Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

NLP Related Abstracts

5 Towards Logical Inference for the Arabic Question-Answering

Authors: Wided Bakari, Patrice Bellot, Omar Trigui, Mahmoud Neji


This article constitutes an opening to think of the modeling and analysis of Arabic texts in the context of a question-answer system. It is a question of exceeding the traditional approaches focused on morphosyntactic approaches. Furthermore, we present a new approach that analyze a text in order to extract correct answers then transform it to logical predicates. In addition, we would like to represent different levels of information within a text to answer a question and choose an answer among several proposed. To do so, we transform both the question and the text into logical forms. Then, we try to recognize all entailment between them. The results of recognizing the entailment are a set of text sentences that can implicate the user’s question. Our work is now concentrated on an implementation step in order to develop a system of question-answering in Arabic using techniques to recognize textual implications. In this context, the extraction of text features (keywords, named entities, and relationships that link them) is actually considered the first step in our process of text modeling. The second one is the use of techniques of textual implication that relies on the notion of inference and logic representation to extract candidate answers. The last step is the extraction and selection of the desired answer.

Keywords: Arabic language, NLP, Question-Answering, recognition text entailment, logic forms

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4 An Experiential Learning of Ontology-Based Multi-document Summarization by Removal Summarization Techniques

Authors: Pranjali Avinash Yadav-Deshmukh


Remarkable development of the Internet along with the new technological innovation, such as high-speed systems and affordable large storage space have led to a tremendous increase in the amount and accessibility to digital records. For any person, studying of all these data is tremendously time intensive, so there is a great need to access effective multi-document summarization (MDS) systems, which can successfully reduce details found in several records into a short, understandable summary or conclusion. For semantic representation of textual details in ontology area, as a theoretical design, our system provides a significant structure. The stability of using the ontology in fixing multi-document summarization problems in the sector of catastrophe control is finding its recommended design. Saliency ranking is usually allocated to each phrase and phrases are rated according to the ranking, then the top rated phrases are chosen as the conclusion. With regards to the conclusion quality, wide tests on a selection of media announcements are appropriate for “Jammu Kashmir Overflow in 2014” records. Ontology centered multi-document summarization methods using “NLP centered extraction” outshine other baselines. Our participation in recommended component is to implement the details removal methods (NLP) to enhance the results.

Keywords: Ontology, Disaster Management, NLP, k-means, extraction technique, multi-document summarization, sentence extraction

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3 Methodologies for Deriving Semantic Technical Information Using an Unstructured Patent Text Data

Authors: Sungjoo Lee, Jaehyung An


Patent documents constitute an up-to-date and reliable source of knowledge for reflecting technological advance, so patent analysis has been widely used for identification of technological trends and formulation of technology strategies. But, identifying technological information from patent data entails some limitations such as, high cost, complexity, and inconsistency because it rely on the expert’ knowledge. To overcome these limitations, researchers have applied to a quantitative analysis based on the keyword technique. By using this method, you can include a technological implication, particularly patent documents, or extract a keyword that indicates the important contents. However, it only uses the simple-counting method by keyword frequency, so it cannot take into account the sematic relationship with the keywords and sematic information such as, how the technologies are used in their technology area and how the technologies affect the other technologies. To automatically analyze unstructured technological information in patents to extract the semantic information, it should be transformed into an abstracted form that includes the technological key concepts. Specific sentence structure ‘SAO’ (subject, action, object) is newly emerged by representing ‘key concepts’ and can be extracted by NLP (Natural language processor). An SAO structure can be organized in a problem-solution format if the action-object (AO) states that the problem and subject (S) form the solution. In this paper, we propose the new methodology that can extract the SAO structure through technical elements extracting rules. Although sentence structures in the patents text have a unique format, prior studies have depended on general NLP (Natural language processor) applied to the common documents such as newspaper, research paper, and twitter mentions, so it cannot take into account the specific sentence structure types of the patent documents. To overcome this limitation, we identified a unique form of the patent sentences and defined the SAO structures in the patents text data. There are four types of technical elements that consist of technology adoption purpose, application area, tool for technology, and technical components. These four types of sentence structures from patents have their own specific word structure by location or sequence of the part of speech at each sentence. Finally, we developed algorithms for extracting SAOs and this result offer insight for the technology innovation process by providing different perspectives of technology.

Keywords: Patent analysis, NLP, SAO, semantic-analysis

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2 Deep Learning Based Text to Image Synthesis for Accurate Facial Composites in Criminal Investigations

Authors: Zhao Gao, Eran Edirisinghe


The production of an accurate sketch of a suspect based on a verbal description obtained from a witness is an essential task for most criminal investigations. The criminal investigation system employs specifically trained professional artists to manually draw a facial image of the suspect according to the descriptions of an eyewitness for subsequent identification. Within the advancement of Deep Learning, Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) have shown great promise in Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks. Additionally, Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have also proven to be very effective in image generation. In this study, a trained GAN conditioned on textual features such as keywords automatically encoded from a verbal description of a human face using an RNN is used to generate photo-realistic facial images for criminal investigations. The intention of the proposed system is to map corresponding features into text generated from verbal descriptions. With this, it becomes possible to generate many reasonably accurate alternatives to which the witness can use to hopefully identify a suspect from. This reduces subjectivity in decision making both by the eyewitness and the artist while giving an opportunity for the witness to evaluate and reconsider decisions. Furthermore, the proposed approach benefits law enforcement agencies by reducing the time taken to physically draw each potential sketch, thus increasing response times and mitigating potentially malicious human intervention. With publically available 'CelebFaces Attributes Dataset' (CelebA) and additionally providing verbal description as training data, the proposed architecture is able to effectively produce facial structures from given text. Word Embeddings are learnt by applying the RNN architecture in order to perform semantic parsing, the output of which is fed into the GAN for synthesizing photo-realistic images. Rather than the grid search method, a metaheuristic search based on genetic algorithms is applied to evolve the network with the intent of achieving optimal hyperparameters in a fraction the time of a typical brute force approach. With the exception of the ‘CelebA’ training database, further novel test cases are supplied to the network for evaluation. Witness reports detailing criminals from Interpol or other law enforcement agencies are sampled on the network. Using the descriptions provided, samples are generated and compared with the ground truth images of a criminal in order to calculate the similarities. Two factors are used for performance evaluation: The Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) and the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). A high percentile output from this performance matrix should attribute to demonstrating the accuracy, in hope of proving that the proposed approach can be an effective tool for law enforcement agencies. The proposed approach to criminal facial image generation has potential to increase the ratio of criminal cases that can be ultimately resolved using eyewitness information gathering.

Keywords: Criminal Investigation, NLP, gan, RNN, facial composition

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1 Altasreef: Automated System of Quran Verbs for Urdu Language

Authors: Muhammad Amjad Iqbal, Haq Nawaz, Kamran Malik


"Altasreef" is an automated system available for Web and Android users which provide facility to the users to learn the Quran verbs. It provides the facility to the users to practice the learned material and also provide facility of exams of Arabic verbs variation focusing on Quran text. Arabic is a highly inflectional language. Almost all of its words connect to roots of three, four or five letters which approach the meaning of all their inflectional forms. In Arabic, a verb is formed by inserting the consonants into one of a set of verb patterns. Suffixes and prefixes are then added to generate the meaning of number, person, and gender. The active/passive voice and perfective aspect and other patterns are than generated. This application is designed for learners of Quranic Arabic who already have learn basics of Arabic conjugation. Application also provides the facility of translation of generated patterns. These translations are generated with the help of rule-based approach to give 100% results to the learners.

Keywords: Quran, computational linguistics, NLP, e learning

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