Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

NMR Related Abstracts

14 Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Oxyindole Derivatives

Authors: VIVEK SINGH BHADAURIA, Abhishek Pandey

Abstract:

Indole-2,3-diones are known for their various biological activities. By suitable control of a substituent, different novel indole-2,3-diones were synthesized. In this present study, various Schiff and Mannich bases were synthesized and characterized, and evaluated their for different pharmacological activities. The compounds were prepared by reacting indole-2,3-dione with benzyl chloride and 4-substituted thiosemicarbazides. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the TLC, MP, Elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer, antituberculosis, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory as well as anti-SARS activity and the results are presented. Some of compounds possessed different pharmacological activity at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight and even at lower concentration.

Keywords: NMR, Biological Activities, indoles, isatin

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13 Phytochemical Screening and Identification of Anti-Biological Activity Properties of Pelargonium graveolens

Authors: Anupalli Roja Rani, Saraswathi Jaggali

Abstract:

Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér.) is an erect, much-branched shrub. It is indigenous to various parts of southern Africa, and it is often called Geranium. Pelargonium species are widely used by traditional healers in the areas of Southern Africa by Sotho, Xhosa, Khoi-San and Zulus for its curative and palliative effects in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, fever, respiratory tract infections, liver complaints, wounds, gastroenteritis, haemorrhage, kidney and bladder disorders. We have used Plant materials for extracting active compounds from analytical grades of solvents methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and water by a soxhlet apparatus. The phytochemical screening reveals that extracts of Pelargonium graveolens contains alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, saponins and phenols in ethyl acetate solvent. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) bleaching method and the total phenolic content in the extracts was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Due to the presence of different phytochemical compounds in Pelargonium the anti-microbial activity against different micro-organisms like E.coli, Streptococcus, Klebsiella and Bacillus. Fractionation of plant extract was performed by column chromatography and was confirmed with HPLC analysis, NMR and FTIR spectroscopy for the compound identification in different organic solvent extracts.

Keywords: NMR, DPPH, Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér, micro-organisms, HPLC analysis, FTIR spectroscopy

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12 Hyaluronic Acid Binding to Link Domain of Stabilin-2 Receptor

Authors: Aleksandra Twarda, Dobrosława Krzemień, Grzegorz Dubin, Tad A. Holak

Abstract:

Stabilin-2 belongs to the group of scavenger receptors and plays a crucial role in clearance of more than 10 ligands from the bloodstream, including hyaluronic acid, products of degradation of extracellular matrix and metabolic products. The Link domain, a defining feature of stabilin-2, has a sequence similar to Link domains in other hyaluronic acid receptors, such as CD44 or TSG-6, and is responsible for most of ligands binding. Present knowledge of signal transduction by stabilin-2, as well as ligands’ recognition and binding mechanism, is limited. Until now, no experimental structures have been solved for any segments of stabilin-2. It has recently been demonstrated that the stabilin-2 knock-out or blocking of the receptor by an antibody effectively opposes cancer metastasis by elevating the level of circulating hyaluronic acid. Moreover, loss of expression of stabilin-2 in a peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival. Solving of the crystal structure of stabilin-2 and elucidation of the binding mechanism of hyaluronic acid could enable the precise characterization of the interactions in the binding site. These results may allow for designing specific small-molecule inhibitors of stabilin-2 that could be used in cancer therapy. To carry out screening for crystallization of stabilin-2, we cloned constructs of the Link domain of various lengths with or without surrounding domains. The folding properties of the constructs were checked by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is planned to show the binding of hyaluronic acid to the Link domain using several biochemical methods, i.a. NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence polarization assay.

Keywords: Cancer, NMR, X-Ray Crystallography, hyaluronic acid, stabilin-2, Link domain

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11 Development of Closed System for Bacterial CO2 Mitigation

Authors: Somesh Misha, Smita Raghuvanshi, Suresh Gupta

Abstract:

Increasing concentration of green house gases (GHG's), such as CO2 is of major concern and start showing its impact nowadays. The recent studies are focused on developing the continuous system using photoautotrophs for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous production of primary and secondary metabolites as a value addition. The advent of carbon concentrating mechanism had blurred the distinction between autotrophs and heterotrophs and now the paradigm has shifted towards the carbon capture and utilization (CCU) rather than carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). In the present work, a bioreactor was developed utilizing the chemolithotrophic bacterial species using CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition. The kinetic modeling was done and the biokinetic parameters are obtained for developing the bioreactor. The bioreactor was developed and studied for its operation and performance in terms of volumetric loading rate, mass loading rate, elimination capacity and removal efficiency. The characterization of effluent from the bioreactor was carried out for the products obtained using the analyzing techniques such as FTIR, GC-MS, and NMR. The developed bioreactor promised an economic, efficient and effective solution for CO2 mitigation and simultaneous value addition.

Keywords: NMR, FTIR, GC-MS, CO2 mitigation, bio-reactor, chemolithotrophic bacterial species

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10 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich

Abstract:

Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: Cataract, NMR, Metabolome, LC-MS, lens

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9 Interaction Evaluation of Silver Ion and Silver Nanoparticles with Dithizone Complexes Using DFT Calculations and NMR Analysis

Authors: W. Nootcharin, S. Sujittra, K. Mayuso, K. Kornphimol, M. Rawiwan

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Silver has distinct antibacterial properties and has been used as a component of commercial products with many applications. An increasing number of commercial products cause risks of silver effects for human and environment such as the symptoms of Argyria and the release of silver to the environment. Therefore, the detection of silver in the aquatic environment is important. The colorimetric chemosensor is designed by the basic of ligand interactions with a metal ion, leading to the change of signals for the naked-eyes which are very useful method to this application. Dithizone ligand is considered as one of the effective chelating reagents for metal ions due to its high selectivity and sensitivity of a photochromic reaction for silver as well as the linear backbone of dithizone affords the rotation of various isomeric forms. The present study is focused on the conformation and interaction of silver ion and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with dithizone using density functional theory (DFT). The interaction parameters were determined in term of binding energy of complexes and the geometry optimization, frequency of the structures and calculation of binding energies using density functional approaches B3LYP and the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. Moreover, the interaction of silver–dithizone complexes was supported by UV–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectrum that was simulated by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and 1H NMR spectra calculation using B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) method compared with the experimental data. The results showed the ion exchange interaction between hydrogen of dithizone and silver atom, with minimized binding energies of silver–dithizone interaction. However, the result of AgNPs in the form of complexes with dithizone. Moreover, the AgNPs-dithizone complexes were confirmed by using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Therefore, the results can be the useful information for determination of complex interaction using the analysis of computer simulations.

Keywords: NMR, dft, Silver Nanoparticles, dithizone

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8 Characterization of Main Phenolic Compounds in Eleusine indica L. (Poaceae) by HPLC-DAD and 1H NMR

Authors: E. M. Condori-Peñaloza, S. S. Costa

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Eleusine indica L, known as goose-grass, is considered a troublesome weed that can cause important economic losses in the agriculture worldwide. However, this grass is used as a medicinal plant in some regions of Brazil to treat influenza and pneumonia. In Africa and Asia, it is used to treat malaria and as diuretic, anti-helminthic, among other uses. Despite its therapeutic potential, little is known about the chemical composition and bioactive compounds of E. indica. Hitherto, two major flavonoids, schaftoside and vitexin, were isolated from aerial part of the species and showed inhibitory activity on lung neutrophil influxes in mice, suggesting a beneficial effect on airway inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the chemical profile of aqueous extracts from aerial parts of Eleusine indica specimens using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), with emphasis on phenolic compounds. Specimens of E. indica were collected in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Aerial parts of fresh plants were extracted by decoction (10% p/v). After spontaneous precipitation of the aqueous extract at 10-12°C for 24 hours, the supernatant obtained was frozen and lyophilized. After that, 1 g of the extract was dissolved into 25 mL of water and fractionated on a reverse phase chromatography column (RP-2), eluted with a gradient of H2O/EtOH. Five fractions were obtained. The extract and fractions had their chemical profile analyzed by using HPLC-DAD (C-18 column: 20 μL, 256 -365 nm; gradient water 0.01% phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile. The extract was also analyzed by NMR (1H, 500 MHz, D2O) in order to access its global chemical composition. HPLC-DAD analyses of crude extract allowed the identification of ten phenolic compounds. Fraction 1, eluted with 100% water, was poor in phenolic compounds and no major peak was detected. In fraction 2, eluted with 100% water, it was possible to observe one major peak at retention time (RT) of 23.75 minutes compatible with flavonoid; fraction 3, also eluted with 100% water, showed four peaks at RT= 21.47, 23.52, 24.33 and 25.84 minutes, all of them compatible with flavonoid. In fraction 4, eluted with 50%/ethanol/50% water, it was possible to observe 3 peaks compatible with flavonoids at RT=24.65, 26.81, 27.49 minutes, and one peak (28.83 min) compatible with a phenolic acid derivative. Finally, in fraction 5, eluted with 100% ethanol, no phenolic substance was detected. The UV spectra of all flavonoids detected were compatible with the flavone subclass (λ= 320-345 nm). The 1H NMR spectra of aerial parts extract showed signals in three regions: δ 0.8-3.0 ppm (aliphatic compounds), δ 3.0-5.5 ppm corresponding to carbohydrates (signals most abundant and overlapped), and δ 6.0-8.5 ppm (aromatic compounds). Signals compatible with flavonoids (rings A and B) could also be detected in the crude extract spectra. These results suggest the presence of several flavonoids in E. indica, which reinforces their therapeutic potential. The pharmacological activities of Eleusine indica extracts and fractions will be further evaluated.

Keywords: NMR, HPLC, Flavonoids, Phenolic Compounds

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7 A Density Function Theory Based Comparative Study of Trans and Cis - Resveratrol

Authors: Feng Wang, Subhojyoti Chatterjee, Peter J. Mahon

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RvL), a phenolic compound, is a key ingredient in wine and tomatoes that has been studied over the years because of its important bioactivities such as anti-oxidant, anti-aging and antimicrobial properties. Out of the two isomeric forms of resveratrol i.e. trans and cis, the health benefit is primarily associated with the trans form. Thus, studying the structural properties of the isomers will not only provide an insight into understanding the RvL isomers, but will also help in designing parameters for differentiation in order to achieve 99.9% purity of trans-RvL. In the present study, density function theory (DFT) study is conducted, using the B3LYP/6-311++G** model to explore the through bond and through space intramolecular interactions. Properties such as vibrational spectroscopy (IR and Raman), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES), energy based decomposition analyses (EDA) and Fukui function are calculated. It is discovered that the structure of trans-RvL, although it is C1 non-planar, the backbone non-H atoms are nearly in the same plane; whereas the cis-RvL consists of two major planes of R1 and R2 that are not in the same plane. The absence of planarity gives rise to a H-bond of 2.67Å in cis-RvL. Rotation of the C(5)-C(8) single bond in trans-RvL produces higher energy barriers since it may break the (planar) entire conjugated structure; while such rotation in cis-RvL produces multiple minima and maxima depending on the positions of the rings. The calculated FT-IR spectrum shows very different spectral features for trans and cis-RvL in the region 900 – 1500 cm-1, where the spectral peaks at 1138-1158 cm-1 are split in cis-RvL compared to a single peak at 1165 cm-1 in trans-RvL. In the Raman spectra, there is significant enhancement of cis-RvL in the region above 3000cm-1. Further, the carbon chemical environment (13C NMR) of the RvL molecule exhibit a larger chemical shift for cis-RvL compared to trans-RvL (Δδ = 8.18 ppm) for the carbon atom C(11), indicating that the chemical environment of the C group in cis-RvL is more diverse than its other isomer. The energy gap between highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest occupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is 3.95 eV for trans and 4.35 eV for cis-RvL. A more detailed inspection using the recently developed EOES revealed that most of the large energy differences i.e. Δεcis-trans > ±0.30 eV, in their orbitals are contributed from the outer valence shell. They are MO60 (HOMO), MO52-55 and MO46. The active sites that has been captured by Fukui function (f + > 0.08) are associated with the stilbene C=C bond of RvL and cis-RvL is more active at these sites than in trans-RvL, as cis orientation breaks the large conjugation of trans-RvL so that the hydroxyl oxygen’s are more active in cis-RvL. Finally, EDA highlights the interaction energy (ΔEInt) of the phenolic compound, where trans is preferred over the cis-RvL (ΔΔEi = -4.35 kcal.mol-1) isomer. Thus, these quantum mechanics results could help in unwinding the diversified beneficial activities associated with resveratrol.

Keywords: NMR, Resveratrol, FT-IR, Raman, Fukui function, excess orbital energy spectrum, energy decomposition analysis

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6 De-Novo Structural Elucidation from Mass/NMR Spectra

Authors: Ismael Zamora, Elisabeth Ortega, Tatiana Radchenko, Guillem Plasencia

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The structure elucidation based on Mass Spectra (MS) data of unknown substances is an unresolved problem that affects many different fields of application. The recent overview of software available for structure elucidation of small molecules has shown the demand for efficient computational tool that will be able to perform structure elucidation of unknown small molecules and peptides. We developed an algorithm for De-Novo fragment analysis based on MS data that proposes a set of scored and ranked structures that are compatible with the MS and MSMS spectra. Several different algorithms were developed depending on the initial set of fragments and the structure building processes. Also, in all cases, several scores for the final molecule ranking were computed. They were validated with small and middle databases (DB) with the eleven test set compounds. Similar results were obtained from any of the databases that contained the fragments of the expected compound. We presented an algorithm. Or De-Novo fragment analysis based on only mass spectrometry (MS) data only that proposed a set of scored/ranked structures that was validated on different types of databases and showed good results as proof of concept. Moreover, the solutions proposed by Mass Spectrometry were submitted to the prediction of NMR spectra in order to elucidate which of the proposed structures was compatible with the NMR spectra collected.

Keywords: Mass Spectrometry, Structure Elucidation, NMR, De Novo

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5 Structural Fluxionality of Luminescent Coordination Compounds with Lanthanide Ions

Authors: Juliana A. B. Silva, Caio H. T. L. Albuquerque, Leonardo L. dos Santos, Cristiane K. Oliveira, Ivani Malvestiti, Fernando Hallwass, Ricardo L. Longo

Abstract:

Complexes with lanthanide ions have been extensively studied due to their applications as luminescent, magnetic and catalytic materials as molecular or extended crystals, thin films, glasses, polymeric matrices, ionic liquids, and in solution. NMR chemical shift data in solution have been reported and suggest fluxional structures in a wide range of coordination compounds with rare earth ions. However, the fluxional mechanisms for these compounds are still not established. This structural fluxionality may affect the photophysical, catalytic and magnetic properties in solution. Thus, understanding the structural interconversion mechanisms may aid the design of coordination compounds with, for instance, improved (electro)luminescence, catalytic and magnetic behaviors. The [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, where btfa= 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-phenyl-1,3-butanedionate and bipy= 2,2’-bipiridyl, has a well-defined X-ray crystallographic structure and preliminary 1H NMR data suggested a structural fluxionality. Thus, we have investigated a series of coordination compounds with lanthanide ions [Ln(btfa)₃L], where Ln = La, Eu, Gd or Yb and L= bipy or phen (phen=1,10-phenanthroline) using a combined theoretical-experimental approach. These complexes were synthesized and fully characterized, and detailed NMR measurements were obtained. They were also studied by quantum chemical computational methods (DFT-PBE0). The aim was to determine the relevant factors in the structure of these compounds that favor or not the fluxional behavior. Measurements of the 1H NMR signals at variable temperature in CD₂Cl₂ of the [Eu(btfa)₃L] complexes suggest that these compounds have a fluxional structure, because the crystal structure has non-equivalent btfa ligands that should lead to non-equivalent hydrogen atoms and thus to more signals in the NMR spectra than those obtained at room temperature, where all hydrogen atoms of the btfa ligands are equivalent, and phen ligand has an effective vertical symmetry plane. For the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, the broadening of the signals at –70°C provides a lower bound for the coalescence temperature, which indicates the energy barriers involved in the structural interconversion mechanisms are quite small. These barriers and, consequently, the coalescence temperature are dependent upon the radii of the lanthanide ion as well as to their paramagnetic effects. The PBE0 calculated structures are in very good agreement with the crystallographic data and, for the [Eu(btfa)₃bipy] complex, this method provided several distinct structures with almost the same energy. However, the energy barrier for structural interconversion via dissociative pathways were found to be quite high and could not explain the experimental observations. Whereas the pseudo-rotation pathways, involving the btfa and bipy ligands, have very small activation barriers, in excellent agreement with the NMR data. The results also showed an increase in the activation barrier along the lanthanide series due to the decrease of the ionic radii and consequent increase of the steric effects. TD-DFT calculations showed a dependence of the ligand donor state energy with different structures of the complex [Eu(btfa)₃phen], which can affect the energy transfer rates and the luminescence. The energy required to promote the structural fluxionality may also enhance the luminescence quenching in solution. These results can aid in the design of more luminescent compounds and more efficient devices.

Keywords: Computational Chemistry, NMR, lanthanide-based compounds, structural fluxionality

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4 In vitro Characterization of Mice Bone Microstructural Changes by Low-Field and High-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Authors: X. Wang, Q. Ni, J. A. Serna, D. Holland

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The objective of this study is to develop Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques to enhance bone related research applied on normal and disuse (Biglycan knockout) mice bone in vitro by using both low-field and high-field NMR simultaneously. It is known that the total amplitude of T₂ relaxation envelopes, measured by the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill NMR spin echo train (CPMG), is a representation of the liquid phase inside the pores. Therefore, the NMR CPMG magnetization amplitude can be transferred to the volume of water after calibration with the NMR signal amplitude of the known volume of the selected water. In this study, the distribution of mobile water, porosity that can be determined by using low-field (20 MHz) CPMG relaxation technique, and the pore size distributions can be determined by a computational inversion relaxation method. It is also known that the total proton intensity of magnetization from the NMR free induction decay (FID) signal is due to the water present inside the pores (mobile water), the water that has undergone hydration with the bone (bound water), and the protons in the collagen and mineral matter (solid-like protons). Therefore, the components of total mobile and bound water within bone that can be determined by low-field NMR free induction decay technique. Furthermore, the bound water in solid phase (mineral and organic constituents), especially, the dominated component of calcium hydroxyapatite (Ca₁₀(OH)₂(PO₄)₆) can be determined by using high-field (400 MHz) magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR. With MAS technique reducing NMR spectral linewidth inhomogeneous broadening and susceptibility broadening of liquid-solid mix, in particular, we can conduct further research into the ¹H and ³¹P elements and environments of bone materials to identify the locations of bound water such as OH- group within minerals and bone architecture. We hypothesize that with low-field and high-field magic angle spinning NMR can provide a more complete interpretation of water distribution, particularly, in bound water, and these data are important to access bone quality and predict the mechanical behavior of bone.

Keywords: Bone, NMR, mice bone, water in bone

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3 Developing a High Performance Cement Based Material: The Influence of Silica Fume and Organosilane

Authors: Andrea Cretu, Calin Cadar, Maria Miclaus, Lucian Barbu-Tudoran, Siegfried Stapf, Ioan Ardelean

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Additives and mineral admixtures have become an integral part of cement-based materials. It is common practice to add silica fume to cement based mixes in order to produce high-performance concrete. There is still a lack of scientific understanding regarding the effects that silica fume has on the microstructure of hydrated cement paste. The aim of the current study is to develop high-performance materials with low permeability and high resistance to flexural stress using silica fume and an organosilane. Organosilane bonds with cement grains and silica fume, influencing both the workability and the final properties of the mix, especially the pore size distributions and pore connectivity. Silica fume is a known pozzolanic agent which reacts with the calcium hydroxide in hydrated cement paste, producing more C-S-H and improving the mechanical properties of the mix. It is believed that particles of silica fume act as capillary pore fillers and nucleation centers for C-S-H and other hydration products. In order to be able to design cement-based materials with added silica fume and organosilane, it is necessary first to understand the formation of the porous network during hydration and to observe the distribution of pores and their connectivity. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods in low-fields are non-destructive and allow the study of cement-based materials from the standpoint of their porous structure. Other methods, such as XRD and SEM-EDS, help create a comprehensive picture of the samples, along with the classic mechanical tests (compressive and flexural strength measurements). The transverse relaxation time (T₂) was measured during the hydration of 16 samples prepared with two water/cement ratios (0.3 and 0.4) and different concentrations or organosilane (APTES, up to 2% by mass of cement) and silica fume (up to 6%). After their hydration, the pore size distribution was assessed using the same NMR approach on the samples filled with cyclohexane. The SEM-EDS and XRD measurements were applied on pieces and powders prepared from the samples that were used in mechanical testing, which were kept under water for 28 days. Adding silica fume does not influence the hydration dynamics of cement paste, while the addition of organosilane extends the dormancy stage up to 10 hours. The size distribution of the capillary pores is not influenced by the addition of silica fume or organosilane, while the connectivity of capillary pores is decreased only when there is organosilane in the mix. No filling effect is observed even at the highest concentration of silica fume. There is an apparent increase in flexural strength of samples prepared only with silica fume and a decrease for those prepared with organosilane, with a few exceptions. XRD reveals that the pozzolanic reactivity of silica fume can only be observed when there is no organosilane present and the SEM-EDS method reveals the pore distribution, as well as hydration products and the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide. The current work was funded by the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS – UEFISCDI, through project PN-III-P2-2.1-PED-2016-0719.

Keywords: NMR, Concrete Admixtures, Cement Hydration, silica fume, porosity, organosilane

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2 Abridging Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Discovery via LC-MS-TOF, NMR, in-silico Toxicity-Bioactivity Profiling for Therapeutic Purposing Zileuton Impurities: Need of Hour

Authors: Saurabh B. Ganorkar, Atul A. Shirkhedkar

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The need for investigations protecting against toxic impurities though seems to be a primary requirement; the impurities which may prove non - toxic can be explored for their therapeutic potential if any to assist advanced drug discovery. The essential role of pharmaceutical analysis can thus be extended effectively to achieve it. The present study successfully achieved these objectives with characterization of major degradation products as impurities for Zileuton which has been used for to treat asthma since years. The forced degradation studies were performed to identify the potential degradation products using Ultra-fine Liquid-chromatography. Liquid-chromatography-Mass spectrometry (Time of Flight) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Studies were utilized effectively to characterize the drug along with five major oxidative and hydrolytic degradation products (DP’s). The mass fragments were identified for Zileuton and path for the degradation was investigated. The characterized DP’s were subjected to In-Silico studies as XP Molecular Docking to compare the gain or loss in binding affinity with 5-Lipooxygenase enzyme. One of the impurity of was found to have the binding affinity more than the drug itself indicating for its potential to be more bioactive as better Antiasthmatic. The close structural resemblance has the ability to potentiate or reduce bioactivity and or toxicity. The chances of being active biologically at other sites cannot be denied and the same is achieved to some extent by predictions for probability of being active with Prediction of Activity Spectrum for Substances (PASS) The impurities found to be bio-active as Antineoplastic, Antiallergic, and inhibitors of Complement Factor D. The toxicological abilities as Ames-Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Developmental Toxicity and Skin Irritancy were evaluated using Toxicity Prediction by Komputer Assisted Technology (TOPKAT). Two of the impurities were found to be non-toxic as compared to original drug Zileuton. As the drugs are purposed and repurposed effectively the impurities can also be; as they can have more binding affinity; less toxicity and better ability to be bio-active at other biological targets.

Keywords: Toxicity, NMR, Impurities, bio-activity, UFLC, LC-MS-TOF, Zileuton

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1 High Resolution Solid State NMR Structural Study of a Ternary Hydraulic Mixture

Authors: Rym Sassi, Franck Fayon, Mohend Chaouche, Emmanuel Veron, Valerie Montouillout

Abstract:

The chemical phenomena occurring during cement hydration are complex and interdependent, and even after almost two centuries of studies, they are still difficult to solve for complex mixtures combining different hydraulic binders. Powder-XRD has been widely used for characterizing the crystalline phases in both anhydrous and hydrated cement, but only limited information is obtained in the case of strongly disordered and amorphous phases. In contrast, local spectroscopies like solid-state NMR can provide a quantitative description of noncrystalline phases. In this work, the structural modifications occurring during hydration of a fast-setting ternary binder based on white Portland cement, white calcium aluminate cement, and calcium sulfate were investigated using advanced solid-state NMR methods. We particularly focused on the early stage of the hydration up to 28 days, working with samples whose hydration was controlled and stopped. ²⁷Al MQ-MAS as well as {¹H}-²⁷Al and {¹H}-²⁹Si Cross- Polarization MAS NMR techniques were combined to distinguish all of the aluminum and silicon species formed during the hydration. The NMR quantification of the different phases was conducted in parallel with the XRD analyses. The consumption of initial products, as well as the precipitation of hydraulic phases (ettringite, monosulfate, strätlingite, CSH, and CASH), were unambiguously quantified. Finally, the drawing of the consumption and formation of phases was correlated with mechanical strength measurements.

Keywords: Hydration, cement, NMR, Mechanical Strength, hydrates structure

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