Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Numerical Modelling Related Abstracts

19 A Review on Stormwater Harvesting and Reuse

Authors: Fatema Akram, Mohammad G. Rasul, M. Masud K. Khan, M. Sharif I. I. Amir

Abstract:

Australia is a country of some 7,700 million square kilometres with a population of about 22.6 million. At present water security is a major challenge for Australia. In some areas the use of water resources is approaching and in some parts it is exceeding the limits of sustainability. A focal point of proposed national water conservation programs is the recycling of both urban storm-water and treated wastewater. But till now it is not widely practiced in Australia, and particularly storm-water is neglected. In Australia, only 4% of storm-water and rainwater is recycled, whereas less than 1% of reclaimed wastewater is reused within urban areas. Therefore, accurately monitoring, assessing and predicting the availability, quality and use of this precious resource are required for better management. As storm-water is usually of better quality than untreated sewage or industrial discharge, it has better public acceptance for recycling and reuse, particularly for non-potable use such as irrigation, watering lawns, gardens, etc. Existing storm-water recycling practice is far behind of research and no robust technologies developed for this purpose. Therefore, there is a clear need for using modern technologies for assessing feasibility of storm-water harvesting and reuse. Numerical modelling has, in recent times, become a popular tool for doing this job. It includes complex hydrological and hydraulic processes of the study area. The hydrologic model computes storm-water quantity to design the system components, and the hydraulic model helps to route the flow through storm-water infrastructures. Nowadays water quality module is incorporated with these models. Integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) with these models provides extra advantage of managing spatial information. However for the overall management of a storm-water harvesting project, Decision Support System (DSS) plays an important role incorporating database with model and GIS for the proper management of temporal information. Additionally DSS includes evaluation tools and Graphical user interface. This research aims to critically review and discuss all the aspects of storm-water harvesting and reuse such as available guidelines of storm-water harvesting and reuse, public acceptance of water reuse, the scopes and recommendation for future studies. In addition to these, this paper identifies, understand and address the importance of modern technologies capable of proper management of storm-water harvesting and reuse.

Keywords: Database, Geographic Information System, Decision Support System, Numerical Modelling, storm-water management, storm-water harvesting and reuse

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18 Numerical Analysis of Reinforced Embankment on Algeria Sabkha Subgrade

Authors: N. Benmebarek, F. Berrabah, S. Benmebarek

Abstract:

This paper is interested by numerical analysis using PLAXIS code of geosynthetic reinforced embankment crossing a section about 11 km on sabkha soil of Chott El Hodna in Algeria. The site observations indicated that the surface soil of this sabkha is very sensitive to moisture and complicated by the presence of locally weak zones. Therefore, serious difficulties were encountered during building the first embankment layer. This paper focuses on the use of geosynthetic to mitigate the difficulty encountered. Due to the absence of an accepted design methods, parametric studies are carried out to assess the effect of basal embankment reinforcement on both the bearing capacity and compaction conditions. The results showed the contribution conditions of geosynthetics to improve the bearing capacity of sabkha soil.

Keywords: Geosynthetics, Numerical Modelling, reinforced embankment, weak bearing capacity

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17 Mathematical Modelling of Biogas Dehumidification by Using of Counterflow Heat Exchanger

Authors: Aigars Laizāns, Staņislavs Gendelis, Andris Jakovičs, Jānis Ratnieks, Dāvids Vardanjans

Abstract:

Dehumidification of biogas at the biomass plants is very important to provide the energy efficient burning of biomethane at the outlet. A few methods are widely used to reduce the water content in biogas, e.g. chiller/heat exchanger based cooling, usage of different adsorbents like PSA, or the combination of such approaches. A quite different method of biogas dehumidification is offered and analyzed in this paper. The main idea is to direct the flow of biogas from the plant around it downwards; thus, creating additional insulation layer. As the temperature in gas shell layer around the plant will decrease from ~ 38°C to 20°C in the summer or even to 0°C in the winter, condensation of water vapor occurs. The water from the bottom of the gas shell can be collected and drain away. In addition, another upward shell layer is created after the condensate drainage place on the outer side to further reducing heat losses. Thus, counterflow biogas heat exchanger is created around the biogas plant. This research work deals with the numerical modelling of biogas flow, taking into account heat exchange and condensation on cold surfaces. Different kinds of boundary conditions (air and ground temperatures in summer/winter) and various physical properties of constructions (insulation between layers, wall thickness) are included in the model to make it more general and useful for different biogas flow conditions. The complexity of this problem is fact, that the temperatures in both channels are conjugated in case of low thermal resistance between layers. MATLAB programming language is used for multiphysical model development, numerical calculations and result visualization. Experimental installation of a biogas plant’s vertical wall with an additional 2 layers of polycarbonate sheets with the controlled gas flow was set up to verify the modelling results. Gas flow at inlet/outlet, temperatures between the layers and humidity were controlled and measured during a number of experiments. Good correlation with modelling results for vertical wall section allows using of developed numerical model for an estimation of parameters for the whole biogas dehumidification system. Numerical modelling of biogas counterflow heat exchanger system placed on the plant’s wall for various cases allows optimizing of thickness for gas layers and insulation layer to ensure necessary dehumidification of the gas under different climatic conditions. Modelling of system’s defined configuration with known conditions helps to predict the temperature and humidity content of the biogas at the outlet.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, Condensation, biogas dehumidification, biogas plant experimental model

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16 Forming Limit Analysis of DP600-800 Steels

Authors: Marcelo Costa Cardoso, Luciano Pessanha Moreira

Abstract:

In this work, the plastic behaviour of cold-rolled zinc coated dual-phase steel sheets DP600 and DP800 grades is firstly investigated with the help of uniaxial, hydraulic bulge and Forming Limit Curve (FLC) tests. The uniaxial tensile tests were performed in three angular orientations with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate the strain-hardening and plastic anisotropy. True stress-strain curves at large strains were determined from hydraulic bulge testing and fitted to a work-hardening equation. The limit strains are defined at both localized necking and fracture conditions according to Nakajima’s hemispherical punch procedure. Also, an elasto-plastic localization model is proposed in order to predict strain and stress based forming limit curves. The investigated dual-phase sheets showed a good formability in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC regions. For both DP600 and DP800 sheets, the corresponding numerical predictions overestimated and underestimated the experimental limit strains in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC regions, respectively. This can be attributed to the restricted failure necking condition adopted in the numerical model, which is not suitable to describe the tensile and shear fracture mechanisms in advanced high strength steels under equibiaxial and biaxial stretching conditions.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, Advanced high strength steels, sheet metal forming, forming limit curve

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15 A Discrete Element Method Centrifuge Model of Monopile under Cyclic Lateral Loads

Authors: Nuo Duan, Yi Pik Cheng

Abstract:

This paper presents the data of a series of two-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations of a large-diameter rigid monopile subjected to cyclic loading under a high gravitational force. At present, monopile foundations are widely used to support the tall and heavy wind turbines, which are also subjected to significant from wind and wave actions. A safe design must address issues such as rotations and changes in soil stiffness subject to these loadings conditions. Design guidance on the issue is limited, so are the availability of laboratory and field test data. The interpretation of these results in sand, such as the relation between loading and displacement, relies mainly on empirical correlations to pile properties. Regarding numerical models, most data from Finite Element Method (FEM) can be found. They are not comprehensive, and most of the FEM results are sensitive to input parameters. The micro scale behaviour could change the mechanism of the soil-structure interaction. A DEM model was used in this paper to study the cyclic lateral loads behaviour. A non-dimensional framework is presented and applied to interpret the simulation results. The DEM data compares well with various set of published experimental centrifuge model test data in terms of lateral deflection. The accumulated permanent pile lateral displacements induced by the cyclic lateral loads were found to be dependent on the characteristics of the applied cyclic load, such as the extent of the loading magnitudes and directions.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, cyclic loading, DEM, sands

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14 Numerical investigation of Hydrodynamic and Parietal Heat Transfer to Bingham Fluid Agitated in a Vessel by Helical Ribbon Impeller

Authors: Mounir Baccar, Amel Gammoudi, Abdelhak Ayadi

Abstract:

The efficient mixing of highly viscous fluids is required for many industries such as food, polymers or paints production. The homogeneity is a challenging operation for this fluids type since they operate at low Reynolds number to reduce the required power of the used impellers. Particularly, close-clearance impellers, mainly helical ribbons, are chosen for highly viscous fluids agitated in laminar regime which is currently heated through vessel wall. Indeed, they are characterized by high shear strains closer to the vessel wall, which causes a disturbing thermal boundary layer and ensures the homogenization of the bulk volume by axial and radial vortices. The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of Newtonian fluids in vessels agitated by helical ribbon impellers, has been mostly studied by many researchers. However, rarely researchers investigated numerically the agitation of yield stress fluid by means of helical ribbon impellers. This paper aims to study the effect of the Double Helical Ribbon (DHR) stirrers on both the hydrodynamic and the thermal behaviors of yield stress fluids treated in a cylindrical vessel by means of numerical simulation approach. For this purpose, continuity, momentum, and thermal equations were solved by means of 3D finite volume technique. The effect of Oldroyd (Od) and Reynolds (Re) numbers on the power (Po) and Nusselt (Nu) numbers for the mentioned stirrer type have been studied. Also, the velocity and thermal fields, the dissipation function and the apparent viscosity have been presented in different (r-z) and (r-θ) planes.

Keywords: Mixing, Numerical Modelling, Bingham fluid, Hydrodynamic and thermal behavior, helical ribbon

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13 Mechanical Performance of Sandwich Square Honeycomb Structure from Sugar Palm Fibre

Authors: J. P. Siregar, Z. Ansari, M. R. M. Rejab, D. Bachtiar

Abstract:

This study focus on the compression and tensile properties of new and recycle square honeycombs structure from sugar palm fibre (SPF) and polylactic acid (PLA) composite. The end data will determine the failure strength and energy absorption for both new and recycle composite. The control SPF specimens were fabricated from short fibre co-mingled with PLA by using a bra-blender set at 180°C and 50 rpm consecutively. The mixture of 30% fibre and 70% PLA were later on the hot press at 180°C into sheets with thickness 3mm consecutively before being assembled into a sandwich honeycomb structure. An INSTRON tensile machine and Abaqus 6.13 software were used for mechanical test and finite element simulation. The percentage of error from the simulation and experiment data was 9.20% and 9.17% for both new and recycled product. The small error of percentages was acceptable due to the nature of the simulation model to be assumed as a perfect model with no imperfect geometries. The energy absorption value from new to recycled product decrease from 312.86kJ to 282.10kJ. With this small decrements, it is still possible to implement a recycle SPF/PLA composite into everyday usages such as a car's interior or a small size furniture.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, Failure Modes, polylactic acid, sugar palm fibres

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12 The Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Joining Processes for Air Conditioning Systems

Authors: M.St. Węglowski, D. Miara, S. Błacha, J. Dworak, J. Rykała, K. Kwieciński, J. Pikuła, G. Ziobro, A. Szafron, P. Zimierska-Nowak, M. Richert, P. Noga

Abstract:

In the paper the results of welding of car’s air-conditioning elements are presented. These systems based on, mainly, the environmental unfriendly refrigerants. Thus, the producers of cars will have to stop using traditional refrigerant and to change it to carbon dioxide (R744). This refrigerant is environmental friendly. However, it should be noted that the air condition system working with R744 refrigerant operates at high temperature (up to 150 °C) and high pressure (up to 130 bar). These two parameters are much higher than for other refrigerants. Thus new materials, design as well as joining technologies are strongly needed for these systems. AISI 304 and 316L steels as well as aluminium alloys 5xxx are ranked among the prospective materials. As a joining process laser welding, plasma welding, electron beam welding as well as high rotary friction welding can be applied. In the study, the metallographic examination based on light microscopy as well as SEM was applied to estimate the quality of welded joints. The analysis of welding was supported by numerical modelling based on Sysweld software. The results indicated that using laser, plasma and electron beam welding, it is possible to obtain proper quality of welds in stainless steel. Moreover, high rotary friction welding allows to guarantee the metallic continuity in the aluminium welded area. The metallographic examination revealed that the grain growth in the heat affected zone (HAZ) in laser and electron beam welded joints were not observed. It is due to low heat input and short welding time. The grain growth and subgrains can be observed at room temperature when the solidification mode is austenitic. This caused low microstructural changes during solidification. The columnar grain structure was found in the weld metal. Meanwhile, the equiaxed grains were detected in the interface. The numerical modelling of laser welding process allowed to estimate the temperature profile in the welded joint as well as predicts the dimensions of welds. The agreement between FEM analysis and experimental data was achieved.  

Keywords: Microstructure, welding, Numerical Modelling, car’s air–conditioning

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11 3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure

Authors: Q. Giraud, J. Gonçalvès, B. Paris

Abstract:

Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.

Keywords: Multiphase Flow, Porous Media, Numerical Modelling, dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), hexachlorobutadiene, in situ pulsed pumping

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10 Numerical Investigation of Static and Dynamic Responses of Fiber Reinforced Sand

Authors: Sandeep Kumar, Mahesh Kumar Jat, Rajib Sarkar

Abstract:

Soil reinforced with randomly distributed fibers is an attractive means to improve the performance of soil in a cost effective manner. Static and dynamic characterization of fiber reinforced soil have become important to evaluate adequate performance for all classes of geotechnical engineering problems. Present study investigates the behaviour of fiber reinforced cohesionless soil through numerical simulation of triaxial specimen. The numerical model has been validated with the existing literature of laboratory triaxial compression testing. A parametric study has been done to find out optimum fiber content for shear resistance. Cyclic triaxial testing has been simulated and the stress-strain response of fiber-reinforced sand has been examined considering different combination of fiber contents. Shear modulus values and damping values of fiber-reinforced sand are evaluated. It has been observed from results that for 1.0 percent fiber content shear modulus increased 2.28 times and damping ratio decreased 4.6 times. The influence of amplitude of cyclic strain, confining pressure and frequency of loading on the dynamic properties of fiber reinforced sand has been investigated and presented.

Keywords: Damping, Numerical Modelling, Shear Modulus, fiber reinforced soil

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9 Decision Support System for the Management of the Shandong Peninsula, China

Authors: Natacha Fery, Guilherme L. Dalledonne, Xiangyang Zheng, Cheng Tang, Roberto Mayerle

Abstract:

A Decision Support System (DSS) for supporting decision makers in the management of the Shandong Peninsula has been developed. Emphasis has been given to coastal protection, coastal cage aquaculture and harbors. The investigations were done in the framework of a joint research project funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In this paper, a description of the DSS, the development of its components, and results of its application are presented. The system integrates in-situ measurements, process-based models, and a database management system. Numerical models for the simulation of flow, waves, sediment transport and morphodynamics covering the entire Bohai Sea are set up based on the Delft3D modelling suite (Deltares). Calibration and validation of the models were realized based on the measurements of moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) and High Frequency (HF) radars. In order to enable cost-effective and scalable applications, a database management system was developed. It enhances information processing, data evaluation, and supports the generation of data products. Results of the application of the DSS to the management of coastal protection, coastal cage aquaculture and harbors are presented here. Model simulations covering the most severe storms observed during the last decades were carried out leading to an improved understanding of hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Results helped in the identification of coastal stretches subjected to higher levels of energy and improved support for coastal protection measures.

Keywords: Decision Support System, Coastal Protection, Numerical Modelling, in-situ measurements

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8 Assessment of Pedestrian Comfort in a Portuguese City Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling and Wind Tunnel

Authors: Bruno Vicente, Sandra Rafael, Vera Rodrigues, Sandra Sorte, Sara Silva, Ana Isabel Miranda, Carlos Borrego

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Wind comfort for pedestrians is an important condition in urban areas. In Portugal, a country with 900 km of coastline, the wind direction are predominantly from Nor-Northwest with an average speed of 2.3 m·s -1 (at 2 m height). As a result, a set of city authorities have been requesting studies of pedestrian wind comfort for new urban areas/buildings, as well as to mitigate wind discomfort issues related to existing structures. This work covers the efficiency evaluation of a set of measures to reduce the wind speed in an outdoor auditorium (open space) located in a coastal Portuguese urban area. These measures include the construction of barriers, placed at upstream and downstream of the auditorium, and the planting of trees, placed upstream of the auditorium. The auditorium is constructed in the form of a porch, aligned with North direction, driving the wind flow within the auditorium, promoting channelling effects and increasing its speed, causing discomfort in the users of this structure. To perform the wind comfort assessment, two approaches were used: i) a set of experiments using the wind tunnel (physical approach), with a representative mock-up of the study area; ii) application of the CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model VADIS (numerical approach). Both approaches were used to simulate the baseline scenario and the scenarios considering a set of measures. The physical approach was conducted through a quantitative method, using hot-wire anemometer, and through a qualitative analysis (visualizations), using the laser technology and a fog machine. Both numerical and physical approaches were performed for three different velocities (2, 4 and 6 m·s-1 ) and two different directions (NorNorthwest and South), corresponding to the prevailing wind speed and direction of the study area. The numerical results show an effective reduction (with a maximum value of 80%) of the wind speed inside the auditorium, through the application of the proposed measures. A wind speed reduction in a range of 20% to 40% was obtained around the audience area, for a wind direction from Nor-Northwest. For southern winds, in the audience zone, the wind speed was reduced from 60% to 80%. Despite of that, for southern winds, the design of the barriers generated additional hot spots (high wind speed), namely, in the entrance to the auditorium. Thus, a changing in the location of the entrance would minimize these effects. The results obtained in the wind tunnel compared well with the numerical data, also revealing the high efficiency of the purposed measures (for both wind directions).

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, wind tunnel experiments, urban microclimate, pedestrian comfort

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7 Experimental Characterization and Modelling of Microfluidic Radial Diffusers

Authors: Dimitry Dumont-Fillon, Harald van Lintel, Eric Chappel, Hugo Musard

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A microfluidic radial diffuser typically comprises a hole in a membrane, a small gap and pillar centred with the hole. The fluid is forced to flow radially in this gap between the membrane and the pillar. Such diffusers are notably used to form flow control valves, wherein several holes are machined into a flexible membrane progressively deflecting against pillars as the pressure increases. The fluidic modelling of such diffuser is made difficult by the presence of a transition region between the hole and the diffuser itself. An experimental investigation has been conducted using SOI wafers to form membranes with only one centred hole and Pyrex wafers for the substrate and pillars, both wafers being anodically bonded after alignment. A simple fluidic model accounting for the specific geometry of the diffuser is proposed and compared to experimental results. A good match is obtained, for Reynolds number in the range 0.5 to 35 using the analytical formula of a radial diffuser in the laminar regime with an effective inner radius that is 40% smaller than the real radius, in order to simulate correctly the flow constriction at the entrance of the diffuser.

Keywords: drug delivery, Numerical Modelling, flow control valve, radial diffuser

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6 Numerical Modelling of Surface Waves Generated by Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field for Silicon Refinement Process

Authors: V. Geza, J. Vencels, G. Zageris, S. Pavlovs

Abstract:

One of the most perspective methods to produce SoG-Si is refinement via metallurgical route. The most critical part of this route is refinement from boron and phosphorus. Therefore, a new approach could address this problem. We propose an approach of creating surface waves on silicon melt’s surface in order to enlarge its area and accelerate removal of boron via chemical reactions and evaporation of phosphorus. A two dimensional numerical model is created which includes coupling of electromagnetic and fluid dynamic simulations with free surface dynamics. First results show behaviour similar to experimental results from literature.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, surface waves, VOF method, silicon refinement

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5 A Preliminary Study of Economic Dimension of Underground Rock Caverns for Water Storage at Singapore

Authors: Junlong Shang, Zhengxian Chua, Hoongping Peh, Zhiye Zhao

Abstract:

Due to scarce land resources in Singapore, it is imperative to increase water storage capacities to meet the increasing demand of water to secure a sustainable development, which can be achieved in the underground by rock caverns. In this paper, a preliminary study on the effects of cavern span, height and radius on the cavern stability is presented to provide a guidance on the cavern construction in the context of Singapore. It is found that the radius of caverns should be around half of the span width (i.e., B/R=2) to reduce vertical displacement at the crown of cavern. The smaller the rock cover, the smaller displacement. The minimum rock thickness should be at least the same as the cavern span to eliminate excessive yielded element. Finally, rock support system is introduced to maintain the profile of caverns.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Numerical Modelling, cavern dimension, underground rock cavern

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4 Numerical Modelling of a Vacuum Consolidation Project in Vietnam

Authors: Sanjay Kumar Shukla, Nguyen Trong Nghia, Nguyen Huu Uy Vu, Dang Huu Phuoc, Le Gia Lam, Nguyen Van Cuong

Abstract:

This paper introduces a matching scheme for selection of soil/drain properties in analytical solution and numerical modelling (axisymmetric and plane strain conditions) of a ground improvement project by using Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVD) in combination with vacuum and surcharge preloading. In-situ monitoring data from a case history of a road construction project in Vietnam was adopted in the back-analysis. Analytical solution and axisymmetric analysis can approximate well the field data meanwhile the horizontal permeability need to be adjusted in plane strain scenario to achieve good agreement. In addition, the influence zone of the ground treatment was examined. The residual settlement was investigated to justify the long-term settlement in compliance with the design code. Moreover, the degree of consolidation of non-PVD sub-layers was also studied by means of two different approaches.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, soft soil, prefabricated vertical drains, vacuum consolidation

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3 Numerical Modelling of Immiscible Fluids Flow in Oil Reservoir Rocks during Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes

Authors: Zahreddine Hafsi, Manoranjan Mishra, Sami Elaoud

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Ensuring the maximum recovery rate of oil from reservoir rocks is a challenging task that requires preliminary numerical analysis of different techniques used to enhance the recovery process. After conventional oil recovery processes and in order to retrieve oil left behind after the primary recovery phase, water flooding in one of several techniques used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). In this research work, EOR via water flooding is numerically modeled, and hydrodynamic instabilities resulted from immiscible oil-water flow in reservoir rocks are investigated. An oil reservoir is a porous medium consisted of many fractures of tiny dimensions. For modeling purposes, the oil reservoir is considered as a collection of capillary tubes which provides useful insights into how fluids behave in the reservoir pore spaces. Equations governing oil-water flow in oil reservoir rocks are developed and numerically solved following a finite element scheme. Numerical results are obtained using Comsol Multiphysics software. The two phase Darcy module of COMSOL Multiphysics allows modelling the imbibition process by the injection of water (as wetting phase) into an oil reservoir. Van Genuchten, Brooks Corey and Levrett models were considered as retention models and obtained flow configurations are compared, and the governing parameters are discussed. For the considered retention models it was found that onset of instabilities viz. fingering phenomenon is highly dependent on the capillary pressure as well as the boundary conditions, i.e., the inlet pressure and the injection velocity.

Keywords: Numerical Modelling, capillary pressure, EOR process, immiscible flow

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2 Hydroinformatics of Smart Cities: Real-Time Water Quality Prediction Model Using a Hybrid Approach

Authors: Elisa Coraggio, Dawei Han, Weiru Liu, Theo Tryfonas

Abstract:

Water is one of the most important resources for human society. The world is currently undergoing a wave of urban growth, and pollution problems are of a great impact. Monitoring water quality is a key task for the future of the environment and human species. In recent times, researchers, using Smart Cities technologies are trying to mitigate the problems generated by the population growth in urban areas. The availability of huge amounts of data collected by a pervasive urban IoT can increase the transparency of decision making. Several services have already been implemented in Smart Cities, but more and more services will be involved in the future. Water quality monitoring can successfully be implemented in the urban IoT. The combination of water quality sensors, cloud computing, smart city infrastructure, and IoT technology can lead to a bright future for environmental monitoring. In the past decades, lots of effort has been put on monitoring and predicting water quality using traditional approaches based on manual collection and laboratory-based analysis, which are slow and laborious. The present study proposes a methodology for implementing a water quality prediction model using artificial intelligence techniques and comparing the results obtained with different algorithms. Furthermore, a 3D numerical model will be created using the software D-Water Quality, and simulation results will be used as a training dataset for the artificial intelligence algorithm. This study derives the methodology and demonstrates its implementation based on information and data collected at the floating harbour in the city of Bristol (UK). The city of Bristol is blessed with the Bristol-Is-Open infrastructure that includes Wi-Fi network and virtual machines. It was also named the UK ’s smartest city in 2017.In recent times, researchers, using Smart Cities technologies are trying to mitigate the problems generated by the population growth in urban areas. The availability of huge amounts of data collected by a pervasive urban IoT can increase the transparency of decision making. Several services have already been implemented in Smart Cities, but more and more services will be involved in the future. Water quality monitoring can successfully be implemented in the urban IoT. The combination of water quality sensors, cloud computing, smart city infrastructure, and IoT technology can lead to a bright future for the environment monitoring. In the past decades, lots of effort has been put on monitoring and predicting water quality using traditional approaches based on manual collection and laboratory-based analysis, which are slow and laborious. The present study proposes a new methodology for implementing a water quality prediction model using artificial intelligence techniques and comparing the results obtained with different algorithms. Furthermore, a 3D numerical model will be created using the software D-Water Quality, and simulation results will be used as a training dataset for the Artificial Intelligence algorithm. This study derives the methodology and demonstrate its implementation based on information and data collected at the floating harbour in the city of Bristol (UK). The city of Bristol is blessed with the Bristol-Is-Open infrastructure that includes Wi-Fi network and virtual machines. It was also named the UK ’s smartest city in 2017.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Water Quality, Smart Cities, Hydroinformatics, Numerical Modelling

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1 Design of Large Parallel Underground Openings in Himalayas: A Case Study of Desilting Chambers for Punatsangchhu-I, Bhutan

Authors: Kanupreiya, Rajani Sharma

Abstract:

Construction of a single underground structure is itself a challenging task, and it becomes more critical in tectonically active young mountains such as the Himalayas which are highly anisotropic. The Himalayan geology mostly comprises of incompetent and sheared rock mass in addition to fold/faults, rock burst, and water ingress. Underground tunnels form the most essential and important structure in run-of-river hydroelectric projects. Punatsangchhu I hydroelectric project (PHEP-I), Bhutan (1200 MW) is a run-of-river scheme which has four parallel underground desilting chambers. The Punatsangchhu River carries a large quantity of silt load during monsoon season. Desilting chambers were provided to remove the silt particles of size greater than and equal to 0.2 mm with 90% efficiency, thereby minimizing the rate of damage to turbines. These chambers are 330 m long, 18 m wide at the center and 23.87 m high, with a 5.87 m hopper portion. The geology of desilting chambers was known from an exploratory drift which exposed low dipping foliation joint and six joint sets. The RMR and Q value in this reach varied from 40 to 60 and 1 to 6 respectively. This paper describes different rock engineering principles undertaken for safe excavation and rock support of the moderately jointed, blocky and thinly foliated biotite gneiss. For the design of rock support system of desilting chambers, empirical and numerical analysis was adopted. Finite element analysis was carried out for cavern design and finalization of pillar width using Phase2. Phase2 is a powerful tool for simulation of stage-wise excavation with simultaneous provision of support system. As the geology of the region had 7 sets of joints, in addition to FEM based approach, safety factors for potentially unstable wedges were checked using UnWedge. The final support recommendations were based on continuous face mapping, numerical modelling, empirical calculations, and practical experiences.

Keywords: hydropower, Numerical Modelling, Rock Support, dam siltation, Himalayan geology

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