Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Offshore Related Abstracts

7 Theoretical Analysis of Mechanical Vibration for Offshore Platform Structures

Authors: Saeed Asiri, Yousuf Z. AL-Zahrani

Abstract:

A new class of support structures, called periodic structures, is introduced in this paper as a viable means for isolating the vibration transmitted from the sea waves to offshore platform structures through its legs. A passive approach to reduce transmitted vibration generated by waves is presented. The approach utilizes the property of periodic structural components that creates stop and pass bands. The stop band regions can be tailored to correspond to regions of the frequency spectra that contain harmonics of the wave frequency, attenuating the response in those regions. A periodic structural component is comprised of a repeating array of cells, which are themselves an assembly of elements. The elements may have differing material properties as well as geometric variations. For the purpose of this research, only geometric and material variations are considered and each cell is assumed to be identical. A periodic leg is designed in order to reduce transmitted vibration of sea waves. The effectiveness of the periodicity on the vibration levels of platform will be demonstrated theoretically. The theory governing the operation of this class of periodic structures is introduced using the transfer matrix method. The unique filtering characteristics of periodic structures are demonstrated as functions of their design parameters for structures with geometrical and material discontinuities; and determine the propagation factor by using the spectral finite element analysis and the effectiveness of design on the leg structure by changing the ratio of step length and area interface between the materials is demonstrated in order to find the propagation factor and frequency response.

Keywords: Offshore, vibrations, Platforms, periodic structures, transfer matrix method

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6 Feasibility Study of Utilization and Development of Wind Energy for Electricity Generation in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java

Authors: Aryo Bayu Tejokusumo, Ivan Hidayat, C. Steffany Yoland

Abstract:

Wind velocity in Panjang Island, Serang, Banten, West Java, measured 10 m above sea level, is about 8 m/s. This wind velocity is potential for electricity generation using wind power. Using ten of Alstom-Haliade 150-6 W turbines, the placement of wind turbines has 7D for vertical distance and 4D for horizontal distance. Installation of the turbines is 100 m above sea level which is produces 98.64 MW per hour. This wind power generation has ecology impacts (the deaths of birds and bats and land exemption) and human impacts (aesthetics, human’s health, and potential disruption of electromagnetics interference), but it could be neglected totally, because of the position of the wind farm. The investment spent 73,819,710.00 IDR. Payback period is 2.23 years, and rate of return is 45.24%. This electricity generation using wind power in Panjang Island is suitable to install despite the high cost of investment since the profit is also high.

Keywords: Renewable Energy, Power Generation, Offshore, Wind turbine, Indonesia, Panjang island

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5 Scouring Rate Pattern/Monitoring at Coastal and Offshore Structures

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Ahmad Saifullah Mazlan

Abstract:

Scouring pattern evaluation and measuring its depth around coastal and offshore structures is very essential issue to assure the safety of the structures as well as providing needed design parameters. Scouring is known as one of the important phenomena which threatens the safety of infrastructures. Several countermeasures have been developed to control scouring by protecting the structures against water flow attack directly or indirectly by changing the water flow pattern. Recently, monitoring methods for estimating water flow pattern and scour depth are studied to track the safety of structures. Since most of studies regarding scouring is related to monitoring scouring around piers in rivers therefore it is necessary to develop researches investigating scouring around piers in coastal and offshore areas. This paper describes a review of monitoring methods may be used for detecting scour depth around piers in coastal and offshore structures.

Keywords: Coastal, monitoring, Offshore, scour, pier

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4 ‘Ethical Relativism’ in Offshore Business: A Critical Assessment

Authors: Biswanath Swain

Abstract:

Ethical relativism, as an ethical perspective, holds that moral worth of a course of action is dependent on a particular space and time. Moral rightness or wrongness of a course of action varies from space to space and from time to time. In short, ethical relativism holds that morality is relative to the context. If we reflect conscientiously on the scope of this perspective, we will find that it is wide-spread amongst the marketers involved in the offshore business. However, the irony is that most of the marketers gone along with ethical relativism in their offshore business have been found to be unsuccessful in terms of loss in market-share and bankruptcy. The upshot is purely self-defeating in nature for the marketers. GSK in China and Nestle Maggi in India are some of the burning examples of that sort. The paper argues and recommends that a marketer, as an alternative, should have recourse to Kantian ethical perspective to deliberate courses of action sensitive to offshore business as Kantian ethical perspective is logically and methodologically sound in nature.

Keywords: Business, Offshore, Relativism, morality‎, kant, Course of Action

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3 Geothermal Energy Potential Estimates of Niger Delta Basin from Recent Studies

Authors: Olumide J. Adedapo

Abstract:

In this work, geothermal energy resource maps of the Niger Delta Basin were constructed using borehole thermal log data from over 300 deep wells. Three major geothermal anomalies were delineated and quantitatively interpreted in both onshore and offshore parts of the Niger Delta. The geothermal maps present the distribution of geothermal energy stored in the sedimentary rock mass in two ways: the accessible resources in depth interval 0-4000 m and static geothermal energy resources stored in the complete sedimentary infill of the basin (from the ground surface to the basement). The first map shows two major onshore anomalies, one in the north (with maximum energy values, 800 GJ/m2), another in the east to northeastern part (maximum energy values of 1250–1500 GJ/m2). Another two major anomalies occur offshore, one in the south with values of 750-1000 GJ/m2, occurring at about 100 km seawards and the other, in the southwest offshore with values 750-1250 GJ/m2, still at about 100 km from the shore. A second map of the Niger Delta shows a small anomaly in the northern part with the maximum value of 1500 GJ/m2 and a major anomaly occurring in the eastern part of the basin, onshore, with values of 2000-3500 GJ/m2. Offshore in the south and southwest anomalies in the total sedimentary rock mass occur with highest values up to 4000GJ/m2, with the southwestern anomaly extending west to the shore. It is much of interest to note the seaward–westward extension of these anomalies both in size, configuration, and magnitude for the geothermal energy in the total sedimentary thickness to the underlying basement. These anomalous fields show the most favourable locations and areas for further work on geothermal energy resources.

Keywords: geothermal energy, Offshore, Niger Delta, basin

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2 Evaluation of Corrosion Behaviour of Coatings Applied in a High-Strength Low Alloy Steel in Different Climatic Cabinets

Authors: Ainara Lopez-Ortega, Raquel Bayon, Elena Rodriguez, Amaya Igartua

Abstract:

Corrosion is one of the most concerning phenomenon that accelerates material degradation in offshore applications. In order to avoid the premature failure of metallic materials in marine environments, organic coatings have widely been used, due to their elevated corrosion resistance. Thermally-sprayed metals have recently been used in offshore applications, whereas ceramic materials are usually less employed, due to their high cost. The protectiveness of the coatings can be evaluated and categorized in corrosivity categories in accordance with the ISO 12944-6 Standard. According to this standard, for coatings that are supposed to work in marine environments, a C5-M category is required for components working out of the water or partially immersed in the splash zone, and an Im2 category for totally immersed components. C5-M/Im-2 high category would correspond to a durability of more than 20 years without maintenance in accordance with ISO 12944 and NORSOK M501 standards. In this work, the corrosion behavior of three potential coatings used in offshore applications has been evaluated. For this aim, the materials have been subjected to different environmental conditions in several climatic chambers (humidostatic, climatic, immersion, UV and salt-fog). The category of the coatings to each condition has been selected, in accordance with the previously mentioned standard.

Keywords: Coatings, Corrosion, Offshore, cabinet

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1 Necessity for a Standardized Occupational Health and Safety Management System: An Exploratory Study from the Danish Offshore Wind Sector

Authors: Dewan Ahsan

Abstract:

Denmark is well ahead in generating electricity from renewable sources. The offshore wind sector is playing the pivotal role to achieve this target. Though there is a rapid growth of offshore wind sector in Denmark, still there is a dearth of synchronization in OHS (occupational health and safety) regulation and standards. Therefore, this paper attempts to ascertain: i) what are the major challenges of the company specific OHS standards? ii) why does the offshore wind industry need a standardized OHS management system? and iii) who can play the key role in this process? To achieve these objectives, this research applies the interview and survey techniques. This study has identified several key challenges in OHS management system which are; gaps in coordination and communication among the stakeholders, gaps in incident reporting systems, absence of a harmonized OHS standard and blame culture. Furthermore, this research has identified eleven key stakeholders who are actively involve with the offshore wind business in Denmark. As noticed, the relationships among these stakeholders are very complex specially between operators and sub-contractors. The respondent technicians are concerned with the compliance of various third-party OHS standards (e.g. ISO 31000, ISO 29400, Good practice guidelines by G+) which are applying by various offshore companies. On top of these standards, operators also impose their own OHS standards. From the technicians point of angle, many of these standards are not even specific for the offshore wind sector. So, it is a big challenge for the technicians and sub-contractors to comply with different company specific standards which also elevate the price of their services offer to the operators. For instance, when a sub-contractor is competing for a bidding, it must fulfill a number of OHS requirements (which demands many extra documantions) set by the individual operator and/the turbine supplier. According to sub-contractors’ point of view these extra works consume too much time to prepare the bidding documents and they also need to train their employees to pass the specific OHS certification courses to accomplish the demand for individual clients and individual project. The sub-contractors argued that in many cases these extra documentations and OHS certificates are inessential to ensure the quality service. So, a standardized OHS management procedure (which could be applicable for all the clients) can easily solve this problem. In conclusion, this study highlights that i) development of a harmonized OHS standard applicable for all the operators and turbine suppliers, ii) encouragement of technicians’ active participation in the OHS management, iii) development of a good safety leadership, and, iv) sharing of experiences among the stakeholders (specially operators-operators-sub contractors) are the most vital strategies to overcome the existing challenges and to achieve the goal of 'zero accident/harm' in the offshore wind industry.

Keywords: Safety, Green Energy, Offshore, Denmark

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