Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

nursing students Related Abstracts

22 The Developmental of Ethical Behavior of Nursing Students in Borommarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand

Authors: Ubonrattan Phophatanachai, Phensri Thongphet, Weerawan Kerdtong

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The purposes of this study were to compare the ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Suratthani, Thailand before and after providing the activity session of ethical behavior development. The samples consisted of 103 sophomores in the academic year 2006. The tools were tested for reliability and content validity. The reliability of the Ethical Behavior Questionnaire measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.94. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, and dependent t-test. The findings were as follows: a) after the activity session, the mean scores of ethical behavior regarding responsibility and polite manners of nursing students increased from middle level to high level; b) mean scores of responsibilities and polite manners after the activity session were significantly higher than those before the session (t =28.36, p < .001; t =23.9, p < .001, respectively).

Keywords: Health, Nursing Informatics, development of ethical behavior, nursing students

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21 Factors Predicting Preventive Behavior for Osteoporosis in University Students

Authors: Noppawan Piaseu, Thachamon Sinsoongsud

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This predictive study was aimed to 1) describe self efficacy for risk reduction and preventive behavior for osteoporosis, and 2) examine factors predicting preventive behavior for osteoporosis in nursing students. Through purposive sampling, the sample included 746 nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire on self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis with stepwise method. Results revealed that majority of the students were female (98.3%) with mean age of 19.86 + 1.26 years. The students had self efficacy and preventive behavior for osteoporosis at moderate level. Self efficacy and level of education could together predicted 35.2% variance of preventive behavior for osteoporosis (p< .001). Results suggest approaches for promoting preventive behavior for osteoporosis through enhancing self efficacy among nursing students in a public university in Bangkok, Thailand.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Self-efficacy, nursing students, preventive behavior

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20 The Impact of E-Learning on Medication Administration of Nursing Students

Authors: Z. Karakus, Z. Ozer

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Nurses are responsible for the care and treatment of individuals, as well as health maintenance and education. Medication administration is an important part of health promotion. The administration of a medicine is a common but important clinical procedure for nurses because of its complex structure. Therefore, medication errors are inevitable for nurses or nursing students. Medication errors can cause ineffective treatment, patient’s prolonged hospital stay, disablement, or death. Additionally, medication errors affect the global economy adversely by increasing health costs. Hence, preventing or decreasing of medication errors is a critical and essential issue in nursing. Nurse educators are in pursuit of new teaching methods to teach students significance of medication application. In the light of technological developments of this age, e-learning has started to be accepted as an important teaching method. E-learning is the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies in education. It has advantages such as flexibility of time and place, lower costs, faster delivery, and lower environmental impact. Students can make their own schedule and decide the learning method. This study is conducted to determine the impact of e-learning on medication administration of nursing students.

Keywords: e-Learning, Nursing, nursing students, medication administration

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19 Clinical Supervisors Experience of Supervising Nursing Students from a Higher Education Institution

Authors: P. Martin, J. Magerman

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Nursing students' clinical abilities is highly dependent on the quality of the clinical experience obtained while placed in the clinical environment. The clinical environment has amongst other, key role players which include the clinical supervisor. The primary role of the clinical supervisor is to guide nursing students to become the best practice nursing professionals. However, globally literature alludes to the failure of educating institutions to deliver competent nursing professionals to meet the needs of patients and deliver quality patient care. At the participating university, this may be due to various factors such as large student numbers and social and environmental challenges experienced by clinical supervisors. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the lived experiences of clinical supervisors who supervise nursing students at a higher education institution. The study employed a qualitative research approach utilizing a descriptive phenomenological design. Purposive sampling was used to select participants, who supervised first and second year nursing studnets at the higher education institution under study. TH esample comprised of eight clinical supervisors who supervise first and secon year nursing studnets at teh institution under study. Data was collected by means of in-depht interviews. Data was analysed using Collaizzi's seven steps method of qualitative analysis. Five major themes identified , focussed on the experiences regarding time a sa constraint to job productivity, the impact of teh organisational culture on the fluidity of support, interpersonal relationships a sa dynamic communication process, impact on the self, and limited resources. Trustworthiness of the data was ensured by means of applying Guba's model of truth value, applicability, consistency and neutrality. Reflexivity was also used by the researcher to further enhance trustworthiness.

Keywords: nursing students, clinical supervision, clinical supervisors, clinical placements

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18 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Methods That Increase the Knowledge of Youths about the Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gonul Kurt, Semra Aciksoz

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All types of interventions that increase the knowledge and awareness of youths about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) are considered to be important for safe sex life and sexual health. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of nursing students about STD and evaluate the effectiveness of peer education and brochure methods to increase the knowledge and awareness about STD. This interventional study was carried out by participation of nursing students attending the first and second grade in a school of nursing on February–May 2015. The study participants were 200 undergraduate nursing student volunteers. The students were given education by peer trainers and brochure methods. First-grade students were divided into five groups with block randomization method and each group were given education by five peer trainers. Second-grade students were given education with brochure by the researchers. The knowledge level of study groups was evaluated before and after educational intervention. The data were collected using the “Data Collection Form” and “Sexually Transmitted Diseases Information Form”. The questionnaire forms developed by the researchers after the literature review. The SPSS 15.0 package software was used for the evaluation of the data obtained from the study. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U-Test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mc Nemar Test. A p value of <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. All of participants in the study were female nursing students. The mean age of students was 18.99±0.32 years old in the peer education group and 20.04±0.37 in the brochure education group. There was no statistically significant difference between knowledge levels of the students in both groups before the education (p>0.05). It was determined that an increase in knowledge levels of the students in both groups after the education. This increase was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was determined that knowledge level of the students about STD in brochure group was higher than the peer education group (p<0.001). The results of this study indicate that brochure education method was more effective than the peer education method in both increasing knowledge and awareness about STD.

Keywords: Knowledge, sexually transmitted diseases, nursing students, education method

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17 A Pilot Study on Integration of Simulation in the Nursing Educational Program: Hybrid Simulation

Authors: Vesile Unver, Tulay Basak, Hatice Ayhan, Ilknur Cinar, Emine Iyigun, Nuran Tosun

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The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the hybrid simulation. In this simulation, types standardized patients and task trainers are employed simultaneously. For instance, in order to teach the IV activities standardized patients and IV arm models are used. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental research. Before the implementation an ethical permission was taken from the local ethical commission and administrative permission was granted from the nursing school. The universe of the study included second-grade nursing students (n=77). The participants were selected through simple random sample technique and total of 39 nursing students were included. The views of the participants were collected through a feedback form with 12 items. The form was developed by the authors and “Patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale”. Participants reported advantages of the hybrid simulation practice. Such advantages include the following: developing connections between the simulated scenario and real life situations in clinical conditions; recognition of the need for learning more about clinical practice. They all stated that the implementation was very useful for them. They also added three major gains; improvement of critical thinking skills (94.7%) and the skill of making decisions (97.3%); and feeling as if a nurse (92.1%). In regard to the mean scores of the participants in the patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale, it was found that the total mean score for the scale was 75.23±7.76. The findings obtained in the study suggest that the hybrid simulation has positive effects on the integration of theoretical and practical activities before clinical activities for the nursing students.

Keywords: Clinical Practice, Nursing Education, nursing students, hybrid simulation

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16 Happiness of Undergraduate Nursing Students, College of Nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand

Authors: Paveenapat Nithitantiwat, Kwanjai Pataipakaipet

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The purpose of this research was to study the happiness level of nursing students, Boromarajonani College of nursing, Ratchaburi, Thailand. A purposive sampling of 652 first to four-year nursing students was used. This research is descriptive research. The instruments were questionnaires that developed by the researcher. It included the demographic data and nursing student’s perception about healthcare, safety, life security, family, proud of oneself, education and activities, dormitories and environment in college, and how to improve their happiness. Frequencies, percentage, mean, and T-test is used to analysis the data. The results of the research have shown that family and moral value was an important thing in nursing student’s life. In addition, the mean of the happiness level was a high level. The first year nursing students had the higher mean score of the happiness level than the fourth year, second year, and the third year, respectively. Therefore, nursing students would realize that the important things in their life are family and Buddhism’s teaching. In addition, dharma is guideline how to be both academic achievements and successful in life.

Keywords: Happiness, nursing students, nursing students’ perceptions, bachelor program

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15 The Effectiveness of Self-Compassion Training: A Field Trial Study

Authors: Esmaeil Sarikhani

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Objectives: Considering the importance of introducing new methods of improving self-compassion and compassion to the others in nursing students, this study intends to evaluate the effect of self-compassion training on nursing students. Methods: This is a field trial study in which 52 nursing interns from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected using convenience sampling method and divided in two experimental and control groups. The sampling was done during two phases: before and after the intervention. The intervention consisted of eight sessions over eight weeks of self-compassion training. The data were collected using the self-compassion standard questionnaire with 26 questions before and after the intervention. Data were then analyzed by the SPSS18 software and independent and paired T-tests, and also Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results obtained from the independent t-test showed that the mean score of self-compassion and its components in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the groups, the mean overall score difference of self-compassion and its components had also a statistically significant change after the intervention (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Self-compassion training program, leads to improving nursing students' self-compassion. As it seems, this method can be used as an important training course in order to improve compassion of nursing students to themselves and the others.

Keywords: Student, nursing students, self-compassion, field trial

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14 The Effect of Peer Support to Interpersonal Problem Solving Tendencies and Skills in Nursing Students

Authors: A. Karaaslan, B. Özlük

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This study has been conducted as a supplementary and relationship seeking study with the purpose of measuring the tendency and success of support among peers amid nursing students studying at university in solving interpersonal problems. The population of the study (N:279) is comprised of nursing students who are studying at one state and one private university in the province of Konya, while its sample is comprised of 231 nursing students who agreed to take part in the study voluntarily. As a result of this study, it has been determined that the peer support and interpersonal problem solving characteristics among students were at medium levels and that the interpersonal problem solving skills of students studying in the third year were higher than those of first and second year students. While the interpersonal problem solving characteristics of students who are aged 20 and over were found to be higher, no difference could be determined in terms of the interpersonal problem solving skills and tendencies among students, based on their gender and where they reside. A positive – to a medium degree – and significant relationship was determined between peer support and interpersonal problem solving skills, and it is possible to say that as peer support increases, so do the skills and tendencies to solve problems.

Keywords: problem solving, nursing students, peer support, interpersonal problem

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13 Coherency of First Year Nursing Students' Lifestyles with Their Future Career

Authors: Maria Rodriguez-Gazquez, Sara Chaparro-Hernandez, Jose Rafael Gonzalez-Lopez

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Introduction: Nurses are models in healthy behaviors for their patients. This is why it is important for these professionals to not only have a good knowledge of healthy behaviors but also practice. Today’s nursing students will be tomorrow’s professionals and to fulfill their role in caring they not only need knowledge, they also must maintain behaviors which enable them to improve and protect both the health of others and their own. This is why the university is a unique environment of opportunities to foster the maximum potential of health. To care for others we first have to take care of ourselves. It is important for these behaviors in Nursing students to be evaluated during the years of their university education in order to design timely interventions which improve the health behaviors of the future professionals. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the lifestyles of first year nursing students of two Universities. Methodology: Cross-sectional study. In 2014, 140 first year Nursing students of two Universities Seville –US- (Spain -Europe, n=37) and Antioquia –UA- (Colombia -South America, n=93) self-reported the FANTASTIC Lifestyle checklist. Results: Findings reveal that (I) UA students doubled the percentage of dangerous or bad lifestyles with respect to the US students, (II) the lifestyles are not appropriate in 1 of 3 of nursing students in both Universities, (II) there are statistically significant differences for family support items (higher in US), positive thinkers (higher in UA), the use of safety belts and alcohol consumption before driving (higher in US). Discussion: The nursing students are mostly young people who are at a stage in which some of the most important behaviors for adult life can still be molded. It is necessary to develop educational interventions in their Nursing curricula to strengthen healthy behaviours during training. Nursing Schools not only have the duty to train professionals, but to also be agents that foster the health, welfare and quality of those who study and work there. It must encourage knowledge and skills oriented to healthy lifestyles.

Keywords: nursing students, questionnaires, life style, cross-sectional studies

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12 The Effect of Values on Social Innovativeness in Nursing and Medical Faculty Students

Authors: Betül sönmez, Fatma Azizoğlu, S. Bilge Hapçıoğlu, Aytolan Yıldırım

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Background: Social innovativeness contains the procurement of a sustainable benefit for a number of problems from working conditions to education, social development, health, and from environmental control to climate change, as well as the development of new social productions and services. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the correlation between the social innovation tendency of nursing and medical faculty students and value types. Methods and participants: The population of this correlational study consisted of third-year students studying at a medical faculty and a nursing faculty in a public university in Istanbul. Ethics committee approval and permission from the school administrations were obtained in order to conduct the study and voluntary participation of the students in the study was ensured. 524 questionnaires were obtained with a total return rate of 57.1% (65.0% in nurse student and 52.1% in physic students). The data of the study were collected by using the Portrait Values Questionnaire and a questionnaire containing the Social Innovativeness Scale. Results: The effect of the subscale scores of Portrait Values Questionnaire on the total score of Social Innovativeness Scale was 26.6%. In the model where a significance was determined (F=37.566; p<0.01), the highest effect was observed in the subscale of universalism. The effect of subscale scores obtained from the Portrait Values Questionnaire, as well as age, gender and number of siblings was 25% on the Social Innovativeness in nursing students and 30.8% in medical faculty students. In both models where a significance was determined (p<0.01), the nursing students had the values of power, universalism and kindness, whereas the medical faculty students had the values of self-direction, stimulation, hedonism and universalism showed the highest effect in both models. Conclusions: Universalism is the value with the highest effect upon the social innovativeness in both groups, which is an expected result by the nature of professions. The effect of the values of independent thinking and self-direction, as well as openness to change involving quest for innovation (stimulation), which are observed in medical faculty students, also supports the literature of innovative behavior. These results are thought to guide educators and administrators in terms of developing socially innovative behaviors.

Keywords: nursing students, social innovativeness, portrait values questionnaire, medical faculty students

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11 Web-Based Learning in Nursing: The Sample of Delivery Lesson Program

Authors: Merve Kadioğlu, Nevin H. Şahin

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Purpose: This research is organized to determine the influence of the web-based learning program. The program has been developed to gain information about normal delivery skill that is one of the topics of nursing students who take the woman health and illness. Material and Methods: The methodology of this study was applied as pre-test post-test single-group quasi-experimental. The pilot study consisted of 28 nursing student study groups who agreed to participate in the study. The findings were gathered via web-based technologies: student information form, information evaluation tests, Web Based Training Material Evaluation Scale and web-based learning environment feedback form. In the analysis of the data, the percentage, frequency and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test were used. The Web Based Instruction Program was developed in the light of full learning model, Mayer's research-based multimedia development principles and Gagne's Instructional Activities Model. Findings: The average scores of it was determined in accordance with the web-based educational material evaluation scale: ‘Instructional Suitability’ 4.45, ‘Suitability to Educational Program’ 4.48, ‘Visual Adequacy’ 4.53, ‘Programming Eligibility / Technical Adequacy’ 4.00. Also, the participants mentioned that the program is successful and useful. A significant difference was found between the pre-test and post-test results of the seven modules (p < 0.05). Results: According to pilot study data, the program was rated ‘very good’ by the study group. It was also found to be effective in increasing knowledge about normal labor.

Keywords: e-Learning, Web-based learning, nursing students, normal delivery

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10 Identification of Nursing Students’ Attitudes toward Older People in Turkey

Authors: Senay Karadag Arli, Ayse Berivan Bakan, Ela Varol

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Objective: The present study aims to identify nursing students’ attitudes toward older people. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted with 166 nursing department students enrolled in a four-year undergraduate program in a university located in Eastern Turkey. The participants were chosen using convenience sampling method, and the data were collected through the Descriptive Characteristics Form and Turkish version of Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People Scale (KAOP). Results: It was found that the students participating in the study had positive attitudes toward old people, and the mean scores of those who wanted to work with old people after graduation were significantly high (p<0.05). Scale mean scores according to receiving Gerontology Nursing course showed that the score difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study found that nursing students’ attitudes toward older people were positive. Cultural features of the region where the study was conducted are considered to contribute to this result.

Keywords: Turkey, Gerontology, attitudes, Older People, nursing students

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9 The Developmental Model of Teaching and Learning Clinical Practicum at Postpartum Ward for Nursing Students by Using VARK Learning Styles

Authors: Wanwadee Neamsakul

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VARK learning style is an effective method of learning that could enhance all skills of the students like visual (V), auditory (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). This learning style benefits the students in terms of professional competencies, critical thinking and lifelong learning which are the desirable characteristics of the nursing students. This study aimed to develop a model of teaching and learning clinical practicum at postpartum ward for nursing students by using VARK learning styles, and evaluate the nursing students’ opinions about the developmental model. A methodology used for this study was research and development (R&D). The model was developed by focus group discussion with five obstetric nursing instructors who have experiences teaching Maternal Newborn and Midwifery I subject. The activities related to practices in the postpartum (PP) ward including all skills of VARK were assigned into the matrix table. The researcher asked the experts to supervise the model and adjusted the model following the supervision. Subsequently, it was brought to be tried out with the nursing students who practiced on the PP ward. Thirty third year nursing students from one of the northern Nursing Colleges, Academic year 2015 were purposive sampling. The opinions about the satisfaction of the model were collected using a questionnaire which was tested for its validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The developed model composed of 27 activities. Seven activities were developed as enhancement of visual skills for the nursing students (25.93%), five activities as auditory skills (18.52%), six activities as read and write skills (22.22%), and nine activities as kinesthetic skills (33.33%). Overall opinions about the model were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction (mean=4.63, S.D=0.45). In the aspects of visual skill (mean=4.80, S.D=0.45) was reported at the highest level of average satisfaction followed by auditory skill (mean=4.62, S.D=0.43), read and write skill (mean=4.57, S.D=0.46), and kinesthetic skill (mean=4.53, S.D=0.45) which were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction, respectively. The nursing students reported that the model could help them employ all of their skills during practicing and taking care of the postpartum women and newborn babies. They could establish self-confidence while providing care and felt proud of themselves by the benefits of the model. It can be said that using VARK learning style to develop the model could enhance both nursing students’ competencies and positive attitude towards the nursing profession. Consequently, they could provide quality care for postpartum women and newborn babies effectively in the long run.

Keywords: model, nursing students, postpartum ward, teaching and learning clinical practicum

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8 A Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical Self-Efficacy of Final Year School of Nursing Students among Universities of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Awole Seid, Yosef Zenebe, Hadgu Gerensea, Kebede Haile Misgina

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Background: Clinical competence is one of the ultimate goals of nursing education. Clinical skills are more than successfully performing tasks; it incorporates client assessment, identification of deficits and the ability to critically think to provide solutions. Assessment of clinical competence, particularly identifying gaps that need improvement and determining the educational needs of nursing students have great importance in nursing education. Thus this study aims determining clinical self-efficacy of final year school of nursing students in three universities of Tigray Region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 final year school of nursing students from department of nursing, psychiatric nursing, and midwifery on three universities of Tigray region. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to generate data collected on June, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result is described using tables and charts as required. Logistic regression was employed to test associations. Result: The mean age of students was 22.94 + 1.44. Generally, 21% of students have been graduated in the department in which they are not interested. The study demonstrated 28.6% had poor and 71.4% had good perceived clinical self-efficacy. Beside this, 43.8% of psychiatric nursing and 32.6% of comprehensive nursing students have poor clinical self-efficacy. Among the four domains, 39.3% and 37.9% have poor clinical self- efficacy with regard to ‘Professional development’ and ‘Management of care’. Place of the institution [AOR=3.480 (1.333 - 9.088), p=0.011], interest during department selection [AOR=2.202 (1.045 - 4.642), p=.038], and theory-practice gap [AOR=0.224 (0.110 - 0.457), p=0.000] were significantly associated with perceived clinical self-efficacy. Conclusion: The magnitude of students with poor clinically self efficacy was high. Place of institution, theory-practice gap, students interest to the discipline were the significant predictors of clinical self-efficacy. Students from youngest universities have good clinical self-efficacy. During department selection, student’s interest should be respected. The universities and other stakeholders should improve the capacity of surrounding affiliate teaching hospitals to set and improve care standards in order to narrow the theory-practice gap. School faculties should provide trainings to hospital staffs and monitor standards of clinical procedures.

Keywords: nursing students, Tigray, clinical self-efficacy, northern Ethiopia

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7 Evaluating the Effect of Nursing Ethics Education on Nursing Students' Sensitivity and Moral Judgments

Authors: Hsiao Lu Lee

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This study was based Quasi-experimental design. The study explored the relationships of nursing ethics education, nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments in Taiwan. A total of 242 nursing students (NS) participated the study.The proposed teaching nursing ethics from 2 to 16 weeks. Three questionnaires were adopted in this study. First, Demographic of nursing students questionnaire; Second, the questionnaire is Taiwan’s Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire for Student Nurses (TMMSQ-SN); Third, Defining Issues Test (DIT). The pre-test data were collected during the first week, and the post-test data was collected during the 17ᵗʰ week of the semester. The purpose of the study is explored evaluating the effect of nursing ethics education on nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgments. The results of the study showed that moral sensitivities and moral judgments have been significantly improved after 16 weeks (Pair-t=--11.10***; Pair-t=-7.393***). Moral sensitivities and moral judgments were significant in the pretest. There was a negative correlation, but there was no correlation between moral sensitivity and moral judgments in the post-test. There was a significant correlation between the moral judgments (DIT)and the hours of work and other ethical courses (r=.28**; r=.015*). Nursing ethics education is necessary for nursing students in Taiwan. The nursing ethics courses are necessary to improve nursing students’ moral sensitivity and moral judgment (DIT).

Keywords: Moral Judgments, nursing students, defining issues test, moral sensitivity, nursing ethics education

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6 'Coping with Workplace Violence' Workshop: A Commendable Addition to the Curriculum for BA in Nursing

Authors: Ilana Margalith, Adaya Meirowitz, Sigalit Cohavi

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Violence against health professionals by patients and their families have recently become a disturbing phenomenon worldwide, exacting psychological as well as economic tolls. Health workplaces in Israel (e.g. hospitals and H.M.O clinics) provide workshops for their employees, supplying them with coping strategies. However, these workshops do not focus on nursing students, who are also subjected to this violence. Their learning environment is no longer as protective as it used to be. Furthermore, coping with violence was not part of the curriculum for Israeli nursing students. Thus, based on human aggression theories which depict the pivotal role of the professional's correct response in preventing the onset of an aggressive response or the escalation of violence, a workshop was developed for undergraduate nursing students at the Clalit Nursing Academy, Rabin Campus (Dina), Israel. The workshop aimed at reducing students' anxiety vis a vis the aggressive patient or family in addition to strengthening their ability to cope with such situations. The students practiced interpersonal skills, especially relevant to early detection of potential violence, as well as ‘a correct response’ reaction to the violence, thus developing the necessary steps to be implemented when encountering violence in the workplace. In order to assess the efficiency of the workshop, the participants filled out a questionnaire comprising knowledge and self-efficacy scales. Moreover, the replies of the 23 participants in this workshop were compared with those of 24 students who attended a standard course on interpersonal communication. Students' self-efficacy and knowledge were measured in both groups before and after the course. A statistically significant interaction was found between group (workshop/standard course) and time (before/after) as to the influence on students' self-efficacy (p=0.004) and knowledge (p=0.007). Nursing students, who participated in this ‘coping with workplace violence’ workshop, gained knowledge, confidence and a sense of self-efficacy with regard to workplace violence. Early detection of signs of imminent violence amongst patients or families and the prevention of its escalation, as well as the ability to manage the threatening situation when occurring, are acquired skills. Encouraging nursing students to learn and practice these skills may enhance their ability to cope with these unfortunate occurrences.

Keywords: Workplace violence, Self-efficacy, nursing students, early detection of violence, patient aggression

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5 Using a Phenomenological Approach to Explore the Experiences of Nursing Students in Coping with Their Emotional Responses in Caring for End-Of-Life Patients

Authors: Yun Chan Lee

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Background: End-of-life care is a large area of all nursing practice and student nurses are likely to meet dying patients in many placement areas. It is therefore important to understand the emotional responses and coping strategies of student nurses in order for nursing education systems to have some appreciation of how nursing students might be supported in the future. Methodology: This research used a qualitative phenomenological approach. Six student nurses understanding a degree-level adult nursing course were interviewed. Their responses to questions were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Finding: The findings identified 3 main themes. First, the common experience of ‘unpreparedness’. A very small number of participants felt that this was unavoidable and that ‘no preparation is possible’, the majority felt that they were unprepared because of ‘insufficient input’ from the university and as a result of wider ‘social taboos’ around death and dying. The second theme showed that emotions were affected by ‘the personal connection to the patient’ and the important sub-themes of ‘the evoking of memories’, ‘involvement in care’ and ‘sense of responsibility’. The third theme, the coping strategies used by students, seemed to fall into two broad areas those ‘internal’ with the student and those ‘external’. In terms of the internal coping strategies, ‘detachment’, ‘faith’, ‘rationalization’ and ‘reflective skills’ are the important components of this part. Regarding the external coping strategies, ‘clinical staff’ and ‘the importance of family and friends’ are the importance of accessing external forms of support. Implication: It is clear that student nurses are affected emotionally by caring for dying patients and many of them have apprehension even before they begin on their placements but very often this is unspoken. Those anxieties before the placement become more pronounced during and continue after the placements. This has implications for when support is offered and possibly its duration. Another significant point of the study is that participants often highlighted their wish to speak to qualified nurses after their experiences of being involved in end-of-life care and especially when they had been present at the time of death. Many of the students spoke that qualified nurses were not available to them. This seemed to be due to a number of reasons. Because the qualified nurses were not available, students had to make use of family members and friends to talk to. Consequently, the implication of this study is not only to educate student nurses but also to educate the qualified mentors on the importance of providing emotional support to students.

Keywords: End-of-life care, Emotional Responses, nursing students, coping strategies

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4 Effect of Summer Training Volunteering Practices in Healthcare on Self-Confidence of Nursing Students in Riyadh

Authors: Samah Mohamed, Alyaa Farouk Abdelfattah Ibrahim, Huda Jrady, Mashail Alrashidi, Alaa Mohammad, Fatimah Alotaibi, Maram Almutiri

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Participation in volunteering was associated with better mental and physical health, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. The main motivator for students in particular is the chance to gain work-related experiences, improve skills, and build on qualifications that may help them achieve their educational goals and further their careers. This study aimed to assess the effect of summer training volunteering practices in healthcare on self-confidence of nursing students in Riyadh. In a crossectional study design, 150 nursing students at King Saud bin Abdul-Aziz University for health sciences in Riyadh were included in the study. Bio-socio-demographic, self-confidence, patients’ care and skills questionnaires were used for data collection. Results: Participants’ age ranged between 20 and 26 years. The majority were from the educational level seven (80%). 40.7 % of them reported volunteering in summer training programs; 70.37% of them volunteered at least once and for a duration of at least one month. Nursing students from level 6 were less likely to have self-confidence in their patients’ care skills than those in level 7. Students who volunteered were more likely to be more interested in becoming social, professional, and independent healthcare workers. There was no difference regarding experience in clinical skills and education by volunteering status. Clinical skills improved by a level of education in this group. Conclusion: Professional self-confidence and clinical performance are related in this group of nursing students. Monitoring, arranging, and encouraging volunteering activities for nursing students are important to help them broaden their interests, their self-confidence in their capabilities, and advancement in their chosen profession. Mostly, volunteering enhanced knowledge in patient safety and quality of care and attempts to secure volunteering opportunities should be a priority on the nursing education agenda.

Keywords: nursing students, volunteering, health care volunteering, summer training

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3 Self-Reliant Peer Learning for Nursing Students

Authors: U.-B. Schaer, M. Wehr, R. Hodler

Abstract:

Background: Most nursing students require more training time for necessary nursing skills than defined by nursing schools curriculum to acquire basic nursing skills. Given skills training lessons are too brief to enable effective student learning, meaning in-depth skills practice and repetition various learning steps. This increases stress levels and the pressure to succeed for a nursing student with slower learning capabilities. Another possible consequence is that nursing students are less prepared in the required skills for future clinical practice. Intervention: The Bern College of Higher Education of Nursing, Switzerland, started the independent peer practice learning program in 2012. A concept was developed which defines specific aims and content as well as student’s rights and obligations. Students enlist beforehand and order the required materials. They organize themselves and train in small groups in allocated training location in the area of Learning Training and Transfer (LTT). During the peer practice, skills and knowledge can be repeatedly trained and reflected in the peer groups without the presence of a tutor. All invasive skills are practiced only on teaching dummies. This allows students to use all their potential. The students may access learning materials as literature and their own student notes. This allows nursing students to practice their skills and to deepen their knowledge on corresponding with their own learning rate. Results: Peer group discussions during the independent peer practice learning support the students in gaining certainty and confidence in their knowledge and skills. This may improve patient safety in future daily care practice. Descriptive statics show that the number of students who take advantage of the independent peer practice learning increased continuously (2012-2018). It has to be mentioned that in 2012, solely students of the first semester attended the independent peer practice learning program, while in 2018 over one-third of the participating students were in their fifth semester and final study year. It is clearly visible that the demand for independent peer practice learning is increasing. This has to be considered in the development of future teaching curricula.

Keywords: Skill Training, nursing students, learning program, peer learning

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2 Preparing Undergraduate Nursing and Midwifery Students for Culturally Competent Health Care: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Olayide Ogunsiji, Glenda McDonald

Abstract:

Engendering cultural competence in nursing and midwifery students is germane to reducing disparities in contemporary health care settings, increasingly patronized by people from diverse background. Professional standards for registration in Australia require nurses and midwives to be culturally competent. Nursing and midwifery academics worldwide are responsible for preparing students for clinical practice, yet limited attention is paid to exploring how students are being prepared to care for a culturally diverse population. This paper provides insight into the perceptions of academics about how they are preparing undergraduate nursing and midwifery students for culturally competent health care. Academics were drawn from a tertiary educational institution in metropolitan Australia. They responded to a generic email indicating their interest in participating in the study. A total of nine academics who have taught undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in a unit that focused on health and illness perspectives for culturally diverse communities; and provided written consent to participate were included. These academics were engaged in a qualitative digitally-recorded semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews which lasted for about 45-60 minutes. Interview data were transcribed verbatim. Through constant comparison, three themes emerged: experiences of the teachers, strategies used for preparing students and challenges in preparing students. The participants spoke about their experiences of teaching in the unit and with the students. They faced challenges related to physical and relational space. They utilised a number of didactic approaches in teaching the unit and critiqued the adequacy of the content in preparing students for practice. This study demonstrated that didactic classroom approaches need to be supported with clinical practice and cultural immersion for a meaningful preparation of nursing and midwifery students to care for culturally diverse populations.

Keywords: Cultural Competence, Preparation, nursing students, undergraduate

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1 The Preceptorship Experience and Clinical Competence of Final Year Nursing Students

Authors: Susan Ka Yee Chow

Abstract:

Effective clinical preceptorship is affecting students’ competence and fostering their growth in applying theoretical knowledge and skills in clinical settings. Any difference between the expected and actual learning experience will reduce nursing students’ interest in clinical practices and having a negative consequence with their clinical performance. This cross-sectional study is an attempt to compare the differences between preferred and actual preceptorship experience of final year nursing students, and to examine the relationship between the actual preceptorship experience and perceived clinical competence of the students in a tertiary institution. Participants of the study were final year bachelor nursing students of a self-financing tertiary institution in Hong Kong. The instruments used to measure the effectiveness of clinical preceptorship was developed by the participating institution. The scale consisted of five items in a 5-point likert scale. The questions including goals development, critical thinking, learning objectives, asking questions and providing feedback to students. The “Clinical Competence Questionnaire” by Liou & Cheng (2014) was used to examine students’ perceived clinical competences. The scale consisted of 47 items categorized into four domains, namely nursing professional behaviours; skill competence: general performance; skill competence: core nursing skills and skill competence: advanced nursing skills. There were 193 questionnaires returned with a response rate of 89%. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences between preferred and actual preceptorship experiences of students. The results showed significant differences (p<0.001) for the five questions. The mean for the preferred scores is higher than the actual scores resulting statistically significance. The maximum mean difference was accepted goal and the highest mean different was giving feedback. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to examine the relationship. The results showed moderate correlations between nursing professional behaviours with asking questions and providing feedback. Providing useful feedback to students is having moderate correlations with all domains of the Clinical Competence Questionnaire (r=0.269 – 0.345). It is concluded that nursing students do not have a positive perception of the clinical preceptorship. Their perceptions are significantly different from their expected preceptorship. If students were given more opportunities to ask questions in a pedagogical atmosphere, their perceived clinical competence and learning outcomes could be improved as a result.

Keywords: nursing students, clinical preceptor, clinical competence, clinical practicum

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