Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

object Related Abstracts

3 The Principle of a Thought Formation: The Biological Base for a Thought

Authors: Ludmila Vucolova


The thought is a process that underlies consciousness and cognition and understanding its origin and processes is a longstanding goal of many academic disciplines. By integrating over twenty novel ideas and hypotheses of this theoretical proposal, we can speculate that thought is an emergent property of coded neural events, translating the electro-chemical interactions of the body with its environment—the objects of sensory stimulation, X, and Y. The latter is a self- generated feedback entity, resulting from the arbitrary pattern of the motion of a body’s motor repertory (M). A culmination of these neural events gives rise to a thought: a state of identity between an observed object X and a symbol Y. It manifests as a “state of awareness” or “state of knowing” and forms our perception of the physical world. The values of the variables of a construct—X (object), S1 (sense for the perception of X), Y (object), S2 (sense for perception of Y), and M (motor repertory that produces Y)—will specify the particular conscious percept at any given time. The proposed principle of interaction between the elements of a construct (X, Y, S1, S2, M) is universal and applies for all modes of communication (normal, deaf, blind, deaf and blind people) and for various language systems (Chinese, Italian, English, etc.). The particular arrangement of modalities of each of the three modules S1 (5 of 5), S2 (1 of 3), and M (3 of 3) defines a specific mode of communication. This multifaceted paradigm demonstrates a predetermined pattern of relationships between X, Y, and M that passes from generation to generation. The presented analysis of a cognitive experience encompasses the key elements of embodied cognition theories and unequivocally accords with the scientific interpretation of cognition as the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses, and cognition means thinking and awareness. By assembling the novel ideas presented in twelve sections, we can reveal that in the invisible “chaos”, there is an order, a structure with landmarks and principles of operations and mental processes (thoughts) are physical and have a biological basis. This innovative proposal explains the phenomenon of mental imagery; give the first insight into the relationship between mental states and brain states, and support the notion that mind and body are inseparably connected. The findings of this theoretical proposal are supported by the current scientific data and are substantiated by the records of the evolution of language and human intelligence.

Keywords: Cognitive, Experience, Language, Agent, Feedback, Element, Imagery, awareness, Thought, sensory, symbol, motor, mental, first person, object

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2 Facility Detection from Image Using Mathematical Morphology

Authors: In-Geun Lim, Sung-Woong Ra


As high resolution satellite images can be used, lots of studies are carried out for exploiting these images in various fields. This paper proposes the method based on mathematical morphology for extracting the ‘horse's hoof shaped object’. This proposed method can make an automatic object detection system to track the meaningful object in a large satellite image rapidly. Mathematical morphology process can apply in binary image, so this method is very simple. Therefore this method can easily extract the ‘horse's hoof shaped object’ from any images which have indistinct edges of the tracking object and have different image qualities depending on filming location, filming time, and filming environment. Using the proposed method by which ‘horse's hoof shaped object’ can be rapidly extracted, the performance of the automatic object detection system can be improved dramatically.

Keywords: satellite image, mathematical morphology, object, facility detection

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1 The Effect of Object Presentation on Action Memory in School-Aged Children

Authors: Reza Kormi-Nouri, Farzaneh Badinlou, Monika Knopf


Enacted tasks are typically remembered better than when the same task materials are only verbally encoded, a robust finding referred to as the enactment effect. It has been assumed that enactment effect is independent of object presence but the size of enactment effect can be increased by providing objects at study phase in adults. To clarify the issues in children, free recall and cued recall performance of action phrases with or without using real objects were compared in 410 school-aged children from four age groups (8, 10, 12 and 14 years old). In this study, subjects were instructed to learn a series of action phrases under three encoding conditions, participants listened to verbal action phrases (VTs), performed the phrases (SPTs: subject-performed tasks), and observed the experimenter perform the phrases (EPTs: experimenter-performed tasks). Then, free recall and cued recall memory tests were administrated. The results revealed that the real object compared with imaginary objects improved recall performance in SPTs and EPTs, but more so in VTs. It was also found that the object presence was not necessary for the occurrence of the enactment effect but it was changed the size of enactment effect in all age groups. The size of enactment effect was more pronounced for imaginary objects than the real object in both free recall and cued recall memory tests in children. It was discussed that SPTs and EPTs deferentially facilitate item-specific and relation information processing and providing the objects can moderate the processing underlying the encoding conditions.

Keywords: school-aged children, object, action memory, enactment effect, item-specific processing, relational processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 113