Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

nitrate leaching Related Abstracts

3 Comparison between Experimental Modeling and HYDRUS-2D for Nitrate Transport through a Saturated Soil Column

Authors: Abdelazim Negm, Mohamed Eltarabily, Chihiro Yoshimura


Recently, the pollution of groundwater from the use of nitrogenous fertilizer is at the increase. Also, due to the increase in area under cultivation and regular use of fertilizer in irrigated agriculture, groundwater pollution from agricultural activities is becoming a major concern. Because of the high mobility of Nitrate (NO3-) in soil which is governed by electrostatic processes, particularly anion exclusion, nitrate can be intercepted by shallow subsurface drainage pipe systems and then discharged offsite into streams, rivers, and lakes causing many hazards. In order to solve these environmental problems associated with nitrate, a better understanding of how NO3- moves through the soil profile under flow conditions is required. In the present paper, the results of a comparative study between experimental and numerical modeling of Nitrate transport through a saturated soil column are presented and analyzed. In order to achieve that, three water fluxes densities; 0.008, 0.007, and 0.006 m sec-1 and N concentration rates 10 mol cm-3 were used. The same concentrations were used in the simulation using HYDRUS-2D. The physical and chemical properties of the collected soil samples were calculated. Besides, the soil texture was determined which was silty sand. Results showed that HYDRUS-2D can successfully predict the relative behavior of N transport in the present experiment. Nitrate concentrations will reach deeper depth with the increase in the water flux. Overall, it was overestimated in the final concentration of (NO3-) in the soil by numerical simulation than by experimental column test. The column experiment is a useful tool for assessing the nitrate concentrations in the soil profile.

Keywords: Groundwater, soil column, nitrate leaching, HYDRUS-2D

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2 Effect of Polymer Coated Urea on Nutrient Efficiency and Nitrate Leaching Using Maize and Annual Ryegrass

Authors: Amrei Voelkner, Nils Peters, Thomas Mannheim


The worldwide exponential growth of the population and the simultaneous increasing food production requires the strategic realization of sustainable and improved cultivation systems to ensure the fertility of arable land and to guarantee the food supply for the whole world. To fulfill this target, large quantities of fertilizers have to be applied to the field, but the long-term environmental impacts remain uncertain. Thus, a combined system would be necessary to increase the nutrient availability for plants while reducing nutrient losses (e.g. NO3- by leaching) to the environment. To enhance the nutrient efficiency, polymer coated fertilizer with a controlled release behavior have been developed. This kind of fertilizer ensures a delayed release of nutrients to synchronize the nutrient supply with the demand of different crops. In the last decades, research focused primarily on semi-permeable polyurethane coatings, which remain in the soil for a long period after the complete solvation of the fertilizer core. Within the implementation of the new European Regulation Directive the replacement of non-degradable synthetic polymers by degradable coatings is necessary. It was, therefore, the objective of this study to develop a total biodegradable polymer (to CO2 and H2O) coating according to ISO 17556 and to compare the retarding effect of the biodegradable coatings with commercially available non-degradable products. To investigate the effect of ten selected coated urea fertilizer on the yield of annual ryegrass and maize, the fresh and dry mass, the percentage of total nitrogen and main nutrients were analyzed in greenhouse experiments in sixfold replications using near-infrared spectroscopy. For the experiments, a homogenized and air-dried loamy sand (Cambic Luvisol) was equipped with a basic fertilization of P, K, Mg and S. To investigate the effect of nitrogen level increase, three levels (80%, 100%, 120%) were established, whereas the impact of CRF granules was determined using a N-level of 100%. Additionally, leaching of NO3- from pots planted with annual ryegrass was examined to evaluate the retention capacity of urea by the polymer coating. For this, leachate from Kick-Brauckmann-Pots was collected daily and analyzed for total nitrogen, NO3- and NH4+ in twofold repetition once a week using near-infrared spectroscopy. We summarize from the results that the coated fertilizer have a clear impact on the yield of annual ryegrass and maize. Compared to the control, an increase of fresh and dry mass could be recognized. Partially, the non-degradable coatings showed a retarding effect for a longer period, which was however reflected by a lower fresh and dry mass. It was ascertained that the percentage of leached-out nitrate could be reduced markedly. As a conclusion, it could be pointed out that the impact of coated fertilizer of all polymer types might contribute to a reduction of negative environmental impacts in addition to their fertilizing effect.

Keywords: Coating, Biodegradable Polymers, nitrate leaching, enhanced efficiency fertilizers

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1 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud


Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching, alluvial soil, calcareous soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 165