Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Nitrogen Fixation Related Abstracts

4 Nitrogen Fixation in Hare Gastrointestinal Tract

Authors: Tatiana A. Kuznetsova, Maxim V. Vechersky, Natalia V. Kostina, Marat M. Umarov, Elena I. Naumova


One of the main problems of nutrition of phytophagous animals is the insufficiency of protein in their forage. Usually, symbiotic microorganisms highly contribute both to carbohydrates and nitrogen compounds of the food. But it is not easy to utilize microbial biomass in the large intestine and caecum for the animals with hindgut fermentation. So that, some animals, as well hares, developed special mechanism of contribution of such biomass - obligate autocoprophagy, or reingestion. Hares have two types of feces - the hard and the soft. Hard feces are excreted at night, while hares are vigilance ("foraging period"), and the soft ones (caecotrophs) are produced and reingested in the day-time during hares "resting-period". We examine the role of microbial digestion in providing nitrogen nutrition of hare (Lepus europaeus). We determine the ability of nitrogen fixation in fornix and stomach body, small intestine, caecum and colon of hares' gastro-intestinal tract in two main period of hares activity - "resting-period" (day time) and "foraging period" (late-evening and very-early-morning). We use gas chromatography to measure levels of nitrogen fixing activity (acetylene reduction). Nitrogen fixing activity was detected in the contents of all analyzed parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Maximum values were recorded in the large intestine. Also daily dynamics of the process was detected. Thus, during hare “resting-period” (caecotrophs formation) N2-fixing activity was significantly higher than during “foraging period”, reaching 0,3 nmol C2H4/g*h. N2-fixing activity in the gastrointestinal tract can allocate to significant contribution of nitrogen fixers to microbial digestion in hare and confirms the importance of coprophagy as a nitrogen source in lagomorphs.

Keywords: Nitrogen Fixation, gastrointestinal tract, coprophagy, lagomorphs

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3 Screening of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Sunflower (Helianthus anus) and Their Role in Enhancing Growth and Yield Attriburing Trairs and Colonization Studies

Authors: A. Majeed, M.K. Abbasi, S. Hameed, A. Imran, T. Naqqash, M. K. Hanif


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living soil bacteria that aggressively colonize the rhizosphere/plant roots, and enhance the growth and yield of plants when applied to seed or crops. Root associated (endophytic and rhizospheric) PGPR were isolated from Sunflower (Helianthus anus) grown in soils collected from 16 different sites of sub division Dhirkot, Poonch, Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. A total of 150 bacterial isolates were isolated, purified, screened in vitro for their plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. 11 most effective isolates were selected on the basis of biochemical assays (nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, growth hormone production, biocontrol assay, and carbon substrates utilization assay through gas chromatography (GCMS), spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography HPLC, fungal and bacterial dual plate assay and BIOLOG GN2/GP2 microplate assay respectively) and were tested on the crop under controlled and field conditions. From the inoculation assay, the most promising 4 strains (on the basis of increased root/shoot weight, root/shoot length, seed oil content, and seed yield) were than selected for colonization studies through confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscope. 16Sr RNA gene analysis showed that these bacterial isolates belong to Pseudononas, Enterobacter, Azospirrilum, and Citobacter genera. This study is the clear evident that such isolates have the potential for application as inoculants adapted to poor soils and local crops to minimize the chemical fertilizers harmful for soil and environment

Keywords: Nitrogen Fixation, colonization, PGPR, phosphate solubilization

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2 Impact of Heavy Metal Toxicity on Metabolic Changes in the Diazotrophic Cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120

Authors: Rishi Saxena


Cyanobacteria is a photosynthetic prokaryote, and these obtain their energy through photosynthesis. In this paper, we studied the effect of iron on metabolic changes in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Nowadays, metal contamination due to natural and anthropogenic sources is a global environment concern. Iron induced changes in growth, N2-fixation, CO2 fixation and photosynthetic activity were studied in a diazotrophic cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120. Iron at 50 uM concentration supported the maximum growth, heterocyst frequency, CO2 fixation, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II) and nitrogenase activities in the organism. Higher concentration of iron inhibited these processes. Chl a and PS II activities were more sensitive to iron than the protein and PS I activity. Here, it is also mentioned that heavy metal induced altered macromolecules metabolism and changes in the central dogma of life (DNA→ mRNA → Protein). And also recent advances have been made in understanding heavy metal-cyanobacteria interaction and their application for metal detoxification.

Keywords: Nitrogen Fixation, cyanobacterium anabaena 7120, photosystem I (PS I), photosystem II (PS II)

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1 Non-Thermal Pulsed Plasma Discharge for Contaminants of Emerging Concern Removal in Water

Authors: Davide Palma, Dimitra Papagiannaki, Marco Minella, Manuel Lai, Rita Binetti, Claire Richard


Modern analytical technologies allow us to detect water contaminants at trace and ultra-trace concentrations highlighting how a large number of organic compounds is not efficiently abated by most wastewater treatment facilities relying on biological processes; we usually refer to these micropollutants as contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). The availability of reliable end effective technologies, able to guarantee the high standards of water quality demanded by legislators worldwide, has therefore become a primary need. In this context, water plasma stands out among developing technologies as it is extremely effective in the abatement of numerous classes of pollutants, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly. In this work, a custom-built non-thermal pulsed plasma discharge generator was used to abate the concentration of selected CECs in the water samples. Samples were treated in a 50 mL pyrex reactor using two different types of plasma discharge occurring at the surface of the treated solution or, underwater, working with positive polarity. The distance between the tips of the electrodes determined where the discharge was formed: underwater when the distance was < 2mm, at the water surface when the distance was > 2 mm. Peak voltage was in the 100-130kV range with typical current values of 20-40 A. The duration of the pulse was 500 ns, and the frequency of discharge could be manually set between 5 and 45 Hz. Treatment of 100 µM diclofenac solution in MilliQ water, with a pulse frequency of 17Hz, revealed that surface discharge was more efficient in the degradation of diclofenac that was no longer detectable after 6 minutes of treatment. Over 30 minutes were required to obtain the same results with underwater discharge. These results are justified by the higher rate of H₂O₂ formation (21.80 µmolL⁻¹min⁻¹ for surface discharge against 1.20 µmolL⁻¹min⁻¹ for underwater discharge), larger discharge volume and UV light emission, high rate of ozone and NOx production (up to 800 and 1400 ppb respectively) observed when working with surface discharge. Then, the surface discharge was used for the treatment of the three selected perfluoroalkyl compounds, namely, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and pefluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) both individually and in mixture, in ultrapure and groundwater matrices with initial concentration of 1 ppb. In both matrices, PFOS exhibited the best degradation reaching complete removal after 30 min of treatment (degradation rate 0.107 min⁻¹ in ultrapure water and 0.0633 min⁻¹ in groundwater), while the degradation rate of PFOA and PFHxA was slower of around 65% and 80%, respectively. Total nitrogen (TN) measurements revealed levels up to 45 mgL⁻¹h⁻¹ in water samples treated with surface discharge, while, in analogous samples treated with underwater discharge, TN increase was 5 to 10 times lower. These results can be explained by the significant NOx concentrations (over 1400 ppb) measured above functioning reactor operating with superficial discharge; rapid NOx hydrolysis led to nitrates accumulation in the solution explaining the observed evolution of TN values. Ionic chromatography measures confirmed that the vast majority of TN was under the form of nitrates. In conclusion, non-thermal pulsed plasma discharge, obtained with a custom-built generator, was proven to effectively degrade diclofenac in water matrices confirming the potential interest of this technology for wastewater treatment. The surface discharge was proven to be more effective in CECs removal due to the high rate of formation of H₂O₂, ozone, reactive radical species, and strong UV light emission. Furthermore, nitrates enriched water obtained after treatment could be an interesting added-value product to be used as fertilizer in agriculture. Acknowledgment: This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 765860.

Keywords: Water Treatment, Nitrogen Fixation, non-thermal plasma, CECs removal

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