Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Nitrogen Related Abstracts

31 Simulation of 'Net' Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas

Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel


Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate 'net' nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus released as mussel feces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Filtration, Phosphorus, ecretion

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30 Evaluation of Calendula officinalis L. Flower Dry Weight, Flower Diameter, and Number of Flower in Plant Variabilities under Effect of Compost and Nitrogen Different Levels in Four Harvest

Authors: Amin Rezazadeh, Parisa Farahpour, Arezoo Rezazadeh, Morteza Sam Deliri


In order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and compost different levels on qualitative and quantitative performance of Calendula officinalis L. herb, an experiment was carried out in the research field of Chalous Azad University in 2011-2012. The experiment was done in factorial form as a randomized complete block design, in three replicates. Treatments consisted of nitrogen and compost. Considered nitrogen levels consisted of N0=0, N1=50, N2=100 kg/ha and compost levels were including C0=0, C1=6, C2=12 ton/ha. Investigated characteristics consisted of flower dry weight, number of flowers in plant, flower diameter. The results showed, nitrogen and compost treatments had statistically significant influence (p ≤ 0.01) on studied characteristics. Flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant characteristics has been studied in four harvest; as, the performance of these characteristics had increasing procedure from the first harvest up to the forth harvest; and, in the fourth harvest, it has reached to its` maximum level. As, up to the forth harvest, the maximum flower dry weight, flower diameter and number of flower in plant obtained by C1× N2 (C1=6 ton/ha compost and N2=100 kg/ha nitrogen) treatment.

Keywords: Nitrogen, calendula, compost, flavonoid

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29 Mineral Nitrogen Retention, Nitrogen Availability and Plant Growth in the Soil Influenced by Addition of Organic and Mineral Fertilizers: Lysimetric Experiment

Authors: Lukáš Plošek, Jaroslav Hynšt, Jaroslav Záhora, Jakub Elbl, Antonín Kintl, Ivana Charousová, Silvia Kovácsová


Compost can influence soil fertility and plant health. At the same time compost can play an important role in the nitrogen cycle and it can influence leaching of mineral nitrogen from soil to underground water. This paper deals with the influence of compost addition and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on leaching of mineral nitrogen, nitrogen availability in microbial biomass and plant biomass production in the lysimetric experiment. Twenty-one lysimeters were filed with topsoil and subsoil collected in the area of protection zone of underground source of drinking water - Březová nad Svitavou. The highest leaching of mineral nitrogen was detected in the variant fertilized only mineral nitrogen fertilizer (624.58 mg m-2), the lowest leaching was recorded in the variant with high addition of compost (315.51 mg m-2). On the other hand, losses of mineral nitrogen are not in connection with the losses of available form of nitrogen in microbial biomass. Because loss of mineral nitrogen was detected in variant with the least change in the availability of N in microbial biomass. The leaching of mineral nitrogen, yields as well as the results concerning nitrogen availability from the first year of long term experiment suggest that compost can positive influence the leaching of nitrogen into underground water.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Biomass Production, compost, lysimeter

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28 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel


Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, Growth, Nitrogen, operation, Light, Microalgae, Phosphorus, ponds

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27 Effects of Nitrogen and Arsenic on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Photosynthetic Pigments in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

Authors: Mostafa Heidari


Nitrogen fertilization has played a significant role in increasing crop yield, and solving problems of hunger and malnutrition worldwide. However, excessive of heavy metals such as arsenic can interfere on growth and reduced grain yield. In order to investigate the effects of different concentrations of arsenic and nitrogen fertilizer on photosynthetic pigments and antioxidant enzyme activities in safflower (cv. Goldasht), a factorial plot experiment as randomized complete block design with three replication was conducted in university of Zabol. Arsenic treatment included: A1= control or 0, A2=30, A3=60 and A4=90 mg. kg-1 soil from the Na2HASO4 source and three nitrogen levels including W1=75, W2=150 and W3=225 kg.ha-1 from urea source. Results showed that, arsenic had a significant effect on the activity of antioxidant enzymes. By increasing arsenic levels from A1 to A4, the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and gayacol peroxidase (GPX) increased and catalase (CAT) was decreased. In this study, arsenic had no significant on chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid content. Nitrogen and interaction between arsenic and nitrogen treatment, except APX, had significant effect on CAT and GPX. The highest GPX activity was obtained at A4N3 treatment. Nitrogen increased the content of chlorophyll a, b and cartoneid.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Arsenic, physiological parameters, oxidative enzymes

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26 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane


This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Carbon, Nitrogen, Microorganisms, Organic Matter, Salinity, Mineralization, arid regions

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25 Experimental Study - Inorganic Membranes for Air Separation

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Mohammed N. Kajama, Edward Gobina


Gas permeation of Oxygen [O2] and Nitrogen [N2] were investigated at room temperature using 15 and 6000nm pore diameter tubular commercial alumina ceramic membranes with pressure values ranging 1.00 to 2.50 bar. The flow rates of up to 2.59 and 2.77 l/min were achieved for O2 and N2 respectively. The ratio of O2/N2 flow rates were used to compute the O2/N2 selectivity. The experimental O2/N2 selectivity obtained for 15 nm was 1.05 while the 6000 nm indicated 0.95.

Keywords: Gas separation, Nitrogen, oxygen, selectivity

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24 Effect of Nitrogen Management on Nitrogen Uptake, Dry Matter Production and Some Yield Parameters

Authors: Mandana Tayefe, Ebrahim Amiri, Azin Nasrollah Zade


Effect of nitrogen (N) fertilizer levels on nitrogen uptake, dry matter production, yield and some yield components of rice (Hashemi, Kazemi, Khazar) was investigated in an experiment as factorial in RCBD with 3 replications in a paddy light soil at Guilan province, Iran, 2008-2009. In this experiment, four treatments including: N1-control (no N fertilizer); N2- 30 kgN/ha; N3- 60 kgN/ha; N4- 90 kgN/ha were compared. Results showed that total biomass (8386 kg/ha), grain yield (3662 kg/ha), panicles m-2 (235.8) and total grain per panicle (103.8) were reached the highest value at high nitrogen level. Among the varieties the highest total biomass (7734 kg/ha), grain yield (3414 kg/ha) and total grain per panicle (78.2) belonged to Khazar. Dry matter, total N uptake was varied in different cultivars significantly and Khazar variety had the highest contents. Total biomass and total N uptake was varied significantly with the increasement of the amount of nitrogen applied. As total biomass and total N uptake increased with increasing in N fertilizing.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Rice, dry matter, nitrogen uptake

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23 Nutritional Composition of Iranian Desi and Kabuli Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Cultivars in Autumn Sowing

Authors: Khosro Mohammadi


The grain quality of chickpea in Iran is low and instable, which may be attributed to the evolution of cultivars with a narrow genetic base making them vulnerable to biotic stresses. Four chickpea varieties from diverse geographic origins were chosen and arranged in a randomized complete block design. Mesorhizobium Sp. cicer strain SW7 was added to all the chickpea seeds. Chickpea seeds were planted on October 9, 2013. Each genotype was sown 5 m in length, with 35 cm inter-row spacing, in 3 rows. Weeds were removed manually in all plots. Results showed that analysis of variance on the studied traits showed significant differences among genotypes for N, P, K and Fe contents of chickpea, but there is not a significant difference among Ca, Zn and Mg continents of chickpea. The experimental coefficient of variation (CV) varied from 7.3 to 15.8. In general, the CV value lower than 20% is considered to be good, indicating the accuracy of conducted experiments. The highest grain N was observed in Hashem and Jam cultivars. The highest grain P was observed in Jam cultivar. Phosphorus content (mg/100g) ranged from 142.3 to 302.3 with a mean value of 221.3. The negative correlation (-0.126) was observed between the N and P of chickpea cultivars. The highest K and Fe contents were observed in Jam cultivar.

Keywords: nutrient, Nitrogen, genotype, Yield, cultivar

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22 Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Response on Growth and Yield of Hybrid Luffa –Naga F1 Variety

Authors: D. R. T. N. K. Dissanayake, H. M. S. K. Herath, H. K. S. G. Gunadasa, P. Weerasinghe


Luffa is a tropical and subtropical vegetable, belongs to family Cucurbiteceae. It is predominantly monoecious in sex expression and provides an ample scope for utilization of hybrid vigor. Hybrid varieties develop through open pollination, produce higher yields due to its hybrid vigor. Naga F1 hybrid variety consists number of desirable traits other than higher yield such as strong and vigorous plants, fruits with long deep ridges, attractive green color fruits ,better fruit weight, length and early maturity compared to the local Luffa cultivars. Unavailability of fertilizer recommendations for hybrid cucurbit vegetables leads to an excess fertilizer application causing a vital environmental issue that creates undesirable impacts on nature and the human health. Main Objective of this research is to determine effect of different nitrogen and potassium fertilizer rates on growth and yield of Naga F1 Variety. Other objectives are, to evaluate specific growth parameters and yield, to identify the optimum nitrogen and potassium fertilizer levels based on growth and yield of hybrid Luffa variety. As well as to formulate the general fertilizer recommendation for hybrid Luffa -Naga F1 variety.

Keywords: Hybrid, Nitrogen, potassium, phosphorous

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21 Effects of Reclamation on Seasonal Dynamic of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Stoichiometry in Suaeda salsa

Authors: Yajun Qiao, Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Shuqing An


In order to relieve the pressure on a land resource from a huge population, reclamation has occurred in many coastal wetlands. Plants can maintain their elemental composition within normal limits despite the variations of external conditions. Reclamation may affect carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in the plant to some extent by altering physical and chemical properties of soil in a coastal wetland. We reported the seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in root, stem and leaf of Suaeda salsa (L.) Pall. and in soil between reclamation plots and natural plots. Our results of three-way ANOVA indicated that sampling season always had significant effect on C, N, P concentrations and their ratios; organ had no significant effect on N, P concentration and N:P; plot type had no significant effect on N concentration and C:N. Sampling season explained the most variability of tissue N and P contents, C:N, C:P and N:P, while it’s organ for C using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. By independent sample T-test, we found that reclamation affect more on C, N and P stoichiometry of stem than that of root or leaf on the whole. While there was no difference between reclamation plots and natural plots for soil in four seasons. For three organs, C concentration had peak values in autumn and minimum values in spring while N concentration had peak values in spring and minimum values in autumn. For P concentration, three organs all had peak values in spring; however, the root had minimum value in winter, the stem had that in autumn, and leaf had that in summer. The seasonal dynamic of C, N and P stoichiometry in a leaf of Suaeda salsa were much steadier than that in root or stem under the drive of reclamation.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, reclamation, seasonal dynamic, Suaeda salsa

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20 Investigating the Effects of Density and Different Nitrogen Nutritional Systems on Yield, Yield Components and Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.)

Authors: Mohammadreza Delfieh, Seyed Ali Mohammad Modarres Sanavy, Rouzbeh Farhoudi


Fennel is of most important medicinal plants which is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. In order to investigate the effect of different nitrogen nutritional systems including chemical, organic and biologic ones at different plant densities on yield, yield components and seed essential oil content and yield of this valuable medicinal plant, a field experiment was carried out in 2013-2014 agricultural season at Islamic Azad University of Shoushtar agricultural college in split plot design with 18 treatments and based on completely randomized blocks design. Different nitrogen system treatments consisting of: 1. N1 or control (Uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot, 50% at planting time and 50% at stem elongation), 2. N2 (Uniformly spreading 50% of urea fertilizer in the plot at planting time and spraying the other 50% of urea fertilizer at stem elongation on fennel foliage), 3. N3 or cow manure, 4. N4 or biofertilizer (Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum), 5. N5 or Integrated-1 (Cow manure + uniformly spreading urea fertilizer in the plot at stem elongation), 6. N6 or Integrated-2 (Cow manure + Inoculation of fennel seeds with Azotobacter and Azospirillum) were applied to the main plots. Three fennel densities consisting of: 1. FD1 (60 plant/m2), 2. FD2 (80 plant/m2) and 3. FD3 (100 plant/m2) were applied to subplots. Results showed that all of the traits were significantly affected by applied treatments (P 0.01). The interaction between treatments also were significant at 5 percent level for shoot dry weight and at 1 percent level for other traits. Based on the results, using the Integrated-1 treatment at 100 plant per m2 produced 94.575 g/m2 seed yield containing 3.375 percent of essential oil. Utilization of such combination not only could lead to a desirable fennel quantity and quality, but also is more consistent with environment.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Density, Biofertilizer, organic fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.), nutritional system

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19 Determination of Cyanotoxins from Leeukraal and Klipvoor Dams

Authors: Moletsane Makgotso, Mogakabe Elijah, Marrengane Zinhle


South Africa’s water resources quality is becoming more and more weakened by eutrophication, which deteriorates its usability. Thirty five percent of fresh water resources are eutrophic to hypertrophic, including grossly-enriched reservoirs that go beyond the globally-accepted definition of hypertrophy. Failing infrastructure adds to the problem of contaminated urban runoff which encompasses an important fraction of flows to inland reservoirs, particularly in the non-coastal, economic heartland of the country. Eutrophication threatens the provision of potable and irrigation water in the country because of the dependence on fresh water resources. Eutrophicated water reservoirs increase water treatment costs, leads to unsuitability for recreational purposes and health risks to human and animal livelihood due to algal proliferation. Eutrophication is caused by high concentrations of phosphorus and nitrogen in water bodies. In South Africa, Microsystis and Anabaena are widely distributed cyanobacteria, with Microcystis being the most dominant bloom-forming cyanobacterial species associated with toxin production. Two impoundments were selected, namely the Klipvoor and Leeukraal dams as they are mainly used for fishing, recreational, agricultural and to some extent, potable water purposes. The total oxidized nitrogen and total phosphorus concentration were determined as causative nutrients for eutrophication. Chlorophyll a and total microcystins, as well as the identification of cyanobacteria was conducted as indicators of cyanobacterial infestation. The orthophosphate concentration was determined by subjecting the samples to digestion and filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis of total phosphates and dissolved phosphates using Aquakem kits. The total oxidized nitrates analysis was conducted by initially conducting filtration followed by spectrophotometric analysis. Chlorophyll a was quantified spectrophotometrically by measuring the absorbance of before and after acidification. Microcystins were detected using the Quantiplate Microcystin Kit, as well as microscopic identification of cyanobacterial species. The Klipvoor dam was found to be hypertrophic throughout the study period as the mean Chlorophyll a concentration was 269.4µg/l which exceeds the mean value for the hypertrophic state. The mean Total Phosphorus concentration was >0.130mg/l, and the total microcystin concentration was > 2.5µg/l throughout the study. The most predominant algal species were found to be the Microcystis. The Leeukraal dam was found to be mesotrophic with the potential of it becoming eutrophic as the mean concentration for chlorophyll a was 18.49 µg/l with the mean Total Phosphorus > 0.130mg/l and the Total Microcystin concentration < 0.16µg/l. The cyanobacterial species identified in Leeukraal have been classified as those that do not pose a potential risk to any impoundment. Microcystis was present throughout the sampling period and dominant during the warmer seasons. The high nutrient concentrations led to the dominance of Microcystis that resulted in high levels of microcystins rendering the impoundments, particularly Klipvoor undesirable for utilisation.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Cyanobacteria, Phosphorus, microcystins

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18 The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency in Corn Yield and Yield Components in Cultivars KSC 704

Authors: Elham Bagherzadeh, Mohammad Fadaee, Rouhollah Keykhosravi


In order to survey the nitrogen use efficiency in corn, the experimental plot in a randomized complete block design 2014 agricultural farm was Islamic Azad University of Karaj. The main factor was four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (respectively control, 150, 200 and 250 kg nitrogen fertilizer) and subplots consisted two levels of superabsorbent polymer Stockosorb (use, do not use). Analysis of variance is showed that different nitrogen levels and different superabsorbent of levels statistically significant. Comparisons average also showed there is a significant difference between use and non-use of superabsorbent. The results showed the interactions nitrogen and SAP by one percent level has a significant and effect on Fresh weight per plant, plant dry weight, biological yield, harvest index, cob diameter, cob dry weight, leaf width, leaf area were at the level of five percent statistical significant effect on Ear weight and grain yield.

Keywords: Nitrogen, corn, comparison, biological yield

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17 First-Principles Density Functional Study of Nitrogen-Doped P-Type ZnO

Authors: Abdusalam Gsiea, Ramadan Al-habashi, Mohamed Atumi, Khaled Atmimi


We present a theoretical investigation on the structural, electronic properties and vibrational mode of nitrogen impurities in ZnO. The atomic structures, formation and transition energies and vibrational modes of (NO3)i interstitial or NO4 substituting on an oxygen site ZnO were computed using ab initio total energy methods. Based on Local density functional theory, our calculations are in agreement with one interpretation of bound-excition photoluminescence for N-doped ZnO. First-principles calculations show that (NO3)i defects interstitial or NO4 substituting on an Oxygen site in ZnO are important suitable impurity for p-type doping in ZnO. However, many experimental efforts have not resulted in reproducible p-type material with N2 and N2O doping. by means of first-principle pseudo-potential calculation we find that the use of NO or NO2 with O gas might help the experimental research to resolve the challenge of achieving p-type ZnO.

Keywords: Nitrogen, ZnO, DFF, p-type

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16 Impact of Agriculture on the Groundwater Quality: Case of the Alluvial Plain of Nil River (North-Eastern Algerian)

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, F. Zahi, S. Mahdid


The intensive use of the chemical fertilizers and the pesticides in agriculture often produces a contamination of the groundwater by organic pollutants. The irrigation and/or rainwater transport the pollutants towards groundwater or water surface. Among these pollutants, one finds the nitrogen, often observed in the agricultural zones in the nitrate form. In order to understand the form and chemical mobility of nitrogen in groundwater, this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the parameters physicochemical and chemistry of water of the alluvial plain of Nil river (North-eastern Algerian) were carried out during the period from November 2013 to January 2015 as well as an in-situ investigation of the various chemical products used by the farmers. The results show a raise concentration of nitrates in the wells (depth < 20 m) of the plain, which the concentrations arrive at 50 mg/L (standard of potable water). On the other hand in drillings (depth > 20 m), one observes two behaviors. The first in the upstream part, where the aquifer is unconfined and the medium is oxidizing, one observes the weak nitrate concentrations, indicating its absorption by the ground during the infiltration of water towards the groundwater. The second in the central and downstream parts, where the groundwater is locally confined and the reducing medium, one observes an absence of nitrates and the appearance of nitrites and ammonium, indicating the reduction of nitrates. The projection of the analyses on diagrams Eh-pH of nitrogen has enabled to us to determine the intervals of variation of the nitrogen forms. This study also highlighted the effect of the rains, the pumping and the nature of the geological formations in the form and the mobility of nitrogen in the plain.

Keywords: Mobility, Speciation, Groundwater, Nitrogen

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15 Role of the Marshes in the Natural Decontamination of Surface Water: A Case of the Redjla Marsh, North-Eastern Algerian

Authors: S. Benessam, T. H. Debieche, A. Drouiche, S. Mahdid, F. Zahi


The marsh is the impermeable depression. It is not very deep and presents the stagnant water. Their water level varies according to the contributions of water (rain, groundwater, stream etc.), when this last reaches the maximum level of the marsh, it flows towards the downstream through the discharge system. The marsh accumulates all the liquid and solid contributions of upstream part. In the North-East Algerian, the Redjla marsh is located on the course of the Tassift river. Its contributions of water come from the upstream part of the river, often characterized by the presence of several pollutants in water related to the urban effluents, and its discharge system supply the downstream part of the river. In order to determine the effect of the marsh on the water quality of the river this study was conducted. A two-monthly monitoring of the physicochemical parameters and water chemistry of the river were carried out, before and after the marsh, during the period from November 2013 to January 2015. The results show that the marsh plays the role of a natural purifier of water of Tassift river, present by drops of conductivity and concentration of the pollutants (ammonium, phosphate, iron, chlorides and bicarbonates) between the upstream part and downstream of the marsh. That indicates that these pollutants are transformed with other chemical forms (case of ammonium towards nitrate), precipitated in complex forms or/and adsorbed by the sediments of the marsh. This storage of the pollutants in the ground of the marsh will be later on a source of pollution for the plants and river water.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Urban Pollution, marsh, natural purification

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14 Efficacy of Three Different Herbicides to the Control of Wild Barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) in Relation to Plant Growth Stage and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additive

Authors: Sh. Edrisi, M. Moeeni, A. Farahbakhsh


To study the effect of nitrogenous additive spray solution on the efficacy of three herbicides i.e. pinoxaden (Trade name: Axial), sulfosulfuron+metsulfuron-methyl (Trade name: Total) and sulfosulfuron (Trade name: Apirus) in controlling wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch), in different growth stages, a greenhouse experiment as a split plot in a completely randomized design in three replications was conducted. One month after treatments, all plants were harvested and growth parameters were determined. The data were analyzed with computer. The results showed that the herbicide applications with and without nitrogen additive caused significant reductions in growth parameters of wild barley at 2-4 leaf stage. However, the plants were not killed by this herbicide. Plants were killed completely due to applications of the two other herbicides i.e. Apirus and Total at 2-4 leaf. There was no significant difference between the effect of these two herbicides. There was no significant difference between the highest rate of each herbicide used alone and that of the lowest rate with nitrogenous additive.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Herbicide, growth stage, wild barley

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13 Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene: Some Bioinformatics Insights

Authors: A. T. Adetunji, F. B. Lewu, R. Mundembe


Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which nitrogen is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design AMT1-specific primers which were used to amplify the AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1 and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th - 10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Nitrogen, Solanum tuberosum, primers, ammonium transporter

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12 Assessment of Escherichia coli along Nakibiso Stream in Mbale Municipality, Uganda

Authors: Abdul Walusansa


The aim of this study was to assess the level of microbial pollution along Nakibiso stream. The study was carried out in polluted waters of Nakibiso stream, originating from Mbale municipality and running through ADRA Estates to Namatala Wetlands in Eastern Uganda. Four sites along the stream were selected basing on the activities of their vicinity. A total of 120 samples were collected in sterile bottles from the four sampling locations of the stream during the wet and dry seasons of the year 2011. The samples were taken to the National water and Sewerage Cooperation Laboratory for Analysis. Membrane filter technique was used to test for Erischerichia coli. Nitrogen, Phosphorus, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and temperature were also measured. Results for Nitrogen and Phosphorus for sites; 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.8, 8.8, 7.7 and 13.8 NH4-N mg/L; and 1.8, 2.1, 1.8 and 2.3 PO4-P mg/L respectively. Basing on these results, it was estimated that farmers use 115 and 24 Kg/acre of Nitrogen and Phosphorus respectively per month. Taking results for Nitrogen, the same amount of Nutrients in artificial fertilizers would cost $ 88. This shows that reuse of wastewater has a potential in terms of nutrients. The results for E. coli for sites 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 1.1 X 107, 9.1 X 105, 7.4 X 105, and 3.4 X 105 respectively. E. coli hence decreased downstream with statistically significant variations between sites 1 and 4. Site 1 had the highest mean E.coli counts. The bacterial contamination was significantly higher during the dry season when more water was needed for irrigation. Although the water had the potential for reuse in farming, bacterial contamination during both seasons was higher than 103 FC/100ml recommended by WHO for unrestricted Agriculture.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Waste water, Water reuse, Phosphorus, E. coli

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11 Study of Dormancy-Breaking of Bitter Apple Seed (Citrullus Colocynthis L. Schard)

Authors: Asghar Rahimi, Majid Puryousef


This study aimed to examine dormancy-breaking of bitter apple (Citrullus colocynthis) seed. Seeds of wild bitter apple collected from the Balochestan zone in east of Iran were subjected to different treatments including temperatures (20 and 30°C) and some dormancy breaking methods on breaking seed dormancy of bitter apple. Only 6 treatments from 12 dormancy breaking treatments were effective in dormancy breaking, therefore only effective treatments were analyzed. In general, germination percentage of cleaved seeds, soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and soaking in H2SO4 in both temperatures was higher than other treatments and germination percentage of scarified seeds with sandy paper in both temperature was lower than other treatments. Also germination percentage of soaked seeds in hot water (98°c) and naturally cracked seeds in temperature 20°c was higher than 30°c.

Keywords: Nitrogen, safflower, foliar application, nano chelate

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10 Erosion and Deposition of Terrestrial Soil Supplies Nutrients to Estuaries and Coastal Bays: A Flood Simulation Study of Sediment-Nutrient Flux

Authors: Kaitlyn O'Mara, Michele Burford


Estuaries and coastal bays can receive large quantities of sediment from surrounding catchments during flooding or high flow periods. Large river systems that feed freshwater into estuaries can flow through several catchments of varying geology. Human modification of catchments for agriculture, industry and urban use can contaminate soils with excess nutrients, trace metals and other pollutants. Land clearing, especially clearing of riparian vegetation, can accelerate erosion, mobilising, transporting and depositing soil particles into rivers, estuaries and coastal bays. In this study, a flood simulation experiment was used to study the flux of nutrients between soil particles and water during this erosion, transport and deposition process. Granite, sedimentary and basalt surface soils (as well as sub-soils of granite and sedimentary) were collected from eroding areas surrounding the Brisbane River, Australia. The <63 µm size fraction of each soil type was tumbled in freshwater for 3 days, to simulation flood erosion and transport, followed by stationary exposure to seawater for 4 weeks, to simulate deposition into estuaries. Filtered water samples were taken at multiple time points throughout the experiment and analysed for water nutrient concentrations. The highest rates of nutrient release occurred during the first hour of exposure to freshwater and seawater, indicating a chemical reaction with seawater that may act to release some nutrient particles that remain bound to the soil during turbulent freshwater transport. Although released at a slower rate than the first hour, all of the surface soil types showed continual ammonia, nitrite and nitrate release over the 4-week seawater exposure, suggesting that these soils may provide ongoing supply of these nutrients to estuarine waters after deposition. Basalt surface soil released the highest concentrations of phosphates and dissolved organic phosphorus. Basalt soils are found in much of the agricultural land surrounding the Brisbane River and contributed largely to the 2011 Brisbane River flood plume deposit in Moreton Bay, suggesting these soils may be a source of phosphate enrichment in the bay. The results of this study suggest that erosion of catchment soils during storm and flood events may be a source of nutrient supply in receiving waterways, both freshwater and marine, and that the amount of nutrient release following these events may be affected by the type of soil deposited. For example, flooding in different catchments of a river system over time may result in different algal and food web responses in receiving estuaries.

Keywords: Flood, nutrient, Soil, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Sediment

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9 Characterization of Solanum tuberosum Ammonium Transporter Gene Using Bioinformatics Approach

Authors: Adewole Tomiwa Adetunji, Francis Bayo Lewu, Richard Mundembe


Plants require nitrogen (N) to support desired production levels. There is a need for better understanding of N transport mechanism in order to improve N assimilation by plant root. Nitrogen is available to plants in the form of nitrate or ammonium, which are transported into the cell with the aid of various transport proteins. Ammonium transporters (AMTs) play a role in the uptake of ammonium, the form in which N is preferentially absorbed by plants. Solanum tuberosum AMT1 (StAMT1) was amplified, sequenced and characterized using molecular biology and bioinformatics methods. Nucleotide database sequences were used to design 976 base pairs AMT1-specific primers which include forward primer 5’- GCCATCGCCGCCGCCGG-3’ and reverse primer 5’-GGGTCAGATCCATACCCGC-3’. These primers were used to amplify the Solanum tuberosum AMT1 internal regions. Nucleotide sequencing, alignment and phylogenetic analysis assigned StAMT1 to the AMT1 family due to the clade and high similarity it shared with other plant AMT1 genes. The deduced amino acid sequences showed that StAMT1 is 92%, 83% and 76% similar to Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.1, Lotus japonicus LjAMT1.1, and Solanum lycopersicum LeAMT1.2 respectively. StAMT1 fragments were shown to correspond to the 5th-10th trans-membrane domains. Residue StAMT1 D15 is predicted to be essential for ammonium transport, while mutations of StAMT1 S76A may further enhance ammonium transport.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Nitrogen, Solanum tuberosum, primers, ammonium transporter

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8 Application Use of Slaughterhouse Waste to Improve Nutrient Level in Apium glaviolens

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Using the slaughterhouse waste combined to suitable dose of nitrogen fertilizer to Apium glaviolen gives the significant effect to mean relative growth rate. The same pattern also showed significantly in net assimilation rate. The net assimilation rate increased significantly during 42 days old plants. Combination of treatment of 100 ml/l animal slaughterhouse waste and 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer/kg soil increased the vegetative growth of Apium glaviolens. The biomass of plant and mean relative growth rate of Apium glaviolens were rapidly increased in 4 weeks after planting and gradually decreased after 35 days at the harvest time. Combination of 100 ml/l slaughterhouse waste and applied 0.1 g/kg nitrogen fertilizer has increased all parameters. The highest vegetative growth, biomass, mean relative growth rate and net assimilation rate were received from 0.56 mg-l.m-2.days-1.

Keywords: Waste, Nitrogen, pollutant, slaughterhouse, Apium glaviolent

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7 Appropriate Nutrient Management for Wheat Production in Afghanistan

Authors: Azizurahman Sakhizadah, Tsugiyuki Masunaga


The use of sulfur fertilizer by Afghanistan farmers for wheat production has never been practiced, although sulfur deficiency has been expected for wheat production. A field experiment was conducted at Poza e Ishan Research Station Farm, Baghlan province, Afghanistan to examine the effect of sulfur fertilizer on growth and yield components of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomize complete block design (RCBD), having three replications and eight treatments. The initial soil of experiment was alkaline (pH8.4), with textural class of sandy clay loam, available sulfur (40.8) mg kg-1, and Olsen-P (28.8) mg kg-1. Wheat variety, Kabul 013 was cultivated from November 2015 to June 2016. The recommended doses of nitrogen and Phosphors (Urea and DAP at 250 and 125 kg ha-1) were applied by broadcasting except control plot. Sulfur was applied by foliar spray (K2 SO4) at the rate of 10, 20, and 30 kg ha-1, split at tillering and flowering stages. The results demonstrated that sulfur application positively influenced on growth and yield of wheat crop with combination of nitrogen. Plant did not respond to sole sulfur application. Plant height, spike length, spikelet's number spike-1, were increased and yield g m-2 was also increased by 1.2, 19.1 and 25.1 % for 10, 20 and 30 kg sulfur ha-1 application.

Keywords: Wheat, Nitrogen, sulfur, foliar

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6 Impact of Nitrogenous Wastewater and Seawater Acidification on Algae

Authors: Pei Luen Jiang


Oysters (Ostreidae) and hard clams (Meretrix lusoria) are important shallow sea-cultured shellfish in Taiwan, and are mainly farmed in Changhua, Yunlin, Chiayi and Tainan. As these shellfish are fed primarily on natural plankton, the artificial feed is not required, leading to high economic value in aquatic farming. However, in recent years, though mariculture production areas have expanded steadily, large-scale deaths of farmed shellfish have also become increasingly common due to climate change and human factors. Through studies over the past few years, our research team has determined the impact of nitrogen deprivation on growth and morphological variations in algae and sea anemones (Actiniaria) and identified the target genes affected by adverse environmental factors. In mariculture, high-density farming is commonly adopted, which results in elevated concentrations of nitrogenous waste in the water. In addition, excessive carbon dioxide from the atmosphere also dissolves in seawater, causing a steady decrease in the pH of seawater, leading to acidification. This study to observe the impact of high concentrations of nitrogen sources and carbon dioxide on algae.

Keywords: Nitrogen, acidification, Algae, Shellfish

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5 Assessment of Biotic and Abiotic Water Factors of Antiao and Jiabong Rivers for Benthic Algae

Authors: Geno Paul S. Cumla, Jan Mariel M. Gentiles, M. Brenda Gajelan-Samson


Eutrophication is a process where in there is a surplus of nutrients present in a lake or river. Harmful cyanobacteria, hypoxia, and primarily algae, which contain toxins, grow because of the excess nutrients. Algal blooms can cause fish kills, limiting the light penetration which reduces growth of aquatic organisms, causing die-offs of plants and produce conditions that are dangerous to aquatic and human life. The main cause for eutrophication is the presence of excessive amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). Nitrogen is necessary for the production of the plant tissues and is usually used to synthesize proteins. Nitrate is a compound that contains nitrogen, and at elevated levels it can cause harmful effects. Excessive amounts of phosphorus, displaced through human activity, is the major cause of algae growth and as well as degraded water quality. To accomplish this study the Assessment of Soluble inorganic nitrogen (SIN), Assessment of Soluble reactive phosphate (SRP), Determination of Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, and Determination of Dominating Taxa were done. The study addresses the high probability of algal blooms in Maqueda Bay by assessing the biotic and abiotic factors of Antiao and Jiabong rivers. The data predicts the overgrowth of algae and to create awareness to prevent the event from taking place. The study assesses the adverse effects that could be prevented by understanding and controlling algae. This should predict future cases of algal blooms and allow government agencies which require data to create programs to prevent and assess these issues.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Eutrophication, sin, Phosphorus, spectrophotometer, SRP, red tide, chlorophyll a, Kjeldahl method, assessment of soluble inorganic nitrogen, assessment of soluble reactive phosphate

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4 Biomass and Biogas Yield of Maize as Affected by Nitrogen Rates with Varying Harvesting under Semi-Arid Condition of Pakistan

Authors: Athar Mahmood, Asad Ali


Management considerations including harvesting time and nitrogen application considerably influence the biomass yield, quality and biogas production. Therefore, a field study was conducted to determine the effect of various harvesting times and nitrogen rates on the biomass yield, quality and biogas yield of maize crop. This experiment was consisted of various harvesting times i.e., harvesting after 45, 55 and 65 days of sowing (DAS) and nitrogen rates i.e., 0, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 respectively. The data indicated that maximum plant height, leaf area, dry matter (DM) yield, protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and biogas yield were recorded 65 days after sowing while lowest was recorded 45 days after sowing. In contrary to that significantly higher chlorophyll contents were observed at 45 DAS. In case of nitrogen rates maximum plant height, leaf area, and DM yield, protein contents, ash contents, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude fiber contents and chlorophyll contents were determined with nitrogen at the rate of 200 kg ha-1, while minimum was observed when no N was applied. Therefore, harvesting 65 DAS and N application @ 200 kg ha-1 can be suitable for getting the higher biomass and biogas production.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Biogas, Chemical Composition, fiber contents, harvesting time

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3 Optimisation of Nitrogen as a Protective Gas via the Alternating Shielding Gas Technique in the Gas Metal Arc Welding Process

Authors: M. P. E. E Silva, A. M. Galloway, A. I. Toumpis


An increasing concern exists in the welding industry in terms of faster joining processes. Methods such as the alternation between shielding gases such Ar, CO₂ and He have been able to provide improved penetration of the joint, reduced heat transfer to the workpiece, and increased travel speeds of the welding torch. Nitrogen as a shielding gas is not desirable due to its reactive behavior within the arc plasma, being absorbed by the molten pool during the welding process. Below certain amounts, nitrogen is not harmful. However, the nitrogen threshold is reduced during the solidification of the joint, and if its subsequent desorption is not completed on time, gas entrapment and blowhole formation may occur. The present study expanded the use of the alternating shielding gas method in the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process by alternately supplying Ar/5%N₂ and He. Improvements were introduced in terms of joint strength and grain refinement. Microstructural characterization findings showed porosity-free welds with reduced inclusion formation while mechanical tests such as tensile and bend tests confirmed the reinforcement of the joint by the addition of nitrogen. Additionally, significant reductions of the final distortion of the workpiece were found after the welding procedure as well as decreased heat affected zones and temperatures of the weld.

Keywords: Nitrogen, Mechanical testing, porosity, grain refinement, GMAW, alternating shielding gas method

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2 Influence of Aluminium on Grain Refinement in As-Rolled Vanadium-Microalloyed Steels

Authors: Kevin Mark Banks, Dannis Rorisang Nkarapa Maubane, Carel Coetzee


The influence of aluminium content, reheating temperature, and sizing (final) strain on the as-rolled microstructure was systematically investigated in vanadium-microalloyed and C-Mn plate steels. Reheating, followed by hot rolling and air cooling simulations were performed on steels containing a range of aluminium and nitrogen contents. Natural air cooling profiles, corresponding to 6 and 20mm thick plates, were applied. The austenite and ferrite/pearlite microstructures were examined using light optical microscopy. Precipitate species and volume fraction were determined on selected specimens. No influence of aluminium content was found below 0.08% on the as-rolled grain size in all steels studied. A low Al-V-steel produced the coarsest initial austenite grain size due to AlN dissolution at low temperatures leading to abnormal grain growth. An Al-free V-N steel had the finest initial microstructure. Although the as-rolled grain size for 20mm plate was similar in all steels tested, the grain distribution was relatively mixed. The final grain size in 6mm plate was similar for most compositions; the exception was an as-cast V low N steel, where the size of the second phase was inversely proportional to the sizing strain. This was attributed to both segregation and a low VN volume fraction available for effective pinning of austenite grain boundaries during cooling. Increasing the sizing strain refined the microstructure significantly in all steels.

Keywords: Nitrogen, steel, Aluminium, reheating, grain size, vanadium, sizing strain

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