Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

nusselt number Related Abstracts

20 Thermohydraulic Performance Comparison of Artificially Roughened Rectangular Channels

Authors: Narender Singh Thakur, Sunil Chamoli


The use of roughness geometry in the rectangular channel duct is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to the working fluid. The present research concentrates on the performance comparison of a rectangular channel with different roughness geometry of the test plate. The performance enhancement is compared by considering the statistical correlations developed by the various investigators for Nusselt number and friction factor. Among all the investigated geometries multiple v-shaped rib roughened rectangular channel found thermo hydraulically better than other investigated geometries under similar current and operating conditions.

Keywords: friction factor, nusselt number, thermohydraulic, performance parameter

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19 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Number of Waves on Heat Transfer in a Wavy Wall Enclosure

Authors: Ali Reza Tahavvor, Saeed Hosseini, Afshin Karimzadeh Fard


In this paper the effect of wall waviness of side walls in a two-dimensional wavy enclosure is numerically investigated. Two vertical wavy walls and straight top wall are kept isothermal and the bottom wall temperature is higher and spatially varying with cosinusoidal temperature distribution. A computational code based on Finite-volume approach is used to solve governing equations and SIMPLE method is used for pressure velocity coupling. Test is performed for several different numbers of undulations. The Prandtl number was kept constant and the Ra number denotes that the flow is laminar. Temperature and velocity fields are determined. Therefore, according to the obtained results a correlation is proposed for average Nusselt number as a function of number of side wall waves. The results indicate that the Nusselt number is highly affected by number of waves and increasing it decreases the wavy walls Nusselt number; although the Nusselt number is not highly affected by surface waviness when the number of undulations is below one.

Keywords: natural convection, cavity, wavy wall, nusselt number

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18 Numerical Study of Rayleight Number and Eccentricity Effect on Free Convection Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer of Annulus

Authors: Behnam Amiri, Ali Reza Tahavvor‚ Saeed Hosseini


Concentric and eccentric annulus is used frequently in technical and industrial applications such as nuclear reactors, thermal storage system and etc. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate two dimensional free convection of laminar flow in annulus with isotherm cylinders surface and cooler inner surface. Problem studied in thirty different cases. Due to natural convection continuity and momentum equations are coupled and must be solved simultaneously. Finite volume method is used for solving governing equations. The purpose was to obtain the eccentricity effect on Nusselt number in different Rayleight numbers, so streamlines and temperature fields must be determined. Results shown that the highest Nusselt number values occurs in degree of eccentricity equal to 0.5 upward for inner cylinder and degree of eccentricity equal to 0.3 upward for outer cylinder. Side eccentricity reduces the outer cylinder Nusselt number but increases inner cylinder Nusselt number. The trend in variation of Nusselt number with respect to eccentricity remain similar in different Rayleight numbers. Correlations are included to calculate the Nusselt number of the cylinders.

Keywords: natural convection, nusselt number, concentric, eccentric, annulus

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17 Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Different Rib Shapes in a Gas Turbine Blade

Authors: Naik Nithesh, Andre Rozek


The heat transfer and friction loss performances of a single rib-roughened rectangular cooling channel having four novel rib shapes were evaluated through numerical investigation using Ansys CFX. The investigation was conducted on a rectangular channel of aspect ratio (AR) = 4:1 with rib height to hydraulic diameter ratio (e/Dh) of 0.1 and rib pitch to height ratio (e/P) of 10 at Re = 30,000. The computations were performed by solving the RANS equation using k-ε turbulence model. Fluid flow simulation results of stationery case for different configuration are presented in terms of thermal performance parameter, Nusselt number and friction factor. These parameters indicate that a particular configuration of novel shaped ribs provides better heat transfer characteristics over the conventional 45° ribs. The numerical investigation undertaken in this study indicates an increase in overall efficiency of gas turbine due to increased thermal performance parameter, heat transfer co-efficient and less pumping pressure.

Keywords: Gas Turbine, nusselt number, rib shapes, thermal performance parameter

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16 Entropy Generation Analyze Due to the Steady Natural Convection of Newtonian Fluid in a Square Enclosure

Authors: T. T. Naas, Y. Lasbet, C. Kezrane


The thermal control in many systems is widely accomplished applying mixed convection process due to its low cost, reliability and easy maintenance. Typical applications include the aircraft electronic equipment, rotating-disc heat exchangers, turbo machinery, and nuclear reactors, etc. Natural convection in an inclined square enclosure heated via wall heater has been studied numerically. Finite volume method is used for solving momentum and energy equations in the form of stream function–vorticity. The right and left walls are kept at a constant temperature, while the other parts are adiabatic. The range of the inclination angle covers a whole revolution. The method is validated for a vertical cavity. A general power law dependence of the Nusselt number with respect to the Rayleigh number with the coefficient and exponent as functions of the inclination angle is presented. For a fixed Rayleigh number, the inclination angle increases or decreases is found.

Keywords: nusselt number, natural convection in enclosure, inclined enclosure, entropy generation analyze

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15 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Reflux Condensation from Gas-Vapour Mixtures in Vertical Parallel Plate Channels

Authors: Foad Hassaninejadafarahani, Scott Ormiston


Reflux condensation occurs in a vertical channels and tubes when there is an upward core flow of vapor (or gas-vapor mixture) and a downward flow of the liquid film. The understanding of this condensation configuration is crucial in the design of reflux condensers, distillation columns, and in loss-of-coolant safety analyses in nuclear power plant steam generators. The unique feature of this flow is the upward flow of the vapor-gas mixture (or pure vapor) that retards the liquid flow via shear at the liquid-mixture interface. The present model solves the full, elliptic governing equations in both the film and the gas-vapor core flow. The computational mesh is non-orthogonal and adapts dynamically the phase interface, thus produces sharp and accurate interface. Shear forces and heat and mass transfer at the interface are accounted for fundamentally. This modeling is a big step ahead of current capabilities by removing the limitations of previous reflux condensation models which inherently cannot account for the detailed local balances of shear, mass, and heat transfer at the interface. Discretisation has been done based on a finite volume method and a co-located variable storage scheme. An in-house computer code was developed to implement the numerical solution scheme. Detailed results are presented for laminar reflux condensation from steam-air mixtures flowing in vertical parallel plate channels. The results include velocity and pressure profiles, as well as axial variations of film thickness, Nusselt number and interface gas mass fraction.

Keywords: Condensation, nusselt number, Reflux, CFD-Two Phase

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14 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf, Shoaib Usman


Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm basedon a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 103 to 106 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was16.66 percent at Ra number 105.

Keywords: natural convection, roughness, Rayleigh number, nusselt number, lattice Boltzmann method

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13 Effect of Nanoparticle Diameter of Nano-Fluid on Average Nusselt Number in the Chamber

Authors: N. Pourmahmoud, A. Ghafouri, I. Mirzaee


In this numerical study, effects of using Al2O3-water nanofluid on the rate of heat transfer have been investigated numerically. The physical model is a square enclosure with insulated top and bottom horizontal walls while the vertical walls are kept at different constant temperatures. Two appropriate models are used to evaluate the viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluid. The governing stream-vorticity equations are solved using a second order central finite difference scheme, coupled to the conservation of mass and energy. The study has been carried out for the nanoparticle diameter 30, 60, and 90 nm and the solid volume fraction 0 to 0.04. Results are presented by average Nusselt number and normalized Nusselt number in the different range of φ and D for mixed convection dominated regime. It is found that different heat transfer rate is predicted when the effect of nanoparticle diameter is taken into account.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Heat Transfer Enhancement, nusselt number, nanoparticle diameter, square enclosure

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12 Effects of Roughness Elements on Heat Transfer During Natural Convection

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman


The present study focused on the investigation of the effects of roughness elements on heat transfer during natural convection in a rectangular cavity using a numerical technique. Roughness elements were introduced on the bottom hot wall with a normalized amplitude (A*/H) of 0.1. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior was studied using a computational method based on Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Numerical studies were performed for a laminar natural convection in the range of Rayleigh number (Ra) from 103 to 106 for a rectangular cavity of aspect ratio (L/H) 2 with a fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The presence of the sinusoidal roughness elements caused a minimum to the maximum decrease in the heat transfer as 7% to 17% respectively compared to the smooth enclosure. The results are presented for mean Nusselt number (Nu), isotherms, and streamlines.

Keywords: natural convection, surface roughness, Rayleigh number, nusselt number, lattice Boltzmann method

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11 Numerical Analysis of Laminar Mixed Convection within a Complex Geometry

Authors: Y. Lasbet, A. L. Boukhalkhal, K. Loubar


The study of mixed convection is, usually, focused on the straight channels in which the onset of the mixed convection is well defined as function of the ratio between Grashof number and Reynolds number, Gr/Re. This is not the case for a complex channel wherein the mixed convection is not sufficiently examined in the literature. Our paper focuses on the study of the mixed convection in a complex geometry in which our main contribution reveals that the critical value of the ratio Gr/Re for the onset of the mixed convection increases highly in the type of geometry contrary to the straight channel. Furthermore, the accentuated secondary flow in this geometry prevents the thermal stratification in the flow and consequently the buoyancy driven becomes negligible. To perform these objectives, a numerical study in complex geometry for several values of the ratio Gr/Re with prescribed wall heat flux (H2), was realized by using the CFD code.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Complex Geometry, mixed convection, laminar flow, nusselt number

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10 Numerical Investigation of Hot Oil Velocity Effect on Force Heat Convection and Impact of Wind Velocity on Convection Heat Transfer in Receiver Tube of Parabolic Trough Collector System

Authors: O. Afshar


A solar receiver is designed for operation under extremely uneven heat flux distribution, cyclic weather, and cloud transient cycle conditions, which can include large thermal stress and even receiver failure. In this study, the effect of different oil velocity on convection coefficient factor and impact of wind velocity on local Nusselt number by Finite Volume Method will be analyzed. This study is organized to give an overview of the numerical modeling using a MATLAB software, as an accurate, time efficient and economical way of analyzing the heat transfer trends over stationary receiver tube for different Reynolds number. The results reveal when oil velocity is below 0.33m/s, the value of convection coefficient is negligible at low temperature. The numerical graphs indicate that when oil velocity increases up to 1.2 m/s, heat convection coefficient increases significantly. In fact, a reduction in oil velocity causes a reduction in heat conduction through the glass envelope. In addition, the different local Nusselt number is reduced when the wind blows toward the concave side of the collector and it has a significant effect on heat losses reduction through the glass envelope.

Keywords: Heat Conduction, nusselt number, receiver tube, heat convection

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9 Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of Sub-Channels of Pressurized Water Reactors with Hexagonal Array: A Numerical Approach

Authors: M. A. R. Sarkar, Md. Asif Ullah


This paper illustrates 2-D and 3-D simulations of sub-channels of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) having hexagonal array of fuel rods. At a steady state, the temperature of outer surface of the cladding of fuel rod is kept about 1200°C. The temperature of this isothermal surface is taken as boundary condition for simulation. Water with temperature of 290°C is given as a coolant inlet to the primary water circuit which is pressurized upto 157 bar. Turbulent flow of pressurized water is used for heat removal. In 2-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure and Nusselt number distributions are simulated in a vertical sectional plane through the sub-channels of a hexagonal fuel rod assembly. Temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux along a line in this plane near the end of fuel rods are plotted for different Reynold’s number. A comparison between X-component and Y-component of convective heat flux in this vertical plane is analyzed. Hexagonal fuel rod assembly has three types of sub-channels according to geometrical shape whose boundary conditions are different too. In 3-D model, temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number, total heat flux magnitude distributions for all the three sub-channels are studied for a suitable Reynold’s number. A horizontal sectional plane is taken from each of the three sub-channels to study temperature, velocity, pressure, Nusselt number and convective heat flux distribution in it. Greater values of temperature, Nusselt number and Y-component of convective heat flux are found for greater Reynold’s number. X-component of convective heat flux is found to be non-zero near the bottom of fuel rod and zero near the end of fuel rod. This indicates that the convective heat transfer occurs totally along the direction of flow near the outlet. As, length to radius ratio of sub-channels is very high, simulation for a short length of the sub-channels are done for graphical interface advantage. For the simulations, Turbulent Flow (K-Є ) module and Heat Transfer in Fluids (ht) module of COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS 5.0 are used.

Keywords: convective heat transfer, nusselt number, sub-channels, Reynold’s number

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8 Experimental and Numerical Study of the Thermomagnetic Convection of Ferrofluid Driven by Non-Uniform Magnetic Field around a Current-Carrying Wire

Authors: Nam-Trung Nguyen, Ashkan Vatani, Petere Woodfiel, Dzung Dao


Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed, numerically studied and experimentally validated. The dependency of the thermomagnetic convection on the current and fluid temperature has been studied. The Nusselt number for a heated 50um diameter wire in the ferrofluid exponentially scales with applied current to the micro-wire. This result is in good agreement with the correlated Nusselt number by curve-fitting the experimental data at different fluid temperatures. It was shown that at low currents, no significance is observed for thermomagnetic convection rather than the buoyancy-driven convection, while the thermomagnetic convection becomes dominant at high currents. Also, numerical simulations showed a promising cooling ability for large scale applications.

Keywords: ferrofluid, nusselt number, non-uniform magnetic field, thermomagnetic convection

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7 Two Dimensional Steady State Modeling of Temperature Profile and Heat Transfer of Electrohydrodynamically Enhanced Micro Heat Pipe

Authors: H. Shokouhmand, M. Tajerian


A numerical investigation of laminar forced convection flows through a square cross section micro heat pipe by applying electrohydrodynamic (EHD) field has been studied. In the present study, pentane is selected as working fluid. Temperature and velocity profiles and heat transfer enhancement in the micro heat pipe by using EHD field at the two-dimensional and single phase fluid flow in steady state regime have been numerically calculated. At this model, only Coulomb force is considered. The study has been carried out for the Reynolds number 10 to 100 and EHD force field up to 8 KV. Coupled, non-linear equations governed on the model (continuity, momentum, and energy equations) have been solved simultaneously by CFD numerical methods. Steady state behavior of affecting parameters, e.g. friction factor, average temperature, Nusselt number and heat transfer enhancement criteria, have been evaluated. It has been observed that by increasing Reynolds number, the effect of EHD force became more significant and for smaller Reynolds numbers the rate of heat transfer enhancement criteria is increased. By obtaining and plotting the mentioned parameters, it has been shown that the EHD field enhances the heat transfer process. The numerical results show that by increasing EHD force field the absolute value of Nusselt number and friction factor increases and average temperature of fluid flow decreases. But the increasing rate of Nusselt number is greater than increasing value of friction factor, which makes applying EHD force field for heat transfer enhancement in micro heat pipes acceptable and applicable. The numerical results of model are in good agreement with the experimental results available in the literature.

Keywords: friction factor, nusselt number, micro heat pipe, electrohydrodynamic force, average temperature

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6 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi


Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: transient, Rayleigh number, steady state, nusselt number, Fourier number

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5 Numerical Analysis of Swirling Chamber Using Improved Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation Turbulence Model

Authors: Hamad M. Alhajeri


Swirling chamber is a promising cooling method for heavily thermally loaded parts like turbine blades due to the additional circumferential velocity and therefore improved turbulent mixing of the fluid. This paper investigates numerically the effect of turbulence model on the heat convection of the swirling chamber. Grid independence analysis is conducted to obtain the proper grid dimension. The work validated with experimental data available in the literature. Flow analysis using improved delayed detached eddy simulation turbulence model and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes k-ɛ turbulence model is carried. The flow characteristic near the exit is reformed when improved delayed detached eddy simulation model used.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Gas Turbine, nusselt number, flow characteristics

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4 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz


In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom side temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.

Keywords: Numerical Solution, natural convection, enclosure, nusselt number, triangular

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3 Heat Transfer Investigation in a Dimple Plate Heat Exchanger Using Ionic Liquid and Ionanofluid

Authors: S. Karthika, T. K. Radhakrishnan, Divya P. Soman, P. Kalaichelvi


Heat transfer characteristics of ionic liquid solution as cold fluid in plate heat exchanger with dimple plate geometry was studied. The ionic liquid solution used in this study was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. The present experimental study is to understand the heat transfer behavior of different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentrations (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) in water. In addition, the heat transfer activity of ionanofluid as cold fluid was investigated. The ionanofluid was prepared by dispersing 0.3% w/w Al2O3 in the ionic liquid solution as base fluid. Experiments were also conducted to determine thermophysical properties of ionanofluid. The empirical correlations as a function of temperature were developed to predict the thermophysical properties. Finally, the heat transfer performance of ionic liquid solution, ionanofluid, nanofluid and water were compared. The impact of hot fluid’s (water) Reynolds number on overall heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of cold fluids were analyzed. The nanofluid and ionanofluid were found to possess better heat transfer behavior than water and ionic liquid solution. Heat transfer augmentation was observed for ionanofluid when compared with the base fluid (0.1% w/w ionic liquid solution).

Keywords: Nanofluid, ionic liquid, nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient, ionanofluid, dimple plate heat exchanger

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2 CFD Investigation on Heat Transfer and Friction Characteristics of Rib Roughened Evacuated Tube Collector Solar Air Heater

Authors: Mohit Singla, Vishavjeet Singh Hans, Sukhmeet Singh


Heat transfer and friction characteristics of evacuated tube collector solar air heater artificially roughened with periodic circular rib of uniform cross-section were investigated. The present investigation was carried out in ANSYS Fluent 15.0 to study the impact of roughness geometry parameters, i.e. relative roughness pitch (P/e) of 8 and relative roughness height (e/Dh) of 0.064 and flow parameters, i.e. Reynolds number range of 2500-8000 on Nusselt number and friction factor. RNG k-ε with enhanced wall treatment turbulence model was selected for analysis. The results obtained for roughened evacuated tube collector has been compared with smooth evacuated tube collector for the similar flow conditions. With the increment in Reynolds number from 2500 to 8000, Nusselt number augments while friction factor decreases. Maximum enhancement ratio of Nusselt number and friction factor was 1.71 and 2.7 respectively, obtained at Reynolds number value of 8000. The value of thermo-hydraulic performance parameter was varied between 1.18 - 1.23 for the entire range of Reynolds number, indicates the advantage to use the roughened evacuated tube collector over smooth evacuated tube collector in solar air heater.

Keywords: friction factor, nusselt number, artificial roughness, evacuated tube collector

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1 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow, Characteristics of Thermal Performance and Enhancement of Heat Transfer of Corrugated Pipes with Various Geometrical Configurations

Authors: Ahmed Ramadhan Al-Obaidi, Jassim Alhamid


In this investigation, the flow pattern, characteristics of thermal-hydraulic, and improvement of heat transfer performance are evaluated using a numerical technique in three dimensions corrugated pipe heat exchanger. The modification was made under different corrugated pipe geometrical parameters, including corrugated ring angle (CRA), distance between corrugated ring (DBCR), and corrugated diameter (CD), the range of Re number from 2000 to 12000. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data. The numerical outcomes reveal that there is an important change in flow field behaviour and a significant increase in friction factor and improvement in heat transfer performance owing to the use of the corrugated shape in the heat exchanger pipe as compared to the conventional smooth pipe. Using corrugated pipe with different configurations makes the flow more turbulence, flow separation, boundary layer distribution, flow mixing, and that leads to augmenting the performance of heat transfer. Moreover, the value of pressure drop, and the Nusselt number increases as the corrugated pipe geometrical parameters increase. Furthermore, the corrugation configuration shapes have an important influence on the thermal evaluation performance factor, and the maximum value was more than 1.3. Numerical simulation can be performed to predict the various geometrical configurations effects on fluid flow, thermal performance, and heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, nusselt number, corrugated ring angle, corrugated diameter

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