Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 2

nutrient utilization Related Abstracts

2 Influence of Dietary Boron on Gut Absorption of Nutrients, Blood Metabolites and Tissue Pathology

Authors: A. K. Verma, P. Krishnamoorthy, T. Vijay Bhasker, N. K. S Gowda, D. T. Pal, A. K. Pattanaik

Abstract:

Boron (B) is a newer trace element and its biological importance and dietary essentiality is unclear in animals. The available literature suggests its putative role in bone mineralization, antioxidant status and steroid hormone synthesis. A feeding trial was conducted in Wister strain (Rattus norvegicus) albino rats for duration of 90 days. A total of 84 healthy weaned (3-4 weeks) experimental rats were randomly divided into 7 dietary groups (4 replicates of three each) viz., A (Basal diet/ Control), B (Basal diet + 5 ppm B), C (Basal diet + 10 ppm B), D (Basal diet + 20 ppm B), E (Basal diet + 40 ppm B), F (Basal diet-Ca 50%), G (Basal diet-Ca 50% + 40 ppm B). Dietary level of calcium (Ca) was maintained at two levels, 100% and 50% of requirement. Sodium borate was used as source of boron along with other ingredients of basal diet while preparing the pelletized diets. All the rats were kept in proper ventilated laboratory animal house maintained at temperature (23±2º C) and humidity (50 to 70%). At the end of experiment digestibility trial was conducted for 5 days to estimate nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of minerals. Eight rats from each group were sacrificed to collect the vital organs (liver, kidney and spleen) to study histopathology. Blood sample was drawn by heart puncture to determine biochemical profile. The average daily feed intake (g/rat/day), water intake (ml/rat/day) and body weight gain (g/rat/day) were similar among the dietary groups. The digestibility (%) of organic matter and crude fat were significantly improved (P < 0.05) was by B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) Ca was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in B supplemented groups compared to control. However, digestibility of dry matter and crude protein, gut absorption of magnesium and phosphorus showed a non-significant increasing trend with B supplementation. The gut absorption (%) of B (P < 0.01) was significantly lowered (P<0.05) in supplemented groups compared to un-supplemented ones. The serum level of triglycerides (mg/dL), HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) and alanine transaminase (IU/L) were significantly lowered (P < 0.05) in B supplemented groups. While serum level of glucose (mg/dL) and alkaline phosphatase (KA units) showed a non-significant decreasing trend with B supplementation. However the serum levels of total cholesterol (mg/dL) and aspartate transaminase (IU/L) were similar among dietary groups. The histology sections of kidney and spleen revealed no significant changes among the dietary groups and were observed to be normal in anatomical architecture. However, the liver histology revealed cell degenerative changes with vacuolar degeneration and nuclear condensation in Ca deficient groups. But the comparative degenerative changes were mild in 40 ppm B supplemented Ca deficient group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of graded levels of boron in rats had a positive effect on metabolism and health by improving nutrient digestibility and gut absorption of Ca. This indicates the beneficial role of dietary boron supplementation.

Keywords: Histopathology, Calcium, Boron, nutrient utilization

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1 Effect of Substituting Groundnut Cake with Remnant of Food Composite on Survival and Growth of Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus Fingerlings

Authors: M. Y. Abubakar, M. Yunisa, A. N. Muhammad

Abstract:

Constraining the production Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus culture is the prohibitive cost of feed. We assess the performance of the species fingerlings on diets substituted with composite. Four dietary treatments (0%, 25%, 45%, and 75%) for C. gariepinus and five (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and whole food composite) for O. niloticus were formulated and each fed to 15 fingerlings for C. gariepinus and 10 fingerlings for O. niloticus stocked in 75ltrs plastic bowls, replicated trice in a completely randomized design. The experiment lasted 56 days. Percent survival rate was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (57.78 ± 9.69) in C. gariepinus fed diet III. The growth and nutrient utilization indices were least in the fish fed diet IV, which was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in other treatments. Fish fed dietary treatment III, recorded the best in growth and nutrient utilization indices and was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those fed dietary treatments I & II which were non-significant (p > 0.05) and higher than those fed 75% substitution. Better profit index was in the fish fed diet with 50% substitution level. For O. niloticus, the survival (172.62 ± 39.03) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in those fed 25% substituted diet. For growth indices, the least performed were those fed whole composite while other treatments were non-significant (p > 0.05) different from each other. In terms of nutrient utilization, fish fed diet substituted at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% food composite had similar food conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. However, there was no significant difference in the profit index among the whole treatment. It can be concluded that food composite from Sokoto house-holds can optimally replace groundnut cake up to 50% level as a protein source in the diets of Clarias gariepinus and O. niloticus fingerlings without adverse effects on survival, growth, and nutrient utilization.

Keywords: nutrient utilization, food composite, C. gariepinus, O. niloticus household, substitution levels

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