Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Nutritional status Related Abstracts

26 Breakfast Eating Pattern Associated with Nutritional Status of Urban Primary Schoolchildren in Iran and India

Authors: Sahar Hooshmand, Mohammad Reza Bagherzadeh Anasari

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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of breakfast eating pattern (between frequencies of breakfast consumers and non-consumers) on nutritional status (weight for age, height for age and weight for height). A total 4570 primary school children aged 6-9 years old constituted the sample. From these, 2234 Iranian school children (1218 girls and 1016 boys) and 2336 Indian school children (1096 girls and 1240 boys) were included in a cross sectional study. Breakfast frequency consumption was recorded through an interview with mothers of children. Height and wight of children were taken and body mass index were calculated. The World Health Organization’s (WHO) AnthroPlus software used to assess the nutritional status of the children. Weight for age z-scores were slightly associated with frequency of consuming breakfast in both India (χ2 = 60.083, p=0.000) and Iran (χ2 = 18.267, p=0.032). A significant association was seen between frequency of child‘s breakfast intake and the height z-scores in both India (χ2 = 31.334, p=0.000) and Iran (χ2 = 19.443, p=0.022). Most of children with normal height had breakfast daily in both countries. A significant association was seen with children‘s BMI z-scores of Indian children (χ2 = 31.247, p=0.000) but it was not significant in Iran (χ2 = 10.791, p=0.095). The present study confirms the observations of other studies that showed more frequency in having breakfast is associated with better nutritional status.

Keywords: Global food security, Nutritional status, breakfast, schoolchildren

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25 Dietary Nutrient Consumption Patterns by the Pregnant Mother in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Kazi Muhammad Rezaul Karim, Tasmia Tasnim

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Introduction: Pregnancy is a condition of higher nutrient requirement but in developing countries like Bangladesh most of the pregnant women can not meet their nutrient requirement and sometimes they are neglected in the family. The purpose of the study was to assess the nutritional status and dietary nutrient intake by the pregnant women, in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: The study population comprised of pregnant women from urban or semi-urban, aged between 18 to 35 and free of pregnancy related complication and other diseases. Under a cross-sectional design, 30 healthy non-pregnant as well as 130 pregnant women, at 3 different trimesters of pregnancy were assessed. A questionnaire was developed to obtain demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric, drug and medical history. Three day consecutive 24-hour food recalls were used to assess food intake and then converted to nutrient intake. Results: The average BMI of the nonpregnant women was 22.89 ± 3.4 kg/m2 and that of pregnant women was 23.52 ± 3.71 kg/m2. The mean dietary nutrient intake of dietary fiber, calorie, protein, fat, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, Vitamin A, folate, vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12 of the pregnant mothers were 4.38 g, 1619 kcal, 60.05 g, 30.38 g, 268.79 g, 537.21 mg, 21.53 mg, 1.15 mg, 0.94 mg, 97.36 mg, 647.6 µg, 153.93 µg, 1.41 mg and 4.09 µg respectively. Most of pregnant women (more than 90%) can not meet their energy, calcium and folate requirements. Conclusion: Most of the pregnant mother in Bangladesh can not meet their dietary requirements during pregnancy.

Keywords: pregnancy, Nutritional status, BMI, dietary nutrient

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24 Nutritional Status and Body Image Perception among Thai Adolescents

Authors: Noppawan Piaseu, Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Sookfong Wongsathapat

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Body image plays an important role in adolescents. Thai adolescents put high concern on their body image result in unsatisfied their body shapes. Therefore, inappropriate weight management methods have been used. This study examined the body image perception and the nutritional status of Thai adolescents. Body mass index screening was done on 181 nursing students of Ramathibodi School of Nursing to categorized obesity, overweight, normal weight and underweight respondents by using recommended body-mass index (BMI) cut-off points for Asian populations. Self report questionnaire on demographics and body image perception were completed. Results showed that the respondents were mainly female (93.4%) and their mean age were 19.2 years. The prevalence of obesity, overweight, normal weight and underweight of the nursing students were 5.5%, 7.2%, 55.2% and 32.0%, respectively. Of all the respondents, 57.5% correctly perceived themselves, with 37.0% overestimating and 5.5% underestimating their weight status. Of those in the obesity category, 20.0% correctly perceived themselves and 80.0% perceived themselves as overweight. For overweight category, total respondents correctly perceived themselves. Fifty two percent of the normal weight respondents perceived themselves as overweight and 2.0% perceived themselves as obesity. Of the underweight respondents, 77.6% correctly perceived themselves and 20.7% perceived themselves as normal weight. These findings show high occurrence of body image misperception among Thai adolescents. Being concerned with this situation can promote adolescents for healthy weight and practice appropriate weight management methods.

Keywords: Nutritional status, body image perception, Thai adolescents, body-mass index (BMI)

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23 Nutritional Profile and Food Intake Trends amongst Hospital Dieted Diabetic Eye Disease Patients of India

Authors: PARMEET KAUR, Nighat Yaseen Sofi, Shakti Kumar Gupta, Veena Pandey, Rajvaedhan Azad

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Nutritional status and prevailing blood glucose level trends amongst hospitalized patients has been linked to clinical outcome. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess hospitalized Diabetic Eye Disease (DED) patients' anthropometric and dietary intake trends. DED patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes > 20 years were enrolled. Actual food intake was determined by weighed food record method. Mifflin St Joer predictive equation multiplied by a combined stress and activity factor of 1.3 was applied to estimate caloric needs. A questionnaire was further administered to obtain reasons of inadequate dietary intake. Results indicated validity of joint analyses of body mass index in combination with waist circumference for clinical risk prediction. Dietary data showed a significant difference (p < 0.0005) between average daily caloric and carbohydrate intake and actual daily caloric and carbohydrate needs. Mean fasting and post-prandial plasma glucose levels were 150.71 ± 72.200 mg/dL and 219.76 ± 97.365 mg/dL, respectively. Improvement in food delivery systems and nutrition educations were indicated for reducing plate waste and to enable better understanding of dietary aspects of diabetes management. A team approach of nurses, physicians and other health care providers is required besides the expertise of dietetics professional. To conclude, findings of the present study will be useful in planning nutritional care process (NCP) for optimizing glucose control as a component of quality medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in hospitalized DED patients.

Keywords: Medical nutrition therapy, Nutritional status, diabetic eye disease, nutrition care process

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22 Developing the P1-P7 Management and Analysis Software for Thai Child Evaluation (TCE) of Food and Nutrition Status

Authors: W. Kongnoo, S. Damapong, C. Kingkeow, P. Pattapokin, S. Pruenglamphu

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As the presence of Thai children double burden malnutrition, we conducted a project to promote holistic age-appropriate nutrition for Thai children. Researchers developed P1-P7 computer software for managing and analyzing diverse types of collected data. The study objectives were: i) to use software to manage and analyze the collected data, ii) to evaluate the children nutritional status and their caretakers’ nutrition practice to create regulations for improving nutrition. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, called P1-P7. P1, P2 and P5 were for children and caretakers, and others were for institutions. The children nutritional status, height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height standards were calculated using Thai child z-score references. Institution evaluations consisted of various standard regulations including the use of our software. The results showed that the software was used in 44 out of 118 communities (37.3%), 57 out of 240 child development centers and nurseries (23.8%), and 105 out of 152 schools (69.1%). No major problems have been reported with the software, although user efficiency can be increased further through additional training. As the result, the P1-P7 software was used to manage and analyze nutritional status, nutrition behavior, and environmental conditions, in order to conduct Thai Child Evaluation (TCE). The software was most widely used in schools. Some aspects of P1-P7’s questionnaires could be modified to increase ease of use and efficiency.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, P1-P7 software, Thai child evaluation

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21 Food Intake Pattern and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Chakma Ethnic Community

Authors: Md Monoarul Haque

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Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition among preschool children, especially the prevalence of undernutrition that affects all dimensions of human development and leads to growth faltering in early life. The present study is an attempt to assess the food intake pattern and nutritional status of pre-school Chakma tribe children. It was a cross-sectional community based study. The subjects were selected purposively. This study was conducted at Savar Upazilla of Rangamati. Rangamati is located in the Chittagong Division. Anthropometric data height and weight of the study subjects were collected by standard techniques. Nutritional status was measured using Z score according WHO classification. χ2 test, independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and logistic regression was performed as P<0.05 level of significance. Statistical analyses were performed by appropriate univariate and multivariate techniques using SPSS windows 11.5. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe underweight (<-3SD) were 23.8% and 76.2% study subjects had normal weight for their age. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe (<-3SD) stunted children were only 25.6% and 74.4% children were normal and moderate to severe wasting were 14.7% whereas normal child was 85.3%. Significant association had been found between child nutritional status and monthly family income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Age, sex and incomes of the family, education of mother and occupation of father were significantly associated with WAZ and HAZ of the study subjects (P=0.0001, P=0.025, P=0.001 and P=0.0001, P=0.003, P=0.031, P=0.092, P=0.008). Maximum study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food like bashrool, jhijhipoka and pork very much popular food among tribal children. Energy, carbohydrate and fat intake was significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, BAZ and MUACZ. This study demonstrates that malnutrition among tribal children in Bangladesh is much better than national scenario in Bangladesh. Significant association was found between child nutritional status and family monthly income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Most of the study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food. Significant association was also found between child nutritional status and dietary intake of energy, carbohydrate and fat.

Keywords: Nutritional status, food intake pattern, preschool children, Chakma ethnic community

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20 Sleep Disturbance in Indonesian School-Aged Children and Its Relationship to Nutritional Aspect

Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini

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Background: Sleep is essential for children because it provides enhancement for the neural system activities that give physiologic effects for the body to support growth and development. One of the modifiable factors that relates with sleep is nutrition, which includes nutritional status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Nutritional status represents the balance between nutritional intake and expenditure, while iron and magnesium are micronutrients that are related to sleep regulation. The aim of this study is to identify prevalence of sleep disturbance among Indonesian children and to evaluate its relation with aspect to nutrition. Methods : A cross-sectional study involving children aged 5 to 7-years-old in an urban primary health care between 2012 and 2013 was carried out. Related data includes anthropometric status, iron intake, and magnesium intake. Iron and magnesium intake was obtained by 24-hours food recall procedure. Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was used as the diagnostic tool for sleep disturbance, with score under 39 indicating presence of problem. Results: Out of 128 school-aged children included in this study, 28 (23,1%) of them were found to have sleep disturbance. The majority of children had good nutritional status, with only 15,7% that were severely underweight or underweight, and 12,4% that were identified as stunted. On the contrary, 99 children (81,8%) were identified to have inadequate magnesium intake and 56 children (46,3%) with inadequate iron intake. Our analysis showed there was no significant relation between all of the nutritional status indicators and sleep disturbance (p>0,05%). Moreover, inadequate iron and magnesium intake also failed to prove significant relation with sleep disturbance in this population. Conclusion: Almost fourth of school-aged children in Indonesia were found to have sleep disturbance and further study are needed to overcome this problem. According to our finding, there is no correlation between nutritional status, iron intake, magnesium intake, and sleep disturbance.

Keywords: Nutritional status, iron intake, magnesium intake, school-aged children, sleep disturbance

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19 Correlation of Nutritional Status and Anemia Among School-Aged Children in Indonesian Urban Area

Authors: William Cheng, Rini Sekartini, Yuni Astria

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Background: Prevalence of anemia among school-aged children is relatively high (25.4%). This condition can affect children’s life, including cognitive function. One of the most common factors that is associated with anemia in children is nutritional status. This simple indicator will be very helpful in identifying more population at risk. The aim of this study is to correlate the clinical implication of nutritional status to the prevalence of anemia in children, with intention to determine a more effective nutritional status indicator in detecting anemia. Method: Anthropometric and haemoglobin status were gathered from children between 5 to 7-years-old in one of the urban areas in Jakarta in 2012. We identified children with haemoglobin level under 11.5 as anemia and correlated them to their WHO z-score from each of these indicators: Body Weight for Age (normal weight and underweight), Height for Age (not stunted and stunted), and Body Mass Index for Age (not wasted and wasted). Results: A total of 195 children were included in this research and 57 of them (29,2%) were diagnosed as anemia. The majority of the children had good nutritional status, however, 30 (15,4%) of them were found to be underweight, 33 (16,9%) were stunted, and 1 children (0,5%) was wasted. There were no overweight result found in this population. From the three nutritional status indicators, none proved to be statistically significant in relation to the incidence of anemia (p>0.05). Out of 33 children who were diagnosed as stunted, 36.36 % were found to have anemia, in comparison to 27,7% of children who were not stunted. Meanwhile, among 30 children who were diagnosed as underweight, 33,3 % of them were anemic whereas only 28,4% of the normal weight group were anemic. Conclusion: In this study, there is no significant correlation between anemia with any nutritional status indicator. However, more than a third of the stunted children are proven to have low haemoglobin status. The finding of stunting in children should be given more attention to further investigate for anemia.

Keywords: Pediatrics, Nutritional status, Anemia, school-aged children

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18 Maternal Care Practices on Nutritional Status of Pre School Children in Dass Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria

Authors: Adebusoye Michael, Okunola Olayinka, Owolabi Abdulateef, Jacob Anayo

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Introduction: Child undernutrition remains one of Africa’s most fundamental challenges for improved human development because the time and capacities of caregivers are limited; far too many children are unable to access effectively amenities they need for a healthy life. Methods and procedures: This cross-sectional, descriptive study evaluated the maternal care practices on nutritional status of pre-school children, 150 mothers were selected by systematic random sampling in Dass L.G.A., Bauchi-State, Nigeria. Information on relevant parameters were collected by questionaire, analysed by various indices of descriptive statistics using SPSS version 16.0.Spearman’s rank correlation was used to test for associations between the variables. Results: Thirty-five (23.3%) of the respondents were aged 21-25 years. Thirty-three (28.0%) had secondary education, while forty-nine (32.7%) were full housewives. Majority 79(52.7) earned NI,000- N10,000 monthly versus 10(6.7%) who earned N11,000- N20,000.113(75.3%) married while 7(4.7%) of respondents were separated. Sixty-one (40.7%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding within six months. Only seventy-one (47.3%) initiated breastfeeding between 7 and 13 months. Five (3.3%) of children were mildly underweight while nine (6.0%) were severely stunted. Conclusion: The outcome suggested that working time of mothers is a major determinant on their child nutritional status. However, there is a significant relationship on the working time of mothers, income level and educational level of mothers to the nutritional status of their children (P<0.05). Recommendation: Good policy programmes should aim at eradicating poverty, better child care practices that would reduce malnutrition among under-five children.

Keywords: Nutritional status, preschool children, maternal care, Dass L.G.A

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17 Observation of the Effect of Yingyangbao Intervention on Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Areas of China

Authors: Jin Li, Jing Sun, Xiangkun Cai, Lijuanwang, Yanbin Tang, Junsheng Huo

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In order to improve the malnutrition of infants and young children in poor rural areas of China, Chinese government implement a project on improvement of children's nutrition in poor rural areas. Each infant or young child aged 6 to 23 months in selected poor rural areas of China was provided a package of Yingyangbao (YYB) per day, which is a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders. A technical direction to implement this project comprehensively in poor rural areas of China will be provided by assessing the nutritional status of infants and feeding practices of caregiver. The nutritional intervention was conducted using Yingyangbao for infants aged 6 to 23 months in six poor counties of Shanxi, Yunnan and Hubei Provinces. The caregiver or parents of infants were educated on feeding knowledge and practice. A total of 1840 infants were assessed before the intervention and 1789 infants one year later. The length, weight, hemoglobin concentration of infants were measured to evaluate nutritional status before and after the intervention respectively. The questionnaires were designed to collect data for the basic demographic information and feeding practices. The average weight of infants aged 6 to 23 months increased from 9.59 ± 1.54kg to 9.73 ± 1.61kg one years later (p<0.01), and the average length from 76.0±6.0 to 77.0±6.1(p<0.01). The weight and length of infants aged 12 to 17 months had most obviously improving effect among the three age groups. Before the intervention, the hemoglobin concentration value of infants was 11.7±1.2g/L, and the anemia prevalence was 32.9%. One year later, the hemoglobin concentration value of the infants was increased to 12.0±1.1g/dL, and the anemia prevalence was decreased to 26.0%. There were both statistically significant (p <0.01). The anemia prevalence of infants aged 18 to 23 months had most obviously improving effect,which decreased from 25.0% to 17.2%(p<0.01). The proportion of infants aged 6 to 8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods in time was increased from 89.4% to 91.6%, while there was no statistically significant. The proportion of 6-23 month-old infants who received minimum dietary diversity increased from 55.6% to 60.3%(p <0.01). The differences of the proportion of infants who received minimum meal frequency was no statistically significant between before and after the intervention. The nutritional intervention using Yingyangbao showed the significant effect for improving infants aged 6 to 23 months anemia status, weight and length. The feeding practices were improved through education in the process of nutritional intervention, while the effect is not significant. It is need for Chinese government to explore new publicity pattern.

Keywords: Nutritional status, infants, nutritional intervention, feeding practice

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16 Nutritional Status of Food Insecure Students, UWC

Authors: E. C. Swart, E. Kunneke

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Background: Disparities in food security exist between communities and households across the country, reflecting continuing social and economic inequalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of food insecurity amongst UWC students. Method: Cross-sectional study recruited 200 students via email and cellphone from an ICS generated list of randomly selected students aged 18-25. Data collection took place during the first two weeks of term 3. Individual appointments were made with consenting participants and conducted in English by trained BSc Dietetics students. Data was analysed using SPSS. The hunger scale used by Stats SA (October 2010) was used. Dietary intake was assessed using a single 24hr recall. Results: Sixty-three percent of the students reported that they do experience some food insecurity whilst 14.5% reported to go hungry due to inadequate access to food. Coping mechanisms during periods of food insecurity include: Asking a friend, neighbour, family member (40%); Borrow (15%); Steal (none); Casual jobs (12%). Anthropometric status of students did not differ statistically significantly by food security status. A statistically significantly greater proportion of Xhosa speaking students reported inadequate money for food. Students residing in residences off campus appear to be least food secure in terms of money available and limiting food intake, whilst those residing at home are less food insecure. Similar proportions of students who receive bursaries or whose parents are paying reported going hungry whilst those who supports themselves never goes hungry. Mean nutrient intake during the previous 24 hours of students who reported inadequate resources to buy food, who eat less due to inadequate resources and who goes hungry only differed statistically significantly for Vitamin B (go hungry) and for fibre (money shortage). In general the nutrient intake is lower for those who reported to eat less and go hungry except for added sugar, vitamin A and folate (go hungry), and energy, fibre, iron, riboflavin and folate (eat less). For students who reported to have inadequate money to buy food, the mean nutrient intake was higher except for calcium and thiamin. The mean body mass index of this group of students was also higher even though the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Hunger is present on campus however a single 24hr recall did not confirm statistically significant lower nutrient intakes for students who reported different levels of food insecurity.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Nutritional status, students, dietary intake

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15 Nutritional Status of Surgical and Orthopedic Patients: 3B Ward

Authors: Jitaree Tantiyasawatdikul, Bantita Jadnok, Sarunya Tijana

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Background: Nutritional status is an important factor before, during, and after an operation. It can help wound healing. If the patients have good nutritional status before and after an operation, wound healing can occur more easily. It can strengthen the immune system leading to decreased infection, reduced length of stay, and reducing the cost to patients and caregivers. Therefore, screening to evaluate the nutritional status of patients in 3B becomes the database for further developing the treatment and also will lead to excellent service from the interdisciplinary team. Objective: To study the nutritional status of patients in surgical ward 3B at Surgical and Orthopedics Nursing Division, Srinagarind Hospital. Method: A descriptive study, to evaluate the nutritional status of 86 patients admitted in 3B between October 2014 and March 2015.The instruments used in this study consisted of two parts: 1) personal data, 2) Screening nutritional status. The data were analyzed by percentage and mean. Results: A sample population of 86 patients aged 22-81 years old, mean age 52.59years, 90.69% are married, female were 55.81%, regular diet 70.93%, patients with no problem oral cavity was 87.21%.The sample population had high incidence of CA 47.67% and secondly cardiovascular disease 36.05 %. Patients with high-risk nutrition was 12.79 % including 45.45% cardiovascular disease and 36.36% CA. Screening of nutritional status of high-risk nutrition was 39.36% severe triceps skinfold (TSF), severe mid-arm muscle circumference(MAMC) 9.09% and severe total lymphocyte 39.36%. Conclusion: The result of nutritional status screening of surgical ward 3B found 12.79% patients with high-risk nutrition including 45.45% with cardiovascular disease .There was no problem with oral cavity and eating.

Keywords: Screening, Nutritional status, surgical patients, Srinagarind Hospital

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14 Training Can Increase Knowledge and Skill of Teacher's on Measurement and Assessment Nutritional Status Children

Authors: Herawati Tri Siswati, Nurhidayat Ana Sıdık Fatimah

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The Indonesia Basic Health Research, 2013 showed that prevalence of stunting of 6–12 children years old was 35,6%, wasting was 12,2% and obesiy was 9,2%. The Indonesian Goverment have School Health Program, held in coordination, plans, directing and responsible, developing and implement health student. However, it's implementation still under expected, while Indonesian Ministry of Health has initiated the School Health Program acceleration. This aimed is to know the influencing of training to knowledge and skill of elementary school teacher about measurement and assesment nutrirional status children. The research is quasy experimental with pre-post design, in Sleman disctrict, Yogyakarta province, Indonesia, 2015. Subject was all of elementary school teacher’s who responsible in School Health Program in Gamping sub-district, Sleman, Yogyakarta, i.e. 32 persons. The independent variable is training, while the dependent variable are teacher’s klowledge and skill on measurement and assesment nutrirional status children. The data was analized by t-test. The result showed that the knowledge score before training is 31,6±9,7 and after 56,4±12,6, with an increase 24,8±15,7, and p=0.00. The skill score before training is 46,6±11,1 and after 61,7±13, with an increase 15,2±14,2, p = 0.00. Training can increase the teacher’s klowledge and skill on measurement and assesment nutrirional status.

Keywords: training, Children, Nutritional status, school health program

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13 Anemia and Nutritional Status as Dominant Factor of the Event Low Birth Weight in Indonesia: A Systematic Review

Authors: Lisnawati Hutagalung

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Background: Low birth weight (LBW) is one cause of newborn death. Babies with low birth weight tend to have slower cognitive development, growth retardation, more at risk of infectious disease event at risk of death. Objective: Identifying risk factors and dominant factors that influence the incidence of LBW in Indonesia. Method: This research used some database of public health such as Google Scholar, UGM journals, UI journals and UNAND journals in 2012-2015. Data were filtered using keywords ‘Risk Factors’ AND ‘Cause LBW’ with amounts 2757 study. The filtrate obtained 5 public health research that meets the criteria. Results: Risk factors associated with LBW, among other environment factors (exposure to cigarette smoke and residence), social demographics (age and socio-economic) and maternal factors (anemia, placental abnormal, nutritional status of mothers, examinations antenatal, preeclampsia, parity, and complications in pregnancy). Anemia and nutritional status become the dominant factor affecting LBW. Conclusions: The risk factors that affect LBW, most commonly found in the maternal factors. The dominant factors are a big effect on LBW is anemia and nutritional status of the mother during pregnancy.

Keywords: Nutritional status, Anemia, low birth weight, the dominant factor

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12 Mediterranean Diet, Duration of Admission and Mortality in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Vicky Dradaki, Irini Dri, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vaggelis Lambas, Christina Kordali, Georgios Mavras, Kostas Argyros

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Objectives: Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that Mediterranean diet may protect against mortality and reduce admission duration in elderly, hospitalized patients. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). The following data were taken into account in analysis: anthropometric and laboratory data, dietary habits (MedDiet score), patients’ nutritional status [Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score], physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ), smoking status, cause and duration of current admission, medical history (co-morbidities, previous admissions). Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of admission, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Logistic regression and linear regression analysis were performed in order to identify independent predictors for mortality and admission duration difference respectively. Results: According to MNA, nutrition was normal in 54/150 (36%) of patients, 46/150 (30.7%) of them were at risk of malnutrition and the rest 50/150 (33.3%) were malnourished. After performing multivariate logistic regression analysis we found that the odds of death decreased 30% per each unit increase of MedDiet score (OR=0.7, 95% CI:0.6-0.8, p < 0.0001). Patients with cancer-related admission were 37.7 times more likely to die, compared to those with infection (OR=37.7, 95% CI:4.4-325, p=0.001). According to multivariate linear regression analysis, admission duration was inversely related to Mediterranean diet, since it is decreased 0.18 days on average for each unit increase of MedDiet score (b:-0.18, 95% CI:-0.33 - -0.035, p=0.02). Additionally, the duration of current admission increased on average 0.83 days for each previous hospital admission (b:0.83, 95% CI:0.5-1.16, p<0.0001). The admission duration of patients with cancer was on average 4.5 days higher than the patients who admitted due to infection (b:4.5, 95% CI:0.9-8, p=0.015). Conclusion: Mediterranean diet adequately protects elderly, hospitalized patients against mortality and reduces the duration of hospitalization.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, mediterranean diet, prognostic factors for mortality

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11 Impact of Mid-Day Meal on Nutritional Status of Primary School Children in Haryana, India

Authors: Vinti Davar

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India is one among the many countries where child malnutrition is severe and also a major underlying cause of child mortality. The Mid Day Meal (MDM) program was launched to improve the nutritional status of children, attendance, and retention in schools. It was based on one meal provided to the children, who are attending elementary school (primary school). The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of mid-day meal on the nutritional status of primary school children in Haryana, India. The present work was carried out on 1200 children between 6-11years of age, studying in primary schools in Haryana, India. Out of these 960 students as, the experimental group was selected from schools where mid-day meal is supplied by the government, and 240 students as control group where mid-day meal is not supplied. The mean height, weight, and BMI of children of both the groups were found to be significantly low as compared to NCHS standards. Stunting was found in 56.40% MDMB (Mid-day meal beneficiaries) and 62.50 % NMDMC (non- mid-day meal children).The weight of almost all subjects were low according to age indicating thinness. Anemia was more prevalent in MDMB as compared to NMDMC may be because school meals did not include vegetables. The consumption of energy, proteins, fat, calcium, iron, vitamins was significantly low (P ≤ .01) in both groups especially in girls of NMDM. The consumption of various food groups except vegetables was better in MDMB compared to NMDMC. It is concluded that with certain improvements, mid-meal can be beneficial in meeting everyday requirements of school going children.

Keywords: Nutritional status, Foods, school going children, meals

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10 Nutritional Status in Ramadan Influences Body Compositions Differently in Men and Women

Authors: Meskure Pak, Nihal Buyukuslu

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During Ramadan Muslims refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to sunset. Transformation of the eating habits cause profound changes in body composition. This study was performed during Ramadan of June-July 2015 with the regular fasting healthy adults (15 women and 15 men). The participants who were not fasting the whole month, have chronic diseases, pregnant and lactated were excluded. All attendances were informed about study. Written informed consent was taken from the voluntary participants. The work was approved by the Ethics and Research Committee of Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey. A questionnaire was conducted to determine the nutritional status, demographic and anthropometric data at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of Ramadan. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 18.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analyses. The mean ages of women and men were 34.4±9.45 and 28.9±10.55 years respectively. The BMI values (kg/m2) were slightly increased in men (26.5±3.9 to 26.2±3.7) and decreased in women (22.5±3.5 to 23.3±4.5). However the differences in BMI values between genders were not significant. Waist circumferences (WC) (cm) decreased in both women (80.2±14.6 to 79.4±17.7) and men (98.9±8.4 to 95.2±11.0) through the Ramadan. Fat percentages of women (27.0±71) increased in the middle of Ramadan (28.4±7.8) and decreased at the end of Ramadan (27.8±8.3). The fat percentages of men (21.5±6.3) were not affected in the middle of Ramadan (21.5±6.4) however decreased at the end of Ramadan (20.8±6.2). The total change in fat mass from beginning to end of Ramadan was higher in women than in men. The daily energy intake was higher in men than in women during Ramadan. In the middle of Ramadan energy intake (kcal) was reached to the highest level (2057.8±693.1) and at the end of Ramadan it decreased to the beginning level (1656.7±553.2) for men. However, daily energy intake of women slightly decreased from the beginning (1410.0±359.7) to the end (1409.2±366.7) of Ramadan. The comparison of energy intake between men and women was significant in the middle of Ramadan (p < 0.05). Water consumptions for both groups were increased in Ramadan fasting period. In comparison with the beginning of Ramadan, daily carbohydrate and fat consumptions increased and the consumption of protein decreased for men and for women at the end of Ramadan. The gender comparison resulted in a significant increase for protein and carbohydrate consumption of men in the middle of Ramadan (p < 0.05). In the first two weeks, the daily energy intake, the consumption of carbohydrates and fats seemed to increase for both men and women. However the later days of Ramadan daily fat consumption decreased to the level of beginning consumption levels which may indicate the nutritional adaptation period. In spite of the consumption of protein sources such as meat, poultry and egg increased, the decrease in the total amount of protein consumed in Ramadan may be due to a decrease in the consumption of milk and dairy products. In conclusion, the nutritional habits and preferred foods changed during Ramadan as a result affected the body composition.

Keywords: Body Composition, Fasting, Nutritional status, Ramadan

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9 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav

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Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, Elderly, eastern Nepal

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8 Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women Living in Keserwan Lebanon

Authors: Cynthia Zgheib, Yonna Sacre

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Pregnancy, this particular moment in the life of a woman, requires monitoring of eating behavior changes. However, the food choices during pregnancy should be varied and healthy, including the consumption of different food groups. Nutritional status is the process of acquisition and consumption of food. Therefore, a varied diet is associated with good nutritional status. This is why the nutrition education is a strategy commonly applied to improve maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Thus, it is crucial to assess 'The eating behavior and nutritional status of pregnant women living in Keserwan Lebanon.' In order to evaluate the association of different persona, socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with the eating behavior and nutrition in the concerned study category, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 150 pregnant women aging between 18 and 40 years randomly selected from the hospitals and clinics located in Keserwan area and equally distributed between different cities and villages of the area according to altitude. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the eating behavior of the concerned population and to compare it to the recommendation of the food guide pyramid, their level of food awareness and finally to analyze their blood tests in order to detect any nutrients deficiency that they may face during the course of their pregnancy. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, eating behaviour, health, eating patterns, awareness, and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) were collected through a validated questionnaire specifically adapted for the purpose of the study. Statistical analysis was carried out, and multivariate models were used in order to evaluate the association between several independent variables and the eating behaviour and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women The final analysis has shown that 48.7% of pregnant women were aged between 30 and 40 years old, 56% had a normal BMI between 18.5 and 24.9, thus age affects the eating behavior, so the older are the pregnant women, and the healthier is their eating behavior. In fact, 80.7% had acceptable food behavior which is based on an equilibrium between both quantity and quality of food, although the recommended foods are foods found in the food pyramid and available in the Lebanese diet. In addition, 68% had an acceptable level of awareness concerning the health importance of good eating habits, therefore, it is positively affecting their food choices. Moreover, 50 % have an acceptable nutritional status which is confirmed by their biological tests. Future governmental or national studies and programs could be settled aiming to increase the awareness about the good eating behaviors and nutritional status of Lebanese pregnant women.

Keywords: Nutritional status, Eating Behavior, pregnant woman, level of awareness

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7 Perception of Reproductive Age Group Females of a Central University in India about Body Image

Authors: Rajani Vishal, C. P. Mishra

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Background: Self-perception of an individual about own body has a strong influence on their food preference and thereby on their nutritional status. Body image is gaining importance in social theory. Globally, women in particular seem to be favour of one ideal body type (Viz A slim, tall and perfectly proportionate body). Beauty and body image ideals among research scholars can play a significant influence on their own actions. Objectives: 1) To assess perception of study subjects about body image; 2)To analyze the relationship between body image and residential status of study subjects. Material and Method: 176 female research scholars of Banaras Hindu University were selected through multistage sampling. They were interviewed with pre designed and pre-tested proforma about area of residence and perception about body image. Result: As much as 86.4% subjects were happy with the way they looked whereas 83.0% subjects considered themselves as attractive. In case of 13.6%, 27.3%, 31.8%, 14.2% and 13.1% subjects, best-described body shapes were thin, normal, curvy, athletic and overweight, respectively. Area of residence was significantly (p< o.o5) associated with perception of attractiveness and description of body shape. Conclusion: In spite of varied description of body image, majority of subjects had positive perception about their body image.

Keywords: Body image, Nutritional status, attractiveness, body shape

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6 Domestic Violence against Women and the Nutritional Status of Their Under-5 Children: A Cross Sectional Survey in Urban Slums of Chittagong, Bangladesh

Authors: Shams El Arifeen, Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury, Abdullah Nurus Salam Khan, Ahmed Ehsanur Rahman, Nazia Binte Ali, Afrin Iqbal, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan, Salma Morium, Afsana Bhuiyan

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Violence against women has been treated as a global epidemic which is as fatal as any serious disease or accidents. Like many other low-income countries it is also common in Bangladesh. In spite of existence of a few documented evidences in some other countries, in Bangladesh, domestic violence against women (DVAW) is not considered as a factor for malnutrition in children yet. Hence, the aim of the study was to investigate the association between DVAW and the nutritional status of their under-5 children in the context of slum areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted among 87 women of reproductive age having at least one child under-5 years of age and staying with husband for at least last 1 year in selected slums under Chittagong City Corporation area. Data collection tools were structured questionnaire for the study participants and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) to measure the nutritional status of the under-5 children. The data underwent descriptive and regression analysis. Out of 87 respondents, 50 (57.5%) reported to suffer from domestic violence by their husband during last one year. Physical violence was found to be significantly associated with age (p=0.02), age at marriage (p=0.043), wealth score (p=0.000), and with knowledge regarding law (p=0.017). According to the measurement of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) 21% children were suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and the same percentage of children were suffering from moderate acute malnutrition (MAM). However, unadjusted odds ratio suggested that there was negative association with domestic violence and nutritional status. But, the logistic regression confounding for other variable showed significant association with total family income (p=0.006), wealth score (p=0.031), age at marriage (p=0.029) and number of child (p=0.006). Domestic violence against women and under nutrition of the children, both are highly prevalent in Bangladesh. More extensive research should be performed to identify the factors contributing to the high prevalence of domestic violence and malnutrition in urban slums of Bangladesh. Household-based intervention is needed to limit this burning problem. In a nutshell, effective community participation, education and counseling are essential to create awareness among the community.

Keywords: Nutritional status, Urban slums, Bangladesh, under-5 children, domestic violence against women, cross sectional survey

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5 Nutritional Status of Rural Women in Bengaluru Rural District of Karnataka, India

Authors: A. M. Maruthesh, B. M. Anandakumar, O. Kumara, Akshatha Gombi, S. R. Rajini

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Women play a vital role in ensuring proper development and growth of children. They also contribute significantly towards income generation, food preparation and health. Nutritional status reflects the health of a person and is influenced by the quality of foods eaten and the ability of the body to utilize these foods to meet its needs it is affected by various socio-economic factors including income, family size, occupation and educational status of the people. The study was undertaken on nutritional status of rural women in Heggadehalli of Doddaballapurtaluk and Venkathalli of Devanahallitaluk in Bengaluru rural district with the sample size of 200 respondents. The prevalence of symptoms of malnutrition in a community is in turn a reflection of dietary consumption of its members. Mean anthropometric measurement of rural women were 153.8 cm of height, 46.8 kg of weight. In comparison with the mean BMI standards, it was observed that 20 percent of women were under nourished, 64 percent of women were normal and 16 percent women were obese. In comparison with the mean waist/hip ratio with standards, it was observed that 84 percent were in normal category and 16 percent were obese. Education, land holding, income and age had significant positive association with anthropometric measurements of rural women. The deficient level of haemoglobin existed in 53 percent of rural women, low in 20 percent and only 27 percent had acceptable level. The occurrence of morbidity symptoms was higher in rural women, its illness reported among women in the study were pain in hands and legs, backache, headache, pain in abdomen, fever, weakness, cold and cough and acidity. This may be due to considerable amount of workload on women who spend 8 to 9 hours at work and after returning continue their day’s work at home also.

Keywords: Nutritional status, rural women, hemoglobin, anthrometry, body index, nutrient deficiency

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4 Nutritional Status of Morbidly Obese Patients Prior to Bariatric Surgery

Authors: Azadeh Mottaghi, Reyhaneh Yousefi, Saeed Safari

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Background: Bariatric surgery is widely proposed as the most effective approach to mitigate the growing pace of morbid obesity. As bariatric surgery candidates suffer from pre-existing nutritional deficiencies, it is of great importance to assess nutritional status of candidates before surgery in order to establish appropriate nutritional interventions. Objectives: The present study assessed and represented baseline data according to the nutritional status among candidates for bariatric surgery. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of pre-surgery data was collected on 170 morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between October 2017 and February 2018. Dietary intake data (evaluated through 147-item food frequency questionnaire), anthropometric measures and biochemical parameters were assessed. Results: Participants included 145 females (25 males) with average age of 37.3 ± 10.2 years, BMI of 45.7 ± 6.4 kg/m² and reported to have a total of 72.3 ± 22.2 kg excess body weight. The most common nutritional deficiencies referred to iron, ferritin, transferrin, albumin, vitamin B12, and vitamin D, the prevalence of which in the study population were as followed; 6.5, 6.5, 3, 2, 17.6 and 66%, respectively. Mean energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake were 3887.3 ± 1748.32 kcal/day, 121.6 ± 57.1, 144.1 ± 83.05, and 552.4 ± 240.5 gr/day, respectively. The study population consumed lower levels of iron, calcium, folic acid, and vitamin B12 compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendations (2, 26, 2.5, and 13%, respectively). Conclusion: According to the poor dietary quality of bariatric surgery candidates, leading to nutritional deficiencies pre-operatively, close monitoring and tailored supplementation pre- and post-bariatric surgery are required.

Keywords: Obesity, Bariatric surgery, Nutritional status, food frequency questionnaire

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3 The Relationship between Body Image, Eating Behavior and Nutritional Status for Female Athletes

Authors: Selen Muftuoglu, Dilara Kefeli

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The present study was conducted by using the cross-sectional study design and to determine the relationship between body image, eating behavior and nutritional status in 80 female athletes who were basketball, volleyball, flag football, indoor soccer, and ice hockey players. This study demonstrated that 70.0% of the female athletes had skipped meal. Also, female athletes had a normal body mass index (BMI), but 65.0% of them indicated that want to be thinner. On the other hand, we analyzed that their daily nutrients intake, so we observed that 43.4% of the energy was from the fatty acids, especially saturated fatty acids, and they had lower fiber, calcium and iron intake. Also, we found that BMI, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio were negatively correlated with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire score and they were lower in who had meal skipped or not received diet therapy. As a conclusion, nutrition education is frequently neglected in sports programs. There is a paucity of nutrition education interventions among different sports.

Keywords: Body image, Eating Disorders, Nutritional status, Eating Behavior, female athletes

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2 Implementation of Real-World Learning Experiences in Teaching Courses of Medical Microbiology and Dietetics for Health Science Students

Authors: Miriam I. Jimenez-Perez, Mariana C. Orellana-Haro, Carolina Guzman-Brambila

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As part of microbiology and dietetics courses, students of medicine and nutrition analyze the main pathogenic microorganisms and perform dietary analyzes. The course of microbiology describes in a general way the main pathogens including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites, as well as their interaction with the human species. We hypothesize that lack of practical application of the course causes the students not to find the value and the clinical application of it when in reality it is a matter of great importance for healthcare in our country. The courses of the medical microbiology and dietetics are mostly theoretical and only a few hours of laboratory practices. Therefore, it is necessary the incorporation of new innovative techniques that involve more practices and community fieldwork, real cases analysis and real-life situations. The purpose of this intervention was to incorporate real-world learning experiences in the instruction of medical microbiology and dietetics courses, in order to improve the learning process, understanding and the application in the field. During a period of 6 months, medicine and nutrition students worked in a community of urban poverty. We worked with 90 children between 4 and 6 years of age from low-income families with no access to medical services, to give an infectious diagnosis related to nutritional status in these children. We expect that this intervention would give a different kind of context to medical microbiology and dietetics students improving their learning process, applying their knowledge and laboratory practices to help a needed community. First, students learned basic skills in microbiology diagnosis test during laboratory sessions. Once, students acquired abilities to make biochemical probes and handle biological samples, they went to the community and took stool samples from children (with the corresponding informed consent). Students processed the samples in the laboratory, searching for enteropathogenic microorganism with RapID™ ONE system (Thermo Scientific™) and parasites using Willis and Malloy modified technique. Finally, they compared the results with the nutritional status of the children, previously measured by anthropometric indicators. The anthropometric results were interpreted by the OMS Anthro software (WHO, 2011). The microbiological result was interpreted by ERIC® Electronic RapID™ Code Compendium software and validated by a physician. The results were analyses of infectious outcomes and nutritional status. Related to fieldwork community learning experiences, our students improved their knowledge in microbiology and were capable of applying this knowledge in a real-life situation. They found this kind of learning useful when they translate theory to a real-life situation. For most of our students, this is their first contact as health caregivers with real population, and this contact is very important to help them understand the reality of many people in Mexico. In conclusion, real-world or fieldwork learning experiences empower our students to have a real and better understanding of how they can apply their knowledge in microbiology and dietetics and help a much- needed population, this is the kind of reality that many people live in our country.

Keywords: Medical Microbiology, Dietetics, Nutritional status, real-world learning experiences, infectious status

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1 Nutritional Status of Middle School Students and Their Selected Eating Behaviours

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, M. Kardas, K. Brukalo, R. Polaniak, K. Larysz, B. Calyniuk

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Eating behaviours and habits are one of the main factors affecting health. Abnormal nutritional status is a growing problem related to nutritional errors. The number of adolescents presenting excess body weight is also rising. The body's demand for all nutrients increases in the period of intensive development, i.e., during puberty. A varied, well-balanced diet and elimination of unhealthy habits are two of the key factors that contribute to the proper development of a young body. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status and selected eating behaviours/habits in adolescents attending middle school. An original questionnaire including 24 questions was conducted. A total of 401 correctly completed questionnaires were qualified for the assessment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Furthermore, the frequency of breakfast consumption, the number of meals per day, types of snacks and sweetened beverages, as well as the frequency of consuming fruit and vegetables, dairy products and fast-foods were assessed. The obtained results were analysed statistically. The study showed that malnutrition was more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. More than 71% of middle school students have breakfast, whereas almost 30% of adolescents skip this meal. Up to 57.6% of respondents most often consume sweets at school. A total of 37% of adolescents consume sweetened beverages daily or almost every day. Most of the respondents consume an optimal number of meals daily. Only 24.7% of respondents consume fruit and vegetables more than once daily. The majority of respondents (49.40%) declared that they consumed fast food several times a month. Satisfactory frequency of consuming dairy products was reported by 32.7% of middle school students. Conclusions of our study: 1. Malnutrition is more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. They consume excessive amounts of sweets, sweetened beverages, and fast foods. 2. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was too low in the study group. The intake of dairy products was also low in some cases. 3. A statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of fast food consumption and the intake of sweetened beverages. A low correlation was found between nutritional status and the number of meals per day. The number of meals consumed by these individuals decreased with increasing nutritional status.

Keywords: Nutrition, Malnutrition, Obesity, Adolescent, Nutritional status

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