirs, wettability alteration has generally been considered as an effective way to remove fracturing fluid retention on the surface of the fracture and consequently improved oil production. However, there is a lack of a reliable productivity prediction model to show the relationship between the wettability and oil production in tight oil well. In this paper, a new oil productivity prediction model of immiscible oil-water flow and miscible CO₂-oil flow accounting for wettability is developed. This mathematical model is established by considering two different length scales: nonporous network and propped fractures. CO₂ flow diffuses in the nonporous network and high velocity non-Darcy flow in propped fractures are considered by taking into account the effect of wettability alteration on capillary pressure and relative permeability. A laboratory experiment is also conducted here to validate this model. Laboratory experiments have been designed to compare the water saturation profiles for different contact angle, revealing the fluid retention in rock pores that affects capillary force and relative permeability. Four kinds of brines with different concentrations are selected here to create different contact angles. In water-wet porous media, as the system becomes more oil-wet, water saturation decreases. As a result, oil relative permeability increases. On the other hand, capillary pressure which is the resistance for the oil flow increases as well. The oil production change due to wettability alteration is the result of the comprehensive changes of oil relative permeability and capillary pressure. The results indicate that wettability is a key factor for fracturing fluid retention removal and oil enhancement in tight reservoirs. By incorporating laboratory test into a mathematical model, this work shows the relationship between wettability and oil production is not a simple linear pattern but a parabolic one. Additionally, it can be used for a better understanding of optimization design of fracturing fluids.

Keywords: Wettability, relative permeability, oil production, fluid retention, unconventional and tight reservoirs

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2 Field Production Data Collection, Analysis and Reporting Using Automated System

Authors: Mohamed Ibrahim, Amir AlAmeeri


Various data points are constantly being measured in the production system, and due to the nature of the wells, these data points, such as pressure, temperature, water cut, etc.., fluctuations are constant, which requires high frequency monitoring and collection. It is a very difficult task to analyze these parameters manually using spreadsheets and email. An automated system greatly enhances efficiency, reduce errors, the need for constant emails which take up disk space, and frees up time for the operator to perform other critical tasks. Various production data is being recorded in an oil field, and this huge volume of data can be seen as irrelevant to some, especially when viewed on its own with no context. In order to fully utilize all this information, it needs to be properly collected, verified and stored in one common place and analyzed for surveillance and monitoring purposes. This paper describes how data is recorded by different parties and departments in the field, and verified numerous times as it is being loaded into a repository. Once it is loaded, a final check is done before being entered into a production monitoring system. Once all this is collected, various calculations are performed to report allocated production. Calculated production data is used to report field production automatically. It is also used to monitor well and surface facility performance. Engineers can use this for their studies and analyses to ensure field is performing as it should be, predict and forecast production, and monitor any changes in wells that could affect field performance.

Keywords: Automation, forecast, Caspian Sea, allocation, oil production, Cheleken, exploration and production (E&P)

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1 Evaluation of Critical Rate in Mature Oil Field with Dynamic Oil Rim Fluid Contacts in the Niger Delta

Authors: Stanley Ibuchukwu Onwukwe


Most reservoir in mature oil fields are vulnerable to challenges of water and/or gas coning as the size of their oil column reduces due to long period of oil production. These often result to low oil production and excessive water and/or gas production. Since over 50 years of oil production in the Niger delta, it is apparent that most of the oil fields in the region have reached their mature stages, thereby susceptible to coning tendencies. As a result of these, a good number of wells have been shut-in and abandoned, with significant amount of oil left unproduced. Analysis of the movement of fluid contacts in the reservoir is a significant aspect of reservoir studies and can assist in the management of coning tendencies and production performance of reservoirs in a mature field. This study, therefore, seeks to evaluate the occurrence of coning through the movement of fluid contacts (GOC and OWC) and determine the critical rate for controlling coning tendencies in mature oil field. This study applies the principle of Nodal analysis to calibrate the thin oil column of a reservoir of a mature field, and was graphically evaluated using the Joshi’s equation of critical rate for gas-oil system and oil-water system respectively. A representative Proxy equation was developed and sensitivity analysis carried out to determine the trend of critical rate as the oil column is been depleted. The result shows the trend in the movement of the GOC and OWC, and the critical rate, beyond which will result in excessive water and gas production, resulting to decreasing oil production from the reservoir. This result of this study can be used as a first pass assessment in the development of mature oil field reservoirs anticipated to experience water and/or gas coning during production.

Keywords: oil production, coning, fluid contact movement, mature oil field

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