Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

obstacles Related Abstracts

9 Migratory Diaspora: The Media and the Human Element

Authors: Peter R. Alfieri


The principal aim of this research and presentation is to give global and personal perspective of the migratory diaspora and how it is perceived by a substantial majority that relies on the media’s portrayal of migratory movements. Since its Greek origins the word “diaspora” has taken on several connotations, but none has surpassed its use in regard to the human element; because since before the dawn of history, man has had to struggle for survival. That survival was a struggle against the elements and other natural enemies, but none as tenacious and relentless as other men. Many have used the term diaspora to describe the spread of certain ethnic groups resulting in new generations in new places; but has the human diaspora been as haphazard as that of spores? The quest for survival has spawned migrations that are not quite that simple, even though it has several similarities to plant spores or dandelion seeds flying throughout the atmosphere. Man kind has constantly migrated in search of food, shelter, and safety. When they were able to find food and shelter, they would inform others who would venture to the new place. Information, whether through word of mouth, written material, or visual communications, has been a moving force in man’s life; and it spurred migrants in their quest for better environments. Today we pride ourselves in being able to communicate instantly with anyone anywhere in the world, and we are privileged to see most of what is happening in the world thanks to the highly developed modern media. Is Media a “wind/force” instrumental in propelling the diaspora throughout the world? The media has been the tool that has incentive many migratory, but unfortunately it is also the means responsible for many misconceptions regarding migrants and their hosts. Has the Media presented an unbiased view of the migrant or has it been the means that generated negative or prejudiced views of the migrant and, perhaps, the host environment? Some examples were easily seen in 19th century the United States where they advertised the following, “Help needed, Irish need not apply”. How do immigrants circumvent latent barriers that are not as obvious as the ones just mentioned? Some immigrants return home and have children that decide to emigrate. It is a perpetual cycle in the search for self-improvement. The stories that are brought back might be inspiration for the new generation of emigrants. Poverty, hunger, and political turmoil spur most migrations. The majority learn from others or through the media about certain destinations that will provide one or several opportunities to improve their existence. Many of those migrants suffer untold hardships to succeed. When they succeed, they provide a great incentive for their children to obtain an education or skill that will insure them a better life. Although the new environment may contribute greatly to a successful career, most immigrants do not forget their own struggle. They see the media’s portrayal of other migrants from all over the globe. Some try to communicate to others the true feelings of despair felt by immigrants, because they are all brothers and sisters in the perennial struggle for a better life. “HOPE” for a better life drives the immigrant toward the unknown and it has helped overcome the obstacles that present themselves challenging every newcomer. Hope and perseverance strengthen the resolve of the migrant in his struggle to survive.

Keywords: Education, Migration, Media, heath, obstacles

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8 Female Entrepreneurship in Transitional Economies: An In-Depth Comparative Study about Challenges Facing Female Entrepreneurs in Nigeria and Egypt

Authors: Dina Mohamed Ayman, Rafieu Akin


In an attempt to increase the female total entrepreneurial activities (TEA) within Egypt and Nigeria, this paper aims to investigate the challenges facing female entrepreneurs operating in Egypt, in relative to Nigeria. In this regard, both researchers undertook a qualitative approach due to the scarcity of the literature reviewed on the topic; in those particular countries, and as an in-depth comparative mode. Therefore, ten Egyptian entrepreneurs in relative to ten Nigerian entrepreneurs were in-depth investigated. The research findings prove that female entrepreneurs face complex problems for being both gender and country-specific. Regarding the gender-specific obstacles, the work/life imbalance due to the scarcity of child-care nurseries and the prevalence of the gender-role division while performing the house chores rather than the concept of co-operation, acted as a main source of cultural challenge because women are considered mostly as 'housewives'. However, interestingly, this specific gender-discrimination challenge is proven to have no grounded effect in terms of the business-establishment and daily dealings neither in Egypt nor Nigeria, as one of the sample exclaimed 'as long as you pay, then no gender difference is set on the table'. Other country-specific challenges facing female entrepreneurs, lied in, the aggregate weak entrepreneurial framework governing both countries, also, women faced the difficulty of access to financial institutions with collateral requirements that are usually "hardly to be met", besides, the absence of the "micro-credit-Grameen-banks" concept. As well, the scarcity of incubators and business training centers providing network, consultancy and well-trained workforce to female entrepreneurs constitute a major hurdle for women entrepreneurs operating in both countries. Finally, this paper will conclude the research by offering a set of public-policy recommendations to pave the way for females to choose self-employment as a career path.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Culture, micro-credit, obstacles, female entrepreneurship, framework conditions

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7 The Obstacles of Applying Electronic Administration at the University of Tabuk from Its Academic Leaders' Perspectives

Authors: Saud Eid Alanazi


The study aimed at recognizing the obstacles of applying of Electronic Administration (e-administration), which refers to any of a number of mechanisms which convert what in a traditional office are paper processes into electronic processes, with the goal being to create a paperless office and improve productivity and performance at the University of Tabuk from its Academic Leaders' Perspectives. The sample of the study consisted of (98) members from deans, vice deans and head of departments from different specialization, gender and position. For achieving the aim of the study, a questionnaire was developed including (45) items distributed into three domains (administrative, human and technical obstacles) . By using appropriate statistical methods to analyze the information, the results indicated that the administrative obstacles domain came in the first rank with a high degree, and the human and technical obstacles came at the second rank with a moderate degree. The study also showed that there were no statistically significant differences attributed to the variables of the members (specialization, gender and position).

Keywords: Universities, Administration, Technology, obstacles, electronic administration

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6 Obstacles to Innovation for SMEs: Evidence from Germany

Authors: Natalia Strobel, Jan Kratzer


Achieving effective innovation is a complex task and during this process firms (especially SMEs) often face obstacles. However, research into obstacles to innovation focusing on SMEs is very scarce. In this study, we propose a theoretical framework for describing these obstacles to innovation and investigate their influence on the innovative performance of SMEs. Data were collected in 2013 through face-to-face interviews with executives of 49 technology SMEs from Germany. The semi-structured interviews were designed on the basis of scales for measuring innovativeness, financial/competitive performance and obstacles to innovation, next to purely open questions. We find that the internal obstacles lack the know-how, capacity overloading, unclear roles and tasks, as well as the external obstacle governmental bureaucracy negatively influence the innovative performance of SMEs. However, in contrast to prior findings this study shows that cooperation ties of firms might also negatively influence the innovative performance.

Keywords: Innovation, innovation process, SME, obstacles

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5 The Core Obstacles of Continuous Improvement Implementation: Some Key Findings from Health and Education Sectors

Authors: Abdullah Alhaqbani


Purpose: Implementing continuous improvement is a challenge that public sector organisations face in becoming successful. Many obstacles hinder public organisations from successfully implementing continuous improvement. This paper aims to highlight the key core obstacles that face public organisations to implement continuous improvement programmes. Approach: Based on the literature, this paper reviews 66 papers that were published between 2000 and 2013 and that focused on the concept of continuous improvement and improvement methodologies in the context of public sector organisations. The methodologies for continuous improvement covered in these papers include Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, process re-engineering, lean thinking and Kaizen. Findings: Of the 24 obstacles found in the literature, 11 barriers were seen as core barriers that frequently occurred in public sector organisations. The findings indicate that lack of top management commitment; organisational culture and political issues and resistance to change are significant obstacles for improvement programmes. Moreover, this review found that improvement methodologies share some core barriers to successful implementation within public organisations. These barriers as well are common in the different geographic area. For instance lack of top management commitment and training that found in the education sector in Albanian are common barriers of improvement studies in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Spain, UK and US. Practical implications: Understanding these core issues and barriers will help managers of public organisations to improve their strategies with respect to continuous improvement. Thus, this review highlights the core issues that prevent a successful continuous improvement journey within the public sector. Value: Identifying and understanding the common obstacles to successfully implementing continuous improvement in the public sector will help public organisations to learn how to improve in launching and successfully sustaining such programmes. However, this is not the end; rather, it is just the beginning of a longer improvement journey. Thus, it is intended that this review will identify key learning opportunities for public sector organisations in developing nations which will then be tested via further research.

Keywords: Public Sector, Total Quality Management, continuous improvement, obstacles

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4 The Pangs of Unemployment and Its Impediment to Nation Building

Authors: Vitalis Okwuchukwu Opara


The task of nation building primarily consist in welding together, diverse cultural groups into a united nation state, which develops a centripetal political culture that makes its people see themselves as members of one nation linked together by more reliable ties than the coercion offered by the state. Comparatively on the contrary, most countries in the world today are comprised of diverse nationalities, each with its unique set of norms and values, which often come into conflict with others. As such, the task of nation building is in uniting these diverse cultural groups into a united nation state and various human elements that make up its geopolitical zone. The most outstanding impediment to achieving this task is unemployment. Unemployment is like a peril against the nation building. Unemployment is an obstacle for growth of a nation. Often it is said that the wise see obstacles as stepping-stones to advance further. The pangs of unemployment impede nation building such that sometimes it takes very long time to do away with the problem. In recent times, there has been a revolutionary wind blowing across the world. This wind is bound to wake up nations leaders to sit up to their responsibility. Unemployment causes youth restiveness, brings leaders to their knees. It breeds problem. This work is intended to expose the pangs of unemployment and its impending peril to nation building.

Keywords: Unemployment, nation-building, obstacles, pangs

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3 Overcoming the Obstacles to Green Campus Implementation in Indonesia

Authors: Mia Wimala, Emma Akmalah, Ira Irawati, M. Rangga Sururi


One way that has been aggressively implemented in creating a sustainable environment nowadays is through the implementation of green building concept. In order to ensure the success of its implementation, the support and initiation from educational institutions, especially higher education institutions are indispensable. This research was conducted to figure out the obstacles restraining the success of green campus implementation in Indonesia, as well as to propose strategies to overcome those obstacles. The data presented in this paper are mainly derived from interview and questionnaire distributed randomly to the staffs and students in 10 (ten) major institutions around Jakarta and West Java area. The data were further analyzed using ANOVA and SWOT analysis. According to 182 respondents, it is found that resistance to change, inadequate knowledge, information and understanding, no penalty for any environmental violation, lack of reward for green campus practices, lack of stringent regulations/laws, lack of management commitment, insufficient funds are the obstacles to the green campus movement in Indonesia. In addition, out of 6 criteria considered in UI GreenMetric World Ranking, education was the only criteria that had no significant difference between public and private universities in generating the green campus performance. The work concludes with recommendation of strategies to improve the implementation of green campus in the future.

Keywords: Sustainable, higher education institutions, obstacles, green campus

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2 Discovering Social Entrepreneurship: A Qualitative Study on Stimulants and Obstacles for Social Entrepreneurs in the Hague

Authors: Loes Nijskens


The city of The Hague is coping with several social issues: high unemployment rates, segregation and environmental pollution. The amount of social enterprises in The Hague that want to tackle these issues is increasing, but no clear image exists of the stimulants and obstacles social entrepreneurs encounter. In this qualitative study 20 starting and established social entrepreneurs, investors and stimulators of social entrepreneurship have been interviewed. The findings indicate that the majority of entrepreneurs situated in The Hague focuses on creating jobs (the so called social nurturers) and diminishing food waste. Moreover, the study found smaller groups of social connectors, (who focus on stimulating the social cohesion in the city) and social traders (who create a market for products from developing countries). For the social nurturers, working together with local government to find people with a distance to the labour market is a challenge. The entrepreneurs are missing a governance approach within the local government, wherein space is provided to develop suitable legislation and projects in cooperation with several stakeholders in order to diminish social problems. All entrepreneurs in the sample face(d) the challenge of having a clear purpose of their business in the beginning. Starting social entrepreneurs tend to be idealistic without having defined a business model. Without a defined business model it is difficult to find proper funding for their business. The more advanced enterprises cope with the challenge of measuring social impact. The larger they grow, the more they have to ‘defend’ themselves towards the local government and their customers, of mainly being social. Hence, the more experienced social nurturers still find it difficult to work together with the local government. They tend to settle their business in other municipalities, where they find more effective public-private partnerships. Al this said, the eco-system for social enterprises in The Hague is on the rise. To stimulate the amount and growth of social enterprises the cooperation between entrepreneurs and local government, the developing of social business models and measuring of impact needs more attention.

Keywords: Social Enterprises, Stimulants, obstacles, the Hague

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1 Obstacles and Ways-Forward to Upgrading Nigeria Basic Nursing Schools: A Survey of Perception of Teaching Hospitals’ Nurse Trainers and Stakeholders

Authors: Chijioke Oliver Nwodoh, Jonah Ikechukwu Eze, Loretta Chika Ukwuaba, Ifeoma Ndubuisi, Ada Carol Nwaneri, Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo


Presence of nursing workforce with unequal qualification and status in Nigeria has undermined the growth of nursing profession in the country. Upgrading of the existing basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria is a way-forward to solving this inequality problem and Nigeria teaching hospitals are in vantage position for this project due to the already existing supportive structure and manpower in those hospitals. What the nurse trainers and the stakeholders of the teaching hospitals may hold for or against the upgrading is a determining factor for the upgrading project, but that is not clear and has not been investigated in Nigeria. The study investigated the perception of nurse trainers and stakeholders of teaching hospitals in Enugu State of Nigeria on the obstacles and ways-forward to upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria. The study specifically elicited what the subjects may view as obstacles to upgrading basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria and ascertained their suggestions on the possible ways of overcoming the obstacles. By utilizing cross-sectional descriptive design and a purposive sampling procedure, 78 accessible subjects out of a total population of 87 were used for the study. The generated data from the subjects were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean for the research questions and Pearson’s chi-square for the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0. The result showed that lack of extant policy, fund, and disunity among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the main obstacles to the upgrading. However, the respondents did not see items like: stakeholders and nurse trainers of basic and post-basic schools of nursing; fear of admitting and producing poor quality nurses; and so forth, as obstacles to the upgrading project. Institution of the upgrading policy by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria, funding, awareness creation for the upgrading and unison among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the major possible ways to overcome the obstacles. The difference in the subjects’ perceptions between the two hospitals was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). It is recommended that the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing in Nigeria should unite and liaise with Federal Ministries of Health and Education for modalities and actualization of upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: Perception, Stakeholders, teaching hospital, obstacles, nurse trainers, upgrading basic nursing schools, ways-forward

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