Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

nitrogen dioxide Related Abstracts

4 Comparison of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution for Different Commuting Modes in Kaunas

Authors: A. Dėdelė, A. Miškinytė

Abstract:

The assessment of air pollution exposure in different microenvironments is important for better understanding the relationship between health effects caused by air pollution. The recent researches revealed that the level of air pollution in transport microenvironment contributes considerably to the total exposure of air pollution. The aim of the study was to determine air pollution of nitrogen dioxide and to assess the exposure of NO2 dependence on the chosen commuting mode using a global positioning system (GPS). The same travel destination was chosen and 30 rides in three different commuting modes: cycling, walking, and public transport were made. Every different mean of transport is associated with different route. GPS device and travel diary data were used to track all routes of different commuting modes. Air pollution of nitrogen dioxide was determined using the ADMS-Urban dispersion model. The average annual concentration of nitrogen dioxide was modeled for 2011 year in Kaunas city. The geographical information systems were used to visualize the travel routes, to create maps indicating the route of different commuting modes and to combine modelled nitrogen dioxide data. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the selected commuting mode and the exposure of nitrogen dioxide. The concentrations in the microenvironments were 22.4 μg/m3, 21.4 μg/m3, and 25.9 μg/m3 for cycling, walking and public transport respectively. Of all the modes of commuting, the highest average exposure of nitrogen dioxide was found travelling by public transport, while the lowest average concentration of NO2 was determined by walking.

Keywords: GPS, nitrogen dioxide, dispersion model, commuting mode

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3 The Comparison between Modelled and Measured Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in Cold and Warm Seasons in Kaunas

Authors: A. Miškinytė, A. Dėdelė

Abstract:

Road traffic is one of the main sources of air pollution in urban areas associated with adverse effects on human health and environment. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is considered as traffic-related air pollutant, which concentrations tend to be higher near highways, along busy roads and in city centres and exceedances are mainly observed in air quality monitoring stations located close to traffic. Atmospheric dispersion models can be used to examine emissions from many various sources and to predict the concentration of pollutants emitted from these sources into the atmosphere. The study aim was to compare modelled concentrations of nitrogen dioxide using ADMS-Urban dispersion model with air quality monitoring network in cold and warm seasons in Kaunas city. Modelled average seasonal concentrations of nitrogen dioxide for 2011 year have been verified with automatic air quality monitoring data from two stations in the city. Traffic station is located near high traffic street in industrial district and background station far away from the main sources of nitrogen dioxide pollution. The modelling results showed that the highest nitrogen dioxide concentration was modelled and measured in station located near intensive traffic street, both in cold and warm seasons. Modelled and measured nitrogen dioxide concentration was respectively 25.7 and 25.2 µg/m3 in cold season and 15.5 and 17.7 µg/m3 in warm season. While the lowest modelled and measured NO2 concentration was determined in background monitoring station, respectively 12.2 and 13.3 µg/m3 in cold season and 6.1 and 7.6 µg/m3 in warm season. The difference between monitoring station located near high traffic street and background monitoring station showed that better agreement between modelled and measured NO2 concentration was observed at traffic monitoring station.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Modelling, nitrogen dioxide, ADMS-Urban model

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2 Personal Exposure to Respirable Particles and Other Selected Gases among Cyclists near and Away from Busy Roads of Perth Metropolitan Area

Authors: Anu Shrestha, Krassi Rumchev, Ben Mullins, Yun Zhao, Linda Selvey

Abstract:

Cycling is often promoted as a means of reducing vehicular congestion, noise and greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in urban areas. It is also indorsed as a healthy means of transportation in terms of reducing the risk of developing a range of physical and psychological conditions. However, people who cycle regularly may not be aware that they can become exposed to high levels of Vehicular Air Pollutants (VAP) emitted by nearby traffics and therefore experience adverse health effects as a result. The study will highlight the present scenario of ambient air pollution level in different cycling routes in Perth and also highlight significant contribution to the understanding of health risks that cyclist may face from exposure to particulate air pollution. Methodology: This research was conducted in Perth, Western Austral and consisted of two groups of cyclists cycling near high (2 routes) and low (two routes) vehicular traffic roads, at high and low levels of exertion, during the cold and warm seasons. A sample size of 123 regular cyclists who cycled at least 80 km/week, aged 20-55, and non-smoker were selected for this study. There were altogether 100 male and 23 female who were asked to choose one or more routes among four different routes, and each participant cycled the route for warm or cold or both seasons. Cyclist who reported cardiovascular and other chronic health conditions (excluding asthma) were not invited into the study. Exposures to selected air pollutants were assessed by undertaking background and personal measurements alone with the measurement of heart and breathe rate of each participant. Finding: According to the preliminary study findings, the cyclists who used cycling route close to high traffic route were exposed to higher levels of measured air pollutants Nitrogen Oxide (NO₂) =0.12 ppm, sulfur dioxide (SO₂)=0.06 ppm and carbon monoxide (CO)=0.25 PPM compared to those who cycled away from busy roads. However, we measured high concentrations of particulate air pollution near one of the low traffic route which we associate with the close proximity to ferry station. Concluding Statement: As a conclusion, we recommend that cycling routes should be selected away from high traffic routes. If possible, we should also consider that if the cycling route is surrounded by the dense populated infrastructures, it can trap the pollutants and always facilitate in increasing inhalation of particle count among the cyclists.

Keywords: Air Pollution, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyclists' health, nitrogen oxide, respirable particulate matters

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1 The Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Street Canyons

Authors: Aukse Miskinyte, Audrius Dedele

Abstract:

The impact of urban air pollution on human health effects has been revealed in epidemiological studies, which have assessed the associations between various types of gases and particles and negative health outcomes. The percentage of population living in urban areas is increasing, and the assessment of air pollution in certain zones in the city (like street canyons) that have higher level of air pollution and specific dispersion conditions is essential as these places tend to contain a lot of people. Street canyon is defined as a street surrounded by tall buildings on both sides that trapes traffic emissions and prevents pollution dispersion. The aim of this study was to determine the pollution of nitrogen dioxide in street canyons in Kaunas city during cold and warm seasons. The measurements were conducted using passive sampling technique during two-week period in two street canyon sites, whose axes are approximately north-south and north-northeast‒south-southwest. Both of these streets are two-lane roads of 7 meters width, one is in the central part of the city, and other is in the Old Town. The results of two-week measurements showed that the concentration of nitrogen dioxide was higher in summer season than in winter in both street canyon sites. The difference between the level of NO2 in winter and summer seasons was 5.1 and 19.4 µg/m3 in the first and in the second street canyon sites, respectively. The higher concentration of NO2 was determined in the second street canyon site than in the first, although there was calculated lower traffic intensity. These results could be related to the certain street canyon characteristics.

Keywords: Air Pollution, nitrogen dioxide, street canyon, passive sampler

Procedia PDF Downloads 138