Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

nicotine Related Abstracts

6 Supplementation of Annatto (Bixa orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol Produced High Number of Morula through Increased Expression of 3-Phosphoinositide-Dependent Protein Kinase-1 (PDK1) in Mice

Authors: S. M. M. Syairah, M. H. Rajikin, A. R. Sharaniza


Several embryonic cellular mechanism including cell cycle, growth and apoptosis are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. The goal of present study is to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived δ-tocotrienol (δ-TCT) on the regulations of PI3K/Akt genes in murine morula. Twenty four 6-8 week old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) received tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers), G3 was given 60 mg/kg/day of pure δ-TCT (>98% purity) and G4 received 60 mg/kg/day α-TOC. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. About fifty morula from each group were used in the gene expression analyses using Affymetrix QuantiGene Plex 2.0 Assay. Present data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the average number (mean + SEM) of morula produced in G2 (26.0 + 0.45), G3 (23.0 + 0.63) and G4 (25.0 + 0.73) compared to control group (G1 – 16.0 + 0.63). This is parallel with the high expression of PDK1 gene with increase of 2.75-fold (G2), 3.07-fold (G3) and 3.59-fold (G4) compared to G1 (1.78-fold). From the present data, it can be concluded that supplementation with δ-TCT(s) and α-TOC induced high expression of PDK1 in G2-G4 which enhanced the PI3K/Akt signaling activity, resulting in the increased number of morula.

Keywords: Embryonic Development, vitamin E, delta-tocotrienol, nicotine

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5 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa Orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: S. M. M. Syairah, M. H. Rajikin, A. R. Sharaniza


Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine, G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved.

Keywords: body weight, nicotine, δ-tocotrienol, preimplantation embryonic development

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4 Genome-Wide Significant SNPs Proximal to Nicotinic Receptor Genes Impact Cognition in Schizophrenia

Authors: Mohammad Ahangari


Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with symptoms that include cognitive deficits and nicotine has been suggested to have an effect on cognition. In recent years, the advents of Genome-Wide Association Studies(GWAS) has evolved our understanding about the genetic causes of complex disorders such as schizophrenia and studying the role of genome-wide significant genes could potentially lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. The current study identified six Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) from schizophrenia and smoking GWAS that are located on or in close proximity to the nicotinic receptor gene cluster (CHRN) and studied their association with cognition in an Irish sample of 1297 cases and controls using linear regression analysis. Further on, the interaction between CHRN gene cluster and Dopamine receptor D2 gene (DRD2) during working memory was investigated. The effect of these polymorphisms on nicotinic and dopaminergic neurotransmission, which is disrupted in schizophrenia, have been characterized in terms of their effects on memory, attention, social cognition and IQ as measured by a neuropsychological test battery and significant effects in two polymorphisms were found across global IQ domain of the test battery.

Keywords: Cognition, Schizophrenia, gwas, Dopamine, nicotine, SNPs

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3 Metformin Protects Cardiac Muscle against the Pro-Apoptotic Effects of Hyperglycaemia, Elevated Fatty Acid and Nicotine

Authors: Hong Ding, Christopher R. Triggle, Khaled Machaca, Gnanapragasam Arunachalam


The antidiabetic drug, metformin, has been in clinical use for over 50 years and remains the first choice drug for the treatment of type two diabetes. In addition to its effectiveness as an oral anti-hyperglycaemic drug metformin also possesses vasculoprotective effects that are assumed to be secondary to its ability to reduce insulin resistance and control glycated hemoglobin levels; however, recent data from our laboratory indicate that metformin also has direct vasoprotective effects that are mediated, at least in part, via the anti-ageing gene, SIRT1. Diabetes is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it is also well established that tobacco use further enhances the risk of CVD; however, it is not known whether treatment with metformin can offset the negative effects of diabetes and tobacco use on cardiac function. The current study was therefore designed to investigate 1: the effects of hyperglycaemia (HG) either alone or in the presence of elevated fatty acids (palmitate) and nicotine on the protein expression levels of the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (the protein product of SIRT1), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, pro-apoptotic BIM and the pro-apoptotic, tumour suppressor protein, acetylated p53 in cardiomyocytes. 2: the ability of metformin to prevent the detrimental effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on cardiomyocyte survival. Cell culture protocols were designed using a rat cardiomyocyte cell line, H9c2, either under normal glycaemic (NG) conditions of 5.5mM glucose, or hyperglycaemic conditions (HG) of 25mM glucose with, or without, added palmitate (250μM) or nicotine (1.0mM) for 24h. Immuno-blotting was used to detect the expression of sirtuin 1, Bcl-2, BIM, acetylated (Ac)-p53, p53 with β-actin used as the reference protein. Exposure to HG, palmitate, or nicotine alone significantly reduced expression of sirtuin1, Bcl-2 and raised the expression levels of acetylated p53 and BIM; however, the combination of HG, palmitate and nicotine had a synergistic effect to significantly suppress the expression levels of sirtuin 1 and Bcl-2, but further enhanced the expression of Ac-p53, and BIM. The inclusion of 1000μM, but not 50μM, metformin in the H9c2 cell culture protocol prevented the effects of HG, palmitate and nicotine on the pro-apoptotic pathways. Collectively these data indicate that metformin, in addition to its anti-hyperglycaemic and vasculoprotective properties, also has direct cardioprotective actions that offset the negative effects of hyerglycaemia, elevated free fatty acids and nicotine on cardiac cell survival. These data are of particular significance for the treatment of patients with diabetes who are also smokers as the inclusion of metformin in their therapeutic treatment plan should help reduce cardiac-related morbidity and mortality.

Keywords: Diabetes, apoptosis, metformin, nicotine, cardiac muscle

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2 Sustainable Separation of Nicotine from Its Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Zoran Visak, Joana Lopes, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak


Within this study, the separation of nicotine from its aqueous solutions, using inorganic salt sodium chloride or ionic liquid (molten salt) ECOENG212® as salting-out media, was carried out. Thus, liquid-liquid equilibria of the ternary solutions (nicotine+water+NaCl) and (nicotine+water+ECOENG212®) were determined at ambient pressure, 0.1 MPa, at three temperatures. The related phase diagrams were constructed in two manners: by adding the determined cloud-points and by the chemical analysis of phases in equilibrium (tie-line data). The latter were used to calculate two important separation parameters - partition coefficients of nicotine and separation factors. The impacts of the initial compositions of the mother solutions and of temperature on the liquid-liquid phase separation and partition coefficients were analyzed and discussed. The results obtained clearly showed that both investigated salts are good salting-out media for the efficient and sustainable separation of nicotine from its solutions with water. However, when compared, sodium chloride exhibited much better separation performance than the ionic liquid.

Keywords: ionic liquid, nicotine, liquid-liquid separation, inorganic salt

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1 Tocotrienol Rich Fraction in Nicotine-Induced Embryos: Cytoskeletal Changes of Actin and Tubulin

Authors: Mohd Hamim Rajikin, Nurul Hamirah Kamsani, Nor Ashikin Mohamed Noor Khan, Sharaniza Abdul Rahim


Cytoskeletal structures, in particular actin and tubulin, provide a fundamental framework in all cells, including embryos. Under influence of nicotine, the cytoskeletal organization may be subjected to oxidative stress (OS) insult and cause alteration. Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) is proven to enhance fertility better than the other sub-group of Vitamin E, tocopherols (TCPs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TRF on 1) actin and tubulin of 2- and 8-cell murine embryos and 2) the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes; induced by nicotine. Twenty four female Balb/C were subjected to either subcutaneous (sc) injection of 0.9% NaCl; sc injection of 3.0 mg/kg bw/day nicotine; sc injection of 3.0 mg/kg bw/day nicotine + oral gavage (OG) of 60 mg/kg bw/day TRF; or OG of 60 mg/kg bw/day TRF for 7 consecutive days. After superovulation and mating, animals were euthanized. 2-cell developing embryos were retrieved. 50% of the retrieved embryos were visualized under confocal laser staining microscopy (CLSM) for alterations of actin and tubulin. The remaining amount of embryos was cultured in vitro until 8-cell stage followed by CLSM visualization. Blood plasma was subjected to OS assays. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined and analysed accordingly. At both 2- and 8-cell developing stages, actin intensities were significantly reduced in the nicotine group (p<0.001). After the intervention, actin intensity was significantly increased compared to that of the nicotine group (p<0.001). The same trend was seen in tubulin at both cell stages. TRF has minimized the deleterious effects of nicotine in actin and tubulin of both 2- and 8-cell developmental stages during pre-implantation embryonic development in mice in vitro. Levels of endogenous anti-oxidative enzymes were sustained close to control accompanied by decreased levels of OS biomarker.

Keywords: nicotine, actin, pre-implantation embryos, tocotrienol rich fraction, tubulin

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