Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Ochratoxin A Related Abstracts

9 Measurements of Chitin by Ochratoxigenic Fungi and Its Relationship to Ochratoxin a Production

Authors: Jamal Elzwai, Kofi Aidoo, Alan Candlish


Production of OTA was detected after 24hr by Aspergillus ochraceus isolate whereas at 36hr for A. carbonarius isolate and Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and 60hr for A. ochraceus CBS 588.68. Highest OTA level was produced by A. carbonarius isolate followed by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, Penicillium verrucosum IMI 285522 and finally A. ochraceus isolate. Glucosamine content of barley sample before fermentation was found to be negligible and remained almost constant during the incubation time. Glucosamine content started to increase at 12 hours after incubation with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68, and after 12 hours with P. verrucosum IMI 285522. Highest glucosamine content, as a result of increase in fungal biomass, was produced by A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 followed by A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate, and finally by P. verrucosum IMI 285522. It appears that there is a correlation between OTA synthesis and glucosamine content with A. ochraceus isolate, A. carbonarius isolate and A. ochraceus CBS 588.68 but not with P. verrucosum IMI 285522.

Keywords: chitin, barley, Ochratoxin A, Aspergiluus ochraceus, A. carbonarius, Penicillium verrucosum

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8 Stability of Ochratoxin a During Bread Making Process

Authors: Sara Heidari, Jafar Mohammadzadeh Milani, Elmira Pouladi Borj


In this research, stability of Ochratoxin A (OTA) during bread making process including fermentation with yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Sourdough (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C were examined. Bread was prepared on a pilot-plant scale by using wheat flour spiked with standard solution of OTA. During this process, mycotoxin levels were determined after fermentation of the dough with sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast after further baking 200°C by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. According to the results, the highest stability of was observed in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest stability was observed in the baking stage in comparison to contaminated flour. In addition, compressed yeast showed the maximum impact on stability of OTA during bread making process.

Keywords: Yeast, Bread, dough, Ochratoxin A, sourdough

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7 Incidence of Fungal Infections and Mycotoxicosis in Pork Meat and Pork By-Products in Egyptian Markets

Authors: Ashraf Samir Hakim, Randa Mohamed Alarousy


The consumption of food contaminated with molds (microscopic filamentous fungi) and their toxic metabolites results in the development of food-borne mycotoxicosis. The spores of molds are ubiquitously spread in the environment and can be detected everywhere. Ochratoxin A is a potentially carcinogenic fungal toxin found in a variety of food commodities , not only is considered the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member but also is the most toxic one.Ochratoxin A is the most abundant and hence the most commonly detected member, but is also the most toxic of the three. A very limited research works concerning foods of porcine origin in Egypt were obtained in spite of presence a considerable swine population and consumers. In this study, the quality of various ready-to-eat local and imported pork meat and meat byproducts sold in Egyptian markets as well as edible organs as liver and kidney were assessed for the presence of various molds and their toxins as a raw material. Mycological analysis was conducted on (n=110) samples which included pig livers n=10 and kidneys n=10 from the Basateen slaughter house; local n=70 and 20 imported processed pork meat byproducts.The isolates were identified using traditional mycological and biochemical tests while, Ochratoxin A levels were quantitatively analyzed using the high performance liquid. Results of conventional mycological tests for detecting the presence of fungal growth (yeasts or molds) were negative, while the results of mycotoxins concentrations were be greatly above the permiceable limits or "tolerable weekly intake" (TWI) of ochratoxin A established by EFSA in 2006 in local pork and pork byproducts while the imported samples showed a very slightly increasing.Since ochratoxin A is stable and generally resistant to heat and processing, control of ochratoxin A contamination lies in the control of the growth of the toxin-producing fungi. Effective prevention of ochratoxin A contamination therefore depends on good farming and agricultural practices. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) including methods to reduce fungal infection and growth during harvest, storage, transport and processing provide the primary line of defense against contamination with ochratoxin A. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of mycological assessment, especially the mycotoxins in pork byproducts in Egypt.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, Egyptian markets, mycotoxicosis, pork meat, pork by-products

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6 New Bio-Strategies for Ochratoxin a Detoxification Using Lactic Acid Bacteria

Authors: José Maria, Vânia Laranjo, Luís Abrunhosa, António Inês


The occurrence of mycotoxigenic moulds such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium in food and feed has an important impact on public health, by the appearance of acute and chronic mycotoxicoses in humans and animals, which is more severe in the developing countries due to lack of food security, poverty and malnutrition. This mould contamination also constitutes a major economic problem due the lost of crop production. A great variety of filamentous fungi is able to produce highly toxic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. Most of the mycotoxins are carcinogenic, mutagenic, neurotoxic and immunosuppressive, being ochratoxin A (OTA) one of the most important. OTA is toxic to animals and humans, mainly due to its nephrotoxic properties. Several approaches have been developed for decontamination of mycotoxins in foods, such as, prevention of contamination, biodegradation of mycotoxins-containing food and feed with microorganisms or enzymes and inhibition or absorption of mycotoxin content of consumed food into the digestive tract. Some group of Gram-positive bacteria named lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are able to release some molecules that can influence the mould growth, improving the shelf life of many fermented products and reducing health risks due to exposure to mycotoxins. Some LAB are capable of mycotoxin detoxification. Recently our group was the first to describe the ability of LAB strains to biodegrade OTA, more specifically, Pediococcus parvulus strains isolated from Douro wines. The pathway of this biodegradation was identified previously in other microorganisms. OTA can be degraded through the hydrolysis of the amide bond that links the L-β-phenylalanine molecule to the ochratoxin alpha (OTα) a non toxic compound. It is known that some peptidases from different origins can mediate the hydrolysis reaction like, carboxypeptidase A an enzyme from the bovine pancreas, a commercial lipase and several commercial proteases. So, we wanted to have a better understanding of this OTA degradation process when LAB are involved and identify which molecules where present in this process. For achieving our aim we used some bioinformatics tools (BLAST, CLUSTALX2, CLC Sequence Viewer 7, Finch TV). We also designed specific primers and realized gene specific PCR. The template DNA used came from LAB strains samples of our previous work, and other DNA LAB strains isolated from elderberry fruit, silage, milk and sausages. Through the employment of bioinformatics tools it was possible to identify several proteins belonging to the carboxypeptidase family that participate in the process of OTA degradation, such as serine type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase and membrane carboxypeptidase. In conclusions, this work has identified carboxypeptidase proteins being one of the molecules present in the OTA degradation process when LAB are involved.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Mycotoxins, Ochratoxin A, carboxypeptidase

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5 Development of Folding Based Aptasensor for Ochratoxin a Using Different Pulse Voltammetry

Authors: Rupesh K. Mishra, Gaëlle Catanante, Akhtar Hayat, Jean-Louis Marty


Ochratoxins (OTA) are secondary metabolites present in a wide variety of food stuff. They are dangerous by-products mainly produced by several species of storage fungi including the Aspergillus and Penicillium genera. OTA is known to have nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. Thus, needs a special attention for a highly sensitive and selective detection system that can quantify these organic toxins in various matrices such as cocoa beans. This work presents a folding based aptasensors by employing an aptamer conjugated redox probe (methylene blue) specifically designed for OTA. The aptamers were covalently attached to the screen printed carbon electrodes using diazonium grafting. Upon sensing the OTA, it binds with the immobilized aptamer on the electrode surface, which induces the conformational changes of the aptamer, consequently increased in the signal. This conformational change of the aptamer before and after biosensing of target OTA could produce the distinguishable electrochemical signal. The obtained limit of detection was 0.01 ng/ml for OTA samples with recovery of up to 88% in contaminated cocoa samples.

Keywords: Ochratoxin A, cocoa, DNA aptamer, labelled probe

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4 Effect of Water Activity, Temperature, and Incubation Time on Growth and Ochratoxin a Production by Aspergillus fresenii and Aspergillus sulphureus on Niger Seeds

Authors: Yung-Chen Hsu, Juan Hernandez, W. T. Evert Ting, Dawit Gizachew


Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses a high risk for human and animal health. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a ubiquitous mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It exhibits nephrotoxicity, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and immunotoxicity in both humans and animals. OTA has been detected in foods such as cereals, coffee, grapes, cocoa, wine, and spices. Consumption of food contaminated with OTA has been linked to kidney and liver diseases. Niger (Guizotia abyssinica) is an oil seed that is used for extracting cooking oil in countries like Ethiopia and India. The seed cake (a byproduct from oil extraction) is also used as dairy cattle feed in Ethiopia. It is also exported to North America and Europe to be used mainly as bird feed. To our knowledge, there have been no studies on the growth and production of OTA on niger seeds. In this study, the environment conditions that support OTA production including effects of water activity, temperature, and incubation time on growth and OTA production by A. fresenii and A. sulphureus were investigated.

Keywords: Mycotoxin, aspergillus, Ochratoxin A, niger seed

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3 Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay Based Detection of Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A in Raw Milk in Punjab, India

Authors: Pallavi Moudgil, J. S. Bedi, R. S. Aulakh, J. P. S. Gill


Mycotoxins in milk are of major public health concern. The present study was envisaged with an aim to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 and ochratoxin A in raw milk samples collected from individual animals from dairy farms located in Punjab (India). A total of 168 raw milk samples were collected and analysed using competitive ELISA kits. Out of these, 9 (5.4%) samples were found positive for aflatoxin M1 with the mean concentration of 0.006-0.13 ng/ml and 2 (1.2%) samples exceeded the established maximum residue limit of 0.05 ng/ml established by the European Union. For ochratoxin A, 2 (0.1%) samples were found positive with the mean concentration of 0.61-0.83 ng/ml with both the samples below the established maximum residue limit of 2 ng/ml. The results showed that the milk of dairy cattle is safe with respect to ochratoxin A contamination but occurrence of aflatoxin M1 above maximum residue limit suggested that feed contaminated with mycotoxins might have been offered to dairy cattle that can pose serious health risks to consumers.

Keywords: Milk, Health Risks, Ochratoxin A, aflatoxin M1, maximum residue limit

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2 Detection and Quantification of Ochratoxin A in Food by Aptasensor

Authors: Moez Elsaadani, Noel Durand, Brice Sorli, Didier Montet


Governments and international instances are trying to improve the food safety system to prevent, reduce or avoid the increase of food borne diseases. This food risk is one of the major concerns for the humanity. The contamination by mycotoxins is a threat to the health and life of humans and animals. One of the most common mycotoxin contaminating feed and foodstuffs is Ochratoxin A (OTA), which is a secondary metabolite, produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium strains. OTA has a chronic toxic effect and proved to be mutagenic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, immunosuppressive, and carcinogenic. On the other side, because of their high stability, specificity, affinity, and their easy chemical synthesis, aptamer based methods are applied to OTA biosensing as alternative to traditional analytical technique. In this work, five aptamers have been tested to confirm qualitatively and quantitatively their binding with OTA. In the same time, three different analytical methods were tested and compared based on their ability to detect and quantify the OTA. The best protocol that was established to quantify free OTA from linked OTA involved an ultrafiltration method in green coffee solution with. OTA was quantified by HPLC-FLD to calculate the binding percentage of all five aptamers. One aptamer (The most effective with 87% binding with OTA) has been selected to be our biorecognition element to study its electrical response (variation of electrical properties) in the presence of OTA in order to be able to make a pairing with a radio frequency identification (RFID). This device, which is characterized by its low cost, speed, and a simple wireless information transmission, will implement the knowledge on the mycotoxins molecular sensors (aptamers), an electronic device that will link the information, the quantification and make it available to operators.

Keywords: Detection, aptamer, aptasensor, Ochratoxin A

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1 The Presence of Ochratoxin a in Breast-Milk, Urine and Serum of Lactating Women

Authors: Magdalena Twaruzek, Karolina Ropejko


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is the most common in the Polish climate. It is produced by fungi of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is produced as a result of improper food storage. It is present in many products that are consumed both by humans and animals: cereals, wheat gluten, coffee, dried fruit, wine, grape juice, spices, beer, and products based on them. OTA is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, potentially carcinogenic, and teratogenic. OTA mainly enters an organism by oral intake. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of OTA in milk, urine, and serum of lactating women. A survey was also conducted regarding the daily diet of women. The research group consisted of 32 lactating women (11 were the donors from the Milk Bank in Toruń, the other 21 were recruited for this study). Results of the analysis showed the occurrence of OTA only in 3 milk samples (9.38%). The minimum level was 0.01 ng/ml, while the maximum 0.018 ng/ml and the mean 0.0013 ng/ml. Twenty-six urine samples (81.25%) were OTA positive, with minimum level 0.013 ng/ml, maximum level 0.117 ng/ml and mean 0.0192 ng/ml. Also, all 32 serum samples (100%) were contaminated by OTA, with a minimum level of 0.099 ng/ml, a maximum level of 2.38 ng/ml, and a mean of 0.4649 ng/ml. In the case of 3 women, OTA was present in all tested body fluids. Based on the results, the following conclusions can be drawn: the breast-milk of women in the study group is slightly contaminated with ochratoxin A. Ten samples of urine contained ochratoxin A above its average content in tested samples. Moreover, serum of 8 women contains ochratoxin A at a level above the average content of this mycotoxin in tested samples. The average ochratoxin A level in serum in the presented studies was 0.4649 ng/ml, which is much lower than the average serum ochratoxin A level established in several countries in the world, i.e., 0.7 ng/ml. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the Polish Minister of Science and Higher Education under the program 'Regional Initiative of Excellence' in 2019 - 2022 (Grant No. 008/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: Contamination, serum, urine, Ochratoxin A, breast-milk

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