Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

NIRS Related Abstracts

5 Free Fatty Acid Assessment of Crude Palm Oil Using a Non-Destructive Approach

Authors: Herlina Abdul Rahim, Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani, Rashidah Ghazali, Noramli Abdul Razak


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of prediction models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this study, 110 crude palm oil (CPO) samples were used to build a free fatty acid (FFA) prediction model. 60% of the collected data were used for training purposes and the remaining 40% used for testing. The visible peaks on the NIR spectrum were at 1725 nm and 1760 nm, indicating the existence of the first overtone of C-H bands. Principal component regression (PCR) was applied to the data in order to build this mathematical prediction model. The optimal number of principal components was 10. The results showed R2=0.7147 for the training set and R2=0.6404 for the testing set.

Keywords: Regression, palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS

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4 Analysis of Brain Activities due to Differences in Running Shoe Properties

Authors: Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Kaburagi, Kei Okubo


Many of the ever-growing elderly population require exercise, such as running, for health management. One important element of a runner’s training is the choice of shoes for exercise; shoes are important because they provide the interface between the feet and road. When we purchase shoes, we may instinctively choose a pair after trying on many different pairs of shoes. Selecting the shoes instinctively may work, but it does not guarantee a suitable fit for running activities. Therefore, if we could select suitable shoes for each runner from the viewpoint of brain activities, it would be helpful for validating shoe selection. In this paper, we describe how brain activities show different characteristics during particular task, corresponding to different properties of shoes. Using five subjects, we performed a verification experiment, applying weight, softness, and flexibility as shoe properties. In order to affect the shoe property’s differences to the brain, subjects run for ten min. Before and after running, subjects conducted a paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as the particular task; and the subjects’ brain activities during the PASAT are evaluated based on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin relative concentration changes, measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). When the brain works actively, oxihemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration drastically changes; therefore, we calculate the maximum values of concentration changes. In order to normalize relative concentration changes after running, the maximum value are divided by before running maximum value as evaluation parameters. The classification of the groups of shoes is expressed on a self-organizing map (SOM). As a result, deoxyhemoglobin can make clusters for two of the three types of shoes.

Keywords: NIRS, brain activities, PASAT, running shoes

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3 A Novel NRIS Index to Evaluate Brain Activity in Prefrontal Regions While Listening to First and Second Languages for Long Time Periods

Authors: Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara, Hiroshi Tanaka, Takashi Kaburagi, Kensho Takahashi, Ko Watanabe


Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been widely used as a non-invasive method to measure brain activity, but it is corrupted by baseline drift noise. Here we present a method to measure regional cerebral blood flow as a derivative of NIRS output. We investigate whether, when listening to languages, blood flow can reasonably localize and represent regional brain activity or not. The prefrontal blood flow distribution pattern when advanced second-language listeners listened to a second language (L2) was most similar to that when listening to their first language (L1) among the patterns of mean and standard deviation. In experiments with 25 healthy subjects, the maximum blood flow was localized to the left BA46 of advanced listeners. The blood flow presented is robust to baseline drift and stably localizes regional brain activity.

Keywords: Working memory, Second Language, first language, blood flow, NIRS, oxy-hemoglobin, baseline drift, BA46

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2 Reliability and Validity of Determining Ventilatory Threshold and Respiratory Compensation Point by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Tso-Yen Mao, De-Yen Liu, Chun-Feng Huang


Purpose: This research intends to investigate the reliability and validity of ventilatory threshold (VT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) determined by skeletal muscle hemodynamic status. Methods: One hundred healthy male (age: 22±3 yrs; height: 173.1±6.0 cm; weight: 67.1±10.5 kg) performed graded cycling exercise test which ventilatory and skeletal muscle hemodynamic data were collected simultaneously. VT and RCP were determined by combined V-slope (VE vs. VCO2) and ventilatory efficiency (VE/VO2 vs. VE/VCO2) methods. Pearson correlation, paired t-test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to analyze reliability, validity, and similarities. Statistical significance was set at α =. 05. Results: There are high test-retest correlations of VT and RCP in ventilatory or near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) methods (VT vs. VTNIRS: 0.95 vs. 0.94; RCP vs. RCPNIRS: 0.93 vs. 0.93, p<. 05). There are high coefficient of determination at the first timing point of O2Hb decreased (R2 = 0.88, p<. 05) with VT, and high coefficient of determination at the second timing point of O2Hb declined (R2 = 0.89, p< .05) with RCP. VO2 of VT and RCP are not significantly different between ventilatory and NIRS methods (p>. 05). Conclusion: Using NIRS method to determine VT and RCP is reliable and valid in male individuals during graded exercise. Non-invasive skeletal muscle hemodynamics monitor also can be used for controlling training intensity in the future.

Keywords: Exercise Intensity, NIRS, hemodynamic, anaerobic threshold

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1 Non-Destructive Prediction System Using near Infrared Spectroscopy for Crude Palm Oil

Authors: Herlina Abdul Rahim, Siti Nurhidayah Naqiah Abdull Rani


Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has always been of great interest in the food and agriculture industries. The development of predictive models has facilitated the estimation process in recent years. In this research, 176 crude palm oil (CPO) samples acquired from Felda Johor Bulker Sdn Bhd were studied. A FOSS NIRSystem was used to tak e absorbance measurements from the sample. The wavelength range for the spectral measurement is taken at 1600nm to 1900nm. Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) prediction model with 50 optimal number of principal components was implemented to study the relationship between the measured Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values and the measured spectral absorption. PLSR showed predictive ability of FFA values with correlative coefficient (R) of 0.9808 for the training set and 0.9684 for the testing set.

Keywords: palm oil, fatty acid, NIRS, PLSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 61