Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 51

Numerical Analysis Related Abstracts

51 Design of Rigid L-Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: Ahmed Rouili


Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0,5 to 0,7, ensure the stability requirements in most cases. However, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work, the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, cantilever wall, proportioning, lateral pressure estimation

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50 Influence of Rainfall Intensity on Infiltration and Deformation of Unsaturated Soil Slopes

Authors: Bouziane Mohamed Tewfik


In order to improve the understanding of the influence of rainfall intensity on infiltration and deformation behaviour of unsaturated soil slopes, numerical 2D analyses are carried out by a three phase elasto-viscoplastic seepage-deformation coupled method. From the numerical results, it is shown that regardless of the saturated permeability of the soil slope, the increase in the pore water pressure (reduction in suction) during rainfall infiltration is localized close to the slope surface. In addition, the generation of the pore water pressure and the lateral displacement are mainly controlled by the ratio of the rainfall intensity to the saturated permeability of the soil.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Slope Stability, unsaturated soil, rainfall infiltration

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49 Mathematical Modeling of the AMCs Cross-Contamination Removal in the FOUPs: Finite Element Formulation and Application in FOUP’s Decontamination

Authors: N. Santatriniaina, J. Deseure, H. Fontaine, C. Beitia, L. Rakotomanana, T. Q. Nguyen


Nowadays, with the increasing of the wafer's size and the decreasing of critical size of integrated circuit manufacturing in modern high-tech, microelectronics industry needs a maximum attention to challenge the contamination control. The move to 300 mm is accompanied by the use of Front Opening Unified Pods for wafer and his storage. In these pods an airborne cross contamination may occur between wafers and the pods. A predictive approach using modeling and computational methods is very powerful method to understand and qualify the AMCs cross contamination processes. This work investigates the required numerical tools which are employed in order to study the AMCs cross-contamination transfer phenomena between wafers and FOUPs. Numerical optimization and finite element formulation in transient analysis were established. Analytical solution of one dimensional problem was developed and the calibration process of physical constants was performed. The least square distance between the model (analytical 1D solution) and the experimental data are minimized. The behavior of the AMCs intransient analysis was determined. The model framework preserves the classical forms of the diffusion and convection-diffusion equations and yields to consistent form of the Fick's law. The adsorption process and the surface roughness effect were also traduced as a boundary condition using the switch condition Dirichlet to Neumann and the interface condition. The methodology is applied, first using the optimization methods with analytical solution to define physical constants, and second using finite element method including adsorption kinetic and the switch of Dirichlet to Neumann condition.

Keywords: Optimization, Numerical Analysis, Adsorption, AMCs, FOUP, cross-contamination, diffusion, wafers, Dirichlet to Neumann, finite elements methods, Fick’s law

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48 Comparison on Electrode and Ground Arrangements Effect on Heat Transfer under Electric Force in a Channel and a Cavity Flow

Authors: Suwimon Saneewong Na Ayuttaya, Chainarong Chaktranond, Phadungsak Rattanadecho


This study numerically investigates the effects of Electrohydrodynamic on flow patterns and heat transfer enhancement within a cavity which is on the lower wall of channel. In this simulation, effects of using ground wire and ground plate on the flow patterns are compared. Moreover, the positions of electrode wire respecting with ground are tested in the range of angles θ = 0 - 180°. High electrical voltage exposes to air is 20 kV. Bulk mean velocity and temperature of inlet air are controlled at 0.1 m/s and 60°C, respectively. The result shows when electric field is applied, swirling flow is appeared in the channel. In addition, swirling flow patterns in the main flow of using ground plate are widely spreader than that of using ground wire. Moreover, direction of swirling flow also affects the flow pattern and heat transfer in a cavity. These cause the using ground wire to give the maximum temperature and heat transfer higher than using ground plate. Furthermore, when the angle is at θ = 60°, high shear flow effect is obtained. This results show high strength of swirling flow and effective heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Analysis, swirling flow, electrohydrodynamic

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47 Mathematical and Numerical Analysis of a Nonlinear Cross Diffusion System

Authors: Hassan Al Salman


We consider a nonlinear parabolic cross diffusion model arising in applied mathematics. A fully practical piecewise linear finite element approximation of the model is studied. By using entropy-type inequalities and compactness arguments, existence of a global weak solution is proved. Providing further regularity of the solution of the model, some uniqueness results and error estimates are established. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Finite Element Approximation, cross diffusion model, entropy-type inequality

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46 Thermal Performance of an Air Heating Storing System

Authors: Mohammed A. Elhaj, Jamal S. Yassin


Owing to the lack of synchronization between the solar energy availability and the heat demands in a specific application, the energy storing sub-system is necessary to maintain the continuity of thermal process. The present work is dealing with an active solar heating storing system in which an air solar collector is connected to storing unit where this energy is distributed and provided to the heated space in a controlled manner. The solar collector is a box type absorber where the air flows between a number of vanes attached between the collector absorber and the bottom plate. This design can improve the efficiency due to increasing the heat transfer area exposed to the flowing air, as well as the heat conduction through the metal vanes from the top absorbing surface. The storing unit is a packed bed type where the air is coming from the air collector and circulated through the bed in order to add/remove the energy through the charging / discharging processes, respectively. The major advantage of the packed bed storage is its high degree of thermal stratification. Numerical solution of the packed bed energy storage is considered through dividing the bed into a number of equal segments for the bed particles and solved the energy equation for each segment depending on the neighbor ones. The studied design and performance parameters in the developed simulation model including, particle size, void fraction, etc. The final results showed that the collector efficiency was fluctuated between 55%-61% in winter season (January) under the climatic conditions of Misurata in Libya. Maximum temperature of 52ºC is attained at the top of the bed while the lower one is 25ºC at the end of the charging process of hot air into the bed. This distribution can satisfy the required load for the most house heating in Libya.

Keywords: Simulation, Solar energy, Numerical Analysis, Performance, thermal process, collector, packed bed

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45 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Young-Seok Choi, Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee


The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of the pump under study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment, and the results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Performance Evaluation, Experiment, multiphase pump, reliability verification

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44 Evaluation of Hydrogen Particle Volume on Surfaces of Selected Nanocarbons

Authors: M. Ziółkowska, J. T. Duda, J. Milewska-Duda


This paper describes an approach to the adsorption phenomena modeling aimed at specifying the adsorption mechanisms on localized or nonlocalized adsorbent sites, when applied to the nanocarbons. The concept comes from the fundamental thermodynamic description of adsorption equilibrium and is based on numerical calculations of the hydrogen adsorbed particles volume on the surface of selected nanocarbons: single-walled nanotube and nanocone. This approach enables to obtain information on adsorption mechanism and then as a consequence to take appropriate mathematical adsorption model, thus allowing for a more reliable identification of the material porous structure. Theoretical basis of the approach is discussed and newly derived results of the numerical calculations are presented for the selected nanocarbons.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Analysis, Adsorption, Nanocarbons

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43 A Study on Prediction Model for Thermally Grown Oxide Layer in Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Yongseok Kim


Thermal barrier coating(TBC) is applied for gas turbine components to protect the components from extremely high temperature condition. Since metallic substrate cannot endure such severe condition of gas turbines, delamination of TBC can cause failure of the system. Thus, delamination life of TBC is one of the most important issues for designing the components operating at high temperature condition. Thermal stress caused by thermally grown oxide(TGO) layer is known as one of the major failure mechanisms of TBC. Thermal stress by TGO mainly occurs at the interface between TGO layer and ceramic top coat layer, and it is strongly influenced by the thickness and shape of TGO layer. In this study, Isothermal oxidation is conducted on coin-type TBC specimens prepared by APS(air plasma spray) method. After the isothermal oxidation at various temperature and time condition, the thickness and shape(rumpling shape) of the TGO is investigated, and the test data is processed by numerical analysis. Finally, the test data is arranged into a mathematical prediction model with two variables(temperature and exposure time) which can predict the thickness and rumpling shape of TGO.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Isothermal Oxidation, Thermal Stress, thermal barrier coating, thermally grown oxide

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42 The Effect of Discontinued Water Spray Cooling on the Heat Transfer Coefficient

Authors: J. Hrabovský, M. Chabičovský, J. Horský


Water spray cooling is a technique typically used in heat treatment and other metallurgical processes where controlled temperature regimes are required. Water spray cooling is used in static (without movement) or dynamic (with movement of the steel plate) regimes. The static regime is notable for the fixed position of the hot steel plate and fixed spray nozzle. This regime is typical for quenching systems focused on heat treatment of the steel plate. The second application of spray cooling is the dynamic regime. The dynamic regime is notable for its static section cooling system and moving steel plate. This regime is used in rolling and finishing mills. The fixed position of cooling sections with nozzles and the movement of the steel plate produce nonhomogeneous water distribution on the steel plate. The length of cooling sections and placement of water nozzles in combination with the nonhomogeneity of water distribution leads to discontinued or interrupted cooling conditions. The impact of static and dynamic regimes on cooling intensity and the heat transfer coefficient during the cooling process of steel plates is an important issue. Heat treatment of steel is accompanied by oxide scale growth. The oxide scale layers can significantly modify the cooling properties and intensity during the cooling. The combination of the static and dynamic (section) regimes with the variable thickness of the oxide scale layer on the steel surface impact the final cooling intensity. The study of the influence of the oxide scale layers with different cooling regimes was carried out using experimental measurements and numerical analysis. The experimental measurements compared both types of cooling regimes and the cooling of scale-free surfaces and oxidized surfaces. A numerical analysis was prepared to simulate the cooling process with different conditions of the section and samples with different oxide scale layers.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, heat transfer coefficient, oxide layer, spray cooling

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41 Nonlinear Impact Responses for a Damped Frame Supported by Nonlinear Springs with Hysteresis Using Fast FEA

Authors: T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, S. Maruyama, M. Watanabe, C. Yuan, T. B. Ibrahim, H. Tomita


This paper deals with nonlinear vibration analysis using finite element method for frame structures consisting of elastic and viscoelastic damping layers supported by multiple nonlinear concentrated springs with hysteresis damping. The frame is supported by four nonlinear concentrated springs near the four corners. The restoring forces of the springs have cubic non-linearity and linear component of the nonlinear springs has complex quantity to represent linear hysteresis damping. The damping layer of the frame structures has complex modulus of elasticity. Further, the discretized equations in physical coordinate are transformed into the nonlinear ordinary coupled differential equations using normal coordinate corresponding to linear natural modes. Comparing shares of strain energy of the elastic frame, the damping layer and the springs, we evaluate the influences of the damping couplings on the linear and nonlinear impact responses. We also investigate influences of damping changed by stiffness of the elastic frame on the nonlinear coupling in the damped impact responses.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Numerical Analysis, dynamic response, nonlinear impact response

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40 Studying on Pile Seismic Operation with Numerical Method by Using FLAC 3D Software

Authors: Hossein Motaghedi, Kaveh Arkani, Siavash Salamatpoor


Usually the piles are important tools for safety and economical design of high and heavy structures. For this aim the response of single pile under dynamic load is so effective. Also, the agents which have influence on single pile response are properties of pile geometrical, soil and subjected loads. In this study the finite difference numerical method and by using FLAC 3D software is used for evaluation of single pile behavior under peak ground acceleration (PGA) of El Centro earthquake record in California (1940). The results of this models compared by experimental results of other researchers and it will be seen that the results of this models are approximately coincide by experimental data's. For example the maximum moment and displacement in top of the pile is corresponding to the other experimental results of pervious researchers. Furthermore, in this paper is tried to evaluate the effective properties between soil and pile. The results is shown that by increasing the pile diagonal, the pile top displacement will be decreased. As well as, by increasing the length of pile, the top displacement will be increased. Also, by increasing the stiffness ratio of pile to soil, the produced moment in pile body will be increased and the taller piles have more interaction by soils and have high inertia. So, these results can help directly to optimization design of pile dimensions.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, pile seismic response, interaction between soil and pile, FLAC 3D

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39 Acceleration Techniques of DEM Simulation for Dynamics of Particle Damping

Authors: Masato Saeki


Presented herein is a novel algorithms for calculating the damping performance of particle dampers. The particle damper is a passive vibration control technique and has many practical applications due to simple design. It consists of granular materials constrained to move between two ends in the cavity of a primary vibrating system. The damping effect results from the exchange of momentum during the impact of granular materials against the wall of the cavity. This damping has the advantage of being independent of the environment. Therefore, particle damping can be applied in extreme temperature environments, where most conventional dampers would fail. It was shown experimentally in many papers that the efficiency of the particle dampers is high in the case of resonant vibration. In order to use the particle dampers effectively, it is necessary to solve the equations of motion for each particle, considering the granularity. The discrete element method (DEM) has been found to be effective for revealing the dynamics of particle damping. In this method, individual particles are assumed as rigid body and interparticle collisions are modeled by mechanical elements as springs and dashpots. However, the computational cost is significant since the equation of motion for each particle must be solved at each time step. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the DEM, the new algorithms are needed. In this study, new algorithms are proposed for implementing the high performance DEM. On the assumption that behaviors of the granular particles in the each divided area of the damper container are the same, the contact force of the primary system with all particles can be considered to be equal to the product of the divided number of the damper area and the contact force of the primary system with granular materials per divided area. This convenience makes it possible to considerably reduce the calculation time. The validity of this calculation method was investigated and the calculated results were compared with the experimental ones. This paper also presents the results of experimental studies of the performance of particle dampers. It is shown that the particle radius affect the noise level. It is also shown that the particle size and the particle material influence the damper performance.

Keywords: Granular Materials, Numerical Analysis, Discrete Element Method (DEM), particle damping, equivalent noise level

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38 Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Spongy-Porous Media

Authors: Zeinab Sayed Abdel Rehim, M. A. Ziada, H. Salwa El-Deeb


Numerical study of fluid flow, heat transfer and thermal energy storing or released in/from spongy-porous media to predict the thermal performance and characteristics of the porous media as packed bed system is presented in this work. This system is cylindrical channel filled with porous media (carbon foam). The system consists of working fluid (air) and spongy-porous medium; they act as the heat exchanger (heating or cooling modes) where thermal interaction occurs between the working fluid and the porous medium. The spongy-porous media are defined by the different type of porous medium employed in the storing or cooling modes. Two different porous media are considered in this study: Carbon foam, and Silicon rubber. The flow of the working fluid (air) is one dimensional in the axial direction from the top to downward and steady state conditions. The numerical results of transient temperature distribution for both working fluid and the spongy-porous medium phases and the amount of stored/realized heat inside/from the porous medium for each case with respect to the operating parameters and the spongy-porous media characteristics are illustrated.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Numerical Analysis, fluid flow, Thermal Performance, spongy-porous media, transient conditions

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37 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher


Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Stability, steel, buckling, beam

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36 Biases in Numerically Invariant Joint Signatures

Authors: Reza Aghayan


This paper illustrates that numerically invariant joint signatures suffer biases in the resulting signatures. Next, we classify the arising biases as Bias Type 1 and Bias Type 2 and show how they can be removed.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Euclidean and affine geometries, differential invariant signature curves, numerically invariant joint signatures, numerical bias, curve analysis

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35 Numerical Investigation of Embankments for Protecting Rock Fall

Authors: Gökhan Altay, Cafer Kayadelen


Rock fall is a movement of huge rock blocks from dip slopes due to physical effects. It generally occurs where loose tuffs lying under basalt flow or stringcourse is being constituted by limestone layers which stand on clay. By corrosion of some parts, big cracks occur on layers and these cracks continue to grow with the effect of freezing-thawing. In this way, the breaking rocks fall down from these dip slopes. Earthquakes which can induce lots of rock movements is another reason for rock fall events. In Turkey, we have a large number of regions prone to the earthquake as in the World so this increases the possibility of rock fall events. A great number of rock fall events take place in Turkey as in the World every year. The rock fall events occurring in urban areas cause serious damages in houses, roads and workplaces. Sometimes it also hinders transportation and furthermore it maybe kills people. In Turkey, rock fall events happen mostly in Spring and Winter because of freezing- thawing of water in rock cracks frequently. In mountain and inclined areas, rock fall is risky for engineering construction and environment. Some countries can invest significant money for these risky areas. For instance, in Switzerland, approximately 6.7 million dollars is spent annually for a distance of 4 km, to the systems to prevent rock fall events. In Turkey, we have lots of urban areas and engineering structure that have the rock fall risk. The embankments are preferable for rock fall events because of its low maintenance and repair costs. Also, embankments are able to absorb much more energy according to other protection systems. The current design method of embankments is only depended on field tests results so there are inadequate studies about this design method. In this paper, the field test modeled in three dimensions and analysis are carried out with the help of ANSYS programme. By the help of field test from literature the numerical model validated. After the validity of numerical models additional parametric studies performed. Changes in deformation of embankments are investigated by the changes in, geometry, velocity and impact height of falling rocks.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, ANSYS, embankment, impact height, rock fall

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34 Integrated Mathematical Modeling and Advance Visualization of Magnetic Nanoparticle for Drug Delivery, Drug Release and Effects to Cancer Cell Treatment

Authors: Norma Binti Alias, Che Rahim Che The, Norfarizan Mohd Said, Sakinah Abdul Hanan, Akhtar Ali


This paper discusses on the transportation of magnetic drug targeting through blood within vessels, tissues and cells. There are three integrated mathematical models to be discussed and analyze the concentration of drug and blood flow through magnetic nanoparticles. The cell therapy brought advancement in the field of nanotechnology to fight against the tumors. The systematic therapeutic effect of Single Cells can reduce the growth of cancer tissue. The process of this nanoscale phenomena system is able to measure and to model, by identifying some parameters and applying fundamental principles of mathematical modeling and simulation. The mathematical modeling of single cell growth depends on three types of cell densities such as proliferative, quiescent and necrotic cells. The aim of this paper is to enhance the simulation of three types of models. The first model represents the transport of drugs by coupled partial differential equations (PDEs) with 3D parabolic type in a cylindrical coordinate system. This model is integrated by Non-Newtonian flow equations, leading to blood liquid flow as the medium for transportation system and the magnetic force on the magnetic nanoparticles. The interaction between the magnetic force on drug with magnetic properties produces induced currents and the applied magnetic field yields forces with tend to move slowly the movement of blood and bring the drug to the cancer cells. The devices of nanoscale allow the drug to discharge the blood vessels and even spread out through the tissue and access to the cancer cells. The second model is the transport of drug nanoparticles from the vascular system to a single cell. The treatment of the vascular system encounters some parameter identification such as magnetic nanoparticle targeted delivery, blood flow, momentum transport, density and viscosity for drug and blood medium, intensity of magnetic fields and the radius of the capillary. Based on two discretization techniques, finite difference method (FDM) and finite element method (FEM), the set of integrated models are transformed into a series of grid points to get a large system of equations. The third model is a single cell density model involving the three sets of first order PDEs equations for proliferating, quiescent and necrotic cells change over time and space in Cartesian coordinate which regulates under different rates of nutrients consumptions. The model presents the proliferative and quiescent cell growth depends on some parameter changes and the necrotic cells emerged as the tumor core. Some numerical schemes for solving the system of equations are compared and analyzed. Simulation and computation of the discretized model are supported by Matlab and C programming languages on a single processing unit. Some numerical results and analysis of the algorithms are presented in terms of informative presentation of tables, multiple graph and multidimensional visualization. As a conclusion, the integrated of three types mathematical modeling and the comparison of numerical performance indicates that the superior tool and analysis for solving the complete set of magnetic drug delivery system which give significant effects on the growth of the targeted cancer cell.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Numerical Analysis, Visualization, PDE models, magnetic nanoparticle drug delivery model, drug release model, single cell effects, avascular tumor growth

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33 Predicting the Effect of Vibro Stone Column Installation on Performance of Reinforced Foundations

Authors: K. Al Ammari, B. G. Clarke


Soil improvement using vibro stone column techniques consists of two main parts: (1) the installed load bearing columns of well-compacted, coarse-grained material and (2) the improvements to the surrounding soil due to vibro compaction. Extensive research work has been carried out over the last 20 years to understand the improvement in the composite foundation performance due to the second part mentioned above. Nevertheless, few of these studies have tried to quantify some of the key design parameters, namely the changes in the stiffness and stress state of the treated soil, or have consider these parameters in the design and calculation process. Consequently, empirical and conservative design methods are still being used by ground improvement companies with a significant variety of results in engineering practice. Two-dimensional finite element study to develop an axisymmetric model of a single stone column reinforced foundation was performed using PLAXIS 2D AE to quantify the effect of the vibro installation of this column in soft saturated clay. Settlement and bearing performance were studied as an essential part of the design and calculation of the stone column foundation. Particular attention was paid to the large deformation in the soft clay around the installed column caused by the lateral expansion. So updated mesh advanced option was taken in the analysis. In this analysis, different degrees of stone column lateral expansions were simulated and numerically analyzed, and then the changes in the stress state, stiffness, settlement performance and bearing capacity were quantified. It was found that application of radial expansion will produce a horizontal stress in the soft clay mass that gradually decrease as the distance from the stone column axis increases. The excess pore pressure due to the undrained conditions starts to dissipate immediately after finishing the column installation, allowing the horizontal stress to relax. Changes in the coefficient of the lateral earth pressure K ٭, which is very important in representing the stress state, and the new stiffness distribution in the reinforced clay mass, were estimated. More encouraging results showed that increasing the expansion during column installation has a noticeable effect on improving the bearing capacity and reducing the settlement of reinforced ground, So, a design method should include this significant effect of the applied lateral displacement during the stone column instillation in simulation and numerical analysis design.

Keywords: Design, Numerical Analysis, Settlement, Installation, bearing capacity, stone column

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32 Magneto-Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Electromagnetic Devices Using the Finite Element Method

Authors: Michael G. Pantelyat


Fundamental basics of pure and applied research in the area of magneto-thermo-mechanical numerical analysis and design of innovative electromagnetic devices (modern induction heaters, novel thermoelastic actuators, rotating electrical machines, induction cookers, electrophysical devices) are elaborated. Thus, mathematical models of magneto-thermo-mechanical processes in electromagnetic devices taking into account main interactions of interrelated phenomena are developed. In addition, graphical representation of coupled (multiphysics) phenomena under consideration is proposed. Besides, numerical techniques for nonlinear problems solution are developed. On this base, effective numerical algorithms for solution of actual problems of practical interest are proposed, validated and implemented in applied 2D and 3D computer codes developed. Many applied problems of practical interest regarding modern electrical engineering devices are numerically solved. Investigations of the influences of various interrelated physical phenomena (temperature dependences of material properties, thermal radiation, conditions of convective heat transfer, contact phenomena, etc.) on the accuracy of the electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses are conducted. Important practical recommendations on the choice of rational structures, materials and operation modes of electromagnetic devices under consideration are proposed and implemented in industry.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Multiphysics, Electromagnetic Devices, simulation and design

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31 A Comparative Study on the Effects of Different Clustering Layouts and Geometry of Urban Street Canyons on Urban Heat Island in Residential Neighborhoods of Kolkata

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Roshmi Sen, Subrata Chattopadhyay


Urbanization during the second half of the last century has created many serious environment related issues leading to global warming and climate change. India is not an exception as the country is also facing the problems of global warming and urban heat islands (UHI) in all the major metropolises. This paper discusses the effect of different housing cluster layouts, site geometry, and geometry of urban street canyons on the urban heat island profile. The study is carried out using the three dimensional microclimatic computational fluid dynamics model ENVI-met version 3.1. Simulation models are done for a typical summer day of 21st June, 2015 in four different residential neighborhoods in the city of Kolkata which predominantly belongs to Warm-Humid Monsoon Climate. The results show the changing pattern of urban heat island profile with respect to different clustering layouts, geometry, and morphology of urban street canyons. The comparison between the four neighborhoods shows that different microclimatic variables are strongly dependant on the neighborhood layout pattern and geometry. The inferences obtained from this study can be indicative towards the formulation of neighborhood design by-laws that will attenuate the urban heat island effect.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Urban Heat Island, ENVI-met, neighborhood morphology, site microclimate

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30 Investigation on Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beam-Column Joints Retrofitted with CFRP

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni


The aim of this thesis is to provide numerical analyses of reinforced concrete beams-column joints with/without CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) in order to achieve a better understanding of the behaviour of strengthened beamcolumn joints. A comprehensive literature survey prior to this study revealed that published studies are limited to a handful only; the results are inconclusive and some are even contradictory. Therefore in order to improve on this situation, following that review, a numerical study was designed and performed as presented in this thesis. For the numerical study, dimensions, end supports, and characteristics of the beam and column models were the same as those chosen in an experimental investigation performed previously where ten beamcolumn joint were tested tofailure. Finite element analysis is a useful tool in cases where analytical methods are not capable of solving the problem due to the complexities associated with the problem. The cyclic behaviour of FRP strengthened reinforced concrete beam-columns joints is such a case. Interaction of steel (longitudinal and stirrups), concrete and FRP, yielding of steel bars and stirrups, cracking of concrete, the redistribution of stresses as some elements unload due to crushing or yielding and the confinement of concrete due to the presence of FRP are some of the issues that introduce the complexities into the problem.Numerical solutions, however, can provide further in formation about the behaviour in lieu of the costly experiments or complex closed form solutions. This thesis presents the results of a numerical study on beam-column joints subjected to cyclic loads that are strengthened with CFRP wraps or strrips in a variety of configurations. The analyses are performed by Abaqus finite element program and are calibrated with the experiments. A range of issues in beam-column joints including the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves of joints, are investigated.The numerical results for different configurations of strengthening are compared. Finally, the computed numerical results are compared with those obtained from experiments. the cracking load, the ultimate load, lateral load-displacement curves obtained from numerical analysis for all joints were in very good agreement with the corresponding experimental ones.The results obtained from the numerical analysis in most cases implies that this method is conservative and therefore can be used in design applications with confidence.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Strengthening, CFRP, reinforced concrete joints

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29 3D Modelling and Numerical Analysis of Human Inner Ear by Means of Finite Elements Method

Authors: C. Castro-Egler, A. Durán-Escalante, A. García-González


This paper presents a method to generate a finite element model of the human auditory inner ear system. The geometric model has been realized using 2D images from a virtual model of temporal bones. A point cloud has been gotten manually from those images to construct a whole mesh with hexahedral elements. The main difference with the predecessor models is the spiral shape of the cochlea with its three scales completely defined: scala tympani, scala media and scala vestibuli; which are separate by basilar membrane and Reissner membrane. To validate this model, numerical simulations have been realised with two models: an isolated inner ear and a whole model of human auditory system. Ideal conditions of displacement are applied over the oval window in the isolated Inner Ear model. The whole model is made up of the outer auditory channel, the tympani, the ossicular chain, and the inner ear. The boundary condition for the whole model is 1Pa over the auditory channel entrance. The numerical simulations by FEM have been done using a harmonic analysis with a frequency range between 100-10.000 Hz with an interval of 100Hz. The following results have been carried out: basilar membrane displacement; the scala media pressure according to the cochlea length and the transfer function of the middle ear normalized with the pressure in the tympanic membrane. The basilar membrane displacements and the pressure in the scala media make it possible to validate the response in frequency of the basilar membrane.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, finite elements method, human auditory system model

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28 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali


Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, Displacement, pore water pressure, FLAC2D, Embankment Dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
27 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji


Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Validation, circular raft footing, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
26 Numerical Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Authors: Alibakhsh Kasaeian, Mohammad Sameti, Zahra Noori, Mona Rastgoo Bahambari


Nowadays, the parabolic trough solar collector technology has become the most promising large-scale technology among various solar thermal generations. In this paper, a detailed numerical heat transfer model for a parabolic trough collector with nanofluid is presented based on the finite difference approach for which a MATLAB code was developed. The model was used to simulate the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector’s linear receiver, called a heat collector element (HCE). In this model, the heat collector element of the receiver was discretized into several segments in axial directions and energy balances were used for each control volume. All the heat transfer correlations, the thermodynamic equations and the optical properties were considered in details and the set of algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using iterative numerical solutions. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, Numerical Analysis, trough

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
25 Energy Conservation in Heat Exchangers

Authors: Nadia Allouache


Energy conservation is one of the major concerns in the modern high tech era due to the limited amount of energy resources and the increasing cost of energy. Predicting an efficient use of energy in thermal systems like heat exchangers can only be achieved if the second law of thermodynamics is accounted for. The performance of heat exchangers can be substantially improved by many passive heat transfer augmentation techniques. These letters permit to improve heat transfer rate and to increase exchange surface, but on the other side, they also increase the friction factor associated with the flow. This raises the question of how to employ these passive techniques in order to minimize the useful energy. The objective of this present study is to use a porous substrate attached to the walls as a passive enhancement technique in heat exchangers and to find the compromise between the hydrodynamic and thermal performances under turbulent flow conditions, by using a second law approach. A modified k- ε model is used to simulating the turbulent flow in the porous medium and the turbulent shear flow is accounted for in the entropy generation equation. A numerical modeling, based on the finite volume method is employed for discretizing the governing equations. Effects of several parameters are investigated such as the porous substrate properties and the flow conditions. Results show that under certain conditions of the porous layer thickness, its permeability, and its effective thermal conductivity the minimum rate of entropy production is obtained.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Turbulent Flow, porous medium, modified model, second law approach, annular heat exchanger

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
24 Seismic Safety Evaluation of Weir Structures Using the Finite and Infinite Element Method

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung, Ho Young Son


This study presents the seismic safety evaluation of weir structure subjected to strong earthquake ground motions, as a flood defense structure in civil engineering structures. The seismic safety analysis procedure was illustrated through development of Finite Element (FE) and InFinite Element (IFE) method in ABAQUS platform. The IFE model was generated by CINPS4, 4-node linear one-way infinite model as a sold continuum infinite element in foundation areas of the weir structure and then nonlinear FE model using friction model for soil-structure interactions was applied in this study. In order to understand the complex behavior of weir structures, nonlinear time history analysis was carried out. Consequently, it was interesting to note that the compressive stress gave more vulnerability to the weir structure, in comparison to the tensile stress, during an earthquake. The stress concentration of the weir structure was shown at the connection area between the weir body and stilling basin area. The stress both tension and compression was reduced in IFE model rather than FE model of weir structures.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Seismic, FEM, weir, boundary condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
23 Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bridge Structures Using 3D Finite Element Methods in South Korea

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung


This study described the seismic performance evaluation of bridge structures, located near Daegu metropolitan city in Korea. The structural design code or regulatory guidelines is focusing on the protection of brittle failure or collapse in bridges’ lifetime during an earthquake. This paper illustrated the procedure in terms of the safety evaluation of bridges using simple linear elastic 3D Finite Element (FE) model in ABAQUS platform. The design response spectra based on KBC 2009 were then developed, in order to understand the seismic behavior of bridge structures. Besides, the multiple directional earthquakes were applied and it revealed that the most dominated earthquake direction was transverse direction of the bridge. Also, the bridge structure under the compressive stress was more fragile than the tensile stress and the vertical direction of seismic ground motions was not significantly affected to the structural system.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Seismic, Evaluation, Bridge, FEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
22 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: Wooyoung Jung, HoYoung Son, HyunSu Seo, Sungjin Kim


In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, Damping, FEM, GFRP, infill

Procedia PDF Downloads 264