Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

nitrogen oxide Related Abstracts

2 Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles and Other Selected Gases among Cyclists near and Away from Busy Roads of Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Anu Shrestha, Krassi Rumchev, Ben Mullins, Yun Zhao, Linda Selvey

Abstract:

Cycling is often promoted as a means of reducing vehicular congestion, noise and greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in urban areas. It is also indorsed as a healthy means of transportation in terms of reducing the risk of developing a range of physical and psychological conditions. However, people who cycle regularly may not be aware that they can become exposed to high levels of Vehicular Air Pollutants (VAP) emitted by nearby traffics and therefore experience adverse health effects as a result. The study will highlight the present scenario of ambient air pollution level in different cycling routes in Perth and also highlight significant contribution to the understanding of health risks that cyclist may face from exposure to particulate air pollution. Methodology: This research was conducted in Perth, Western Austral and consisted of two groups of cyclists cycling near high (2 routes) and low (two routes) vehicular traffic roads, at high and low levels of exertion, during the cold and warm seasons. A sample size of 123 regular cyclists who cycled at least 80 km/week, aged 20-55, and non-smoker were selected for this study. There were altogether 100 male and 23 female who were asked to choose one or more routes among four different routes, and each participant cycled the route for warm or cold or both seasons. Cyclist who reported cardiovascular and other chronic health conditions (excluding asthma) were not invited into the study. Exposures to selected air pollutants were assessed by undertaking background and personal measurements alone with the measurement of heart and breathe rate of each participant. Finding: According to the preliminary study findings, the cyclists who used cycling route close to high traffic route were exposed to higher levels of measured air pollutants Nitrogen Oxide (NO₂) =0.12 ppm, sulfur dioxide (SO₂)=0.06 ppm and carbon monoxide (CO)=0.25 PPM compared to those who cycled away from busy roads. However, we measured high concentrations of particulate air pollution near one of the low traffic route which we associate with the close proximity to ferry station. Concluding Statement: As a conclusion, we recommend that cycling routes should be selected away from high traffic routes. If possible, we should also consider that if the cycling route is surrounded by the dense populated infrastructures, it can trap the pollutants and always facilitate in increasing inhalation of particle count among the cyclists.

Keywords: Air Pollution, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyclists' health, nitrogen oxide, respirable particulate matters

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1 Promotional Effects of Zn in Cu-Zn/Core-Shell Al-MCM-41 for Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with NH3: Acidic Properties, NOx Adsorption Properties, and Nature of Copper

Authors: Thidarat Imyen, Paisan Kongkachuichay

Abstract:

Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst with various copper species, prepared by a combination of three methods—substitution, ion-exchange, and impregnation, was studied for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at 300 °C for 150 min. In order to investigate the effects of Zn introduction on the nature of the catalyst, Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 and Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalysts were also studied. The roles of Zn promoter in the acidity and the NOx adsorption properties of the catalysts were investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of NH3 and NOx adsorption, and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of NH3 and NOx. The results demonstrated that the acidity of the catalyst was enhanced by the Zn introduction, as exchanged Zn(II) cations loosely bonded with Al-O-Si framework could create Brønsted acid sites by interacting with OH groups. Moreover, Zn species also provided the additional sites for NO adsorption in the form of nitrite (NO2–) and nitrate (NO3–) species, which are the key intermediates for SCR reaction. In addition, the effect of Zn on the nature of copper was studied by in situ FTIR of CO adsorption and in situ X-ray adsorption near edge structure (XANES). It was found that Zn species hindered the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(0), resulting in higher Cu(I) species in the Zn promoted catalyst. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 exhibited higher catalytic activity compared with that of the Cu/core-shell Al-MCM-41 for the whole reaction time, as it possesses the highest amount of Cu(I) sites, which are responsible for SCR catalytic activity. The Cu-Zn/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst also reached the maximum NO conversion of 100% with the average NO conversion of 76 %. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was further improved by using Zn promoter in the form of ZnO instead of reduced Zn species. The Cu-ZnO/core-shell Al-MCM-41 catalyst showed better catalytic performance with longer working reaction time, and achieved the average NO conversion of 81%.

Keywords: Copper, zinc, nitrogen oxide, selective catalytic reduction, Al-MCM-41

Procedia PDF Downloads 145