Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Nickel Related Abstracts

35 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader


Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: Toxicity, Nickel, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, orthodontic treatment, saliva

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34 Removal of Metals from Heavy Oil

Authors: Ali Noorian


Crude oil contains various compounds of hydrocarbons but low concentrations of inorganic compounds or metals. Vanadium and Nickel are the most common metals in crude oil. These metals usually exist in solution in the oil and residual fuel oil in the refining process is condensed. Deleterious effects of metals in petroleum have been known for some time. These metals do not only contaminate the product but also cause intoxication and loss of catalyst and corrosion to equipment. In this study, removal of heavy metals and petroleum residues were investigated. These methods include physical, chemical and biological treatment processes. For example, processes such as solvent extraction and hydro-catalytic and catalytic methods are effective and practical methods, but typically often have high costs and cause environmental pollution. Furthermore, biological methods that do not cause environmental pollution have been discussed in recent years, but these methods have not yet been industrialized.

Keywords: Metal, heavy oil, Nickel, removal, vanadium

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33 Development of Risk-Based Ambient Air Quality Standards in the Russian Federation on the Basis of Risk Assessment Procedures Harmonized with International Approaches

Authors: Nina V. Zaitseva, Pavel Z. Shur, Nina G. Atiskova


Nowadays harmonization of sanitary and hygienic standards of environmental quality with international standards is crucial part of integration of Russia into the international community. Harmonization of Russian and international ambient air quality standards may be realized by risk-based standards development. In this paper approaches to risk-based standards development and examples of these approaches implementation are presented.

Keywords: Health Risk Assessment, Nickel, harmonization, evolutionary modelling, benchmark level, manganese

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32 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit


Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: rats, Nickel, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, GOT, GPT

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31 Influence of Nitrogen Doping on the Catalytic Activity of Ni-Incorporated Carbon Nanofibers for Alkaline Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

Authors: Mohamed H. El-Newehy, Salem S. Al-Deyab, Badr M. Thamer, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Mohammad A.Abdelkareem, Hak Y. Kim


In this study, the influence of nitrogen doping on the electrocatalytic activity of carbon nanofibers with nickel nanoparticles toward methanol oxidation is introduced. The modified carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from calcination of electrospun nanofiber mats composed of nickel acetate tetrahydrate, poly(vinyl alcohol) and urea in argon atmosphere at 750oC. The utilized physicochemical characterizations indicated that the proposed strategy leads to form carbon nanofibers having nickel nanoparticles and doped by nitrogen. Moreover, due to the high-applied voltage during the electrospinning process, the utilized urea chemically bonds with the polymer matrix, which leads to form nitrogen-doped CNFs after the calcination process. Investigation of the electrocatalytic activity indicated that nitrogen doping NiCNFs strongly enhances the oxidation process of methanol as the current density increases from 52.5 to 198.5 mA/cm2 when the urea content in the original electrospun solution was 4 wt% urea. Moreover, the nanofibrous morphology exhibits distinct impact on the electrocatalytic activity. Also, nitrogen-doping enhanced the stability of the introduced Ni-based electrocatalyst. Overall, the present study introduces effective and simple strategy to modify the electrocatalytic activity of the nickel-based materials.

Keywords: Fuel Cells, Electrospinning, Nickel, methanol electrooxidation, nitrogen-doping

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30 Preparation and Characterization of Nickel-Tungsten Nanoparticles Using Microemulsion Mediated Synthesis

Authors: S. Sivakumar, R. Singh, S. Pál, D. Kunzru


AOT stabilized reverse micelles of deionized water, dispersed in isooctane have been used to synthesize bimetallic nickel tungsten nanoparticles. Prepared nanoparticles were supported on γ-Al2O3 followed by calcination at 500oC. Characterizations of the nanoparticles were done by TEM, XRD, FTIR, XRF, TGA and BET. XRF results showed that this method gave good composition control with W/Ni weight ratio equal to 3.2. TEM images showed particle size of 5-10 nm. Removal of surfactant after calcination was confirmed by TGA and FTIR.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Tungsten, Nickel, reverse micelles

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29 Structure and Morphology of Electrodeposited Nickel Nanowires at an Electrode Distance of 20mm

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan


The objective of this work is to study the effect of two key factors-external magnetic field and applied current density during the template-based electrodeposition of nickel nanowires using an electrode distance of 20 mm. Morphology, length, crystallite size, and crystallographic characterization of the grown nickel nanowires at an electrode distance of 20mm are presented. For this electrode distance of 20 mm, these two key electrodeposition factors when coupled was found to reduce crystallite size with a higher growth length and preferred orientation of Ni crystals. These observed changes can be inferred to be due to coupled interaction forces induced by the intensity of applied electric field (current density) and external magnetic field known as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect during the electrodeposition process.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, anodic alumina oxide

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28 Experimental Uniaxial Tensile Characterization of One-Dimensional Nickel Nanowires

Authors: Ram Mohan, Mahendran Samykano, Shyam Aravamudhan


Metallic nanowires with sub-micron and hundreds of nanometer diameter have a diversity of applications in nano/micro-electromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS). Characterizing the mechanical properties of such sub-micron and nano-scale metallic nanowires are tedious; require sophisticated and careful experimentation to be performed within high-powered microscopy systems (scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM)). Also, needed are nanoscale devices for placing the nanowires; loading them with the intended conditions; obtaining the data for load–deflection during the deformation within the high-powered microscopy environment poses significant challenges. Even picking the grown nanowires and placing them correctly within a nanoscale loading device is not an easy task. Mechanical characterizations through experimental methods for such nanowires are still very limited. Various techniques at different levels of fidelity, resolution, and induced errors have been attempted by material science and nanomaterial researchers. The methods for determining the load, deflection within the nanoscale devices also pose a significant problem. The state of the art is thus still at its infancy. All these factors result and is seen in the wide differences in the characterization curves and the reported properties in the current literature. In this paper, we discuss and present our experimental method, results, and discussions of uniaxial tensile loading and the development of subsequent stress–strain characteristics curves for Nickel nanowires. Nickel nanowires in the diameter range of 220–270 nm were obtained in our laboratory via an electrodeposition method, which is a solution based, template method followed in our present work for growing 1-D Nickel nanowires. Process variables such as the presence of magnetic field, its intensity; and varying electrical current density during the electrodeposition process were found to influence the morphological and physical characteristics including crystal orientation, size of the grown nanowires1. To further understand the correlation and influence of electrodeposition process variables, associated formed structural features of our grown Nickel nanowires to their mechanical properties, careful experiments within scanning electron microscope (SEM) were conducted. Details of the uniaxial tensile characterization, testing methodology, nanoscale testing device, load–deflection characteristics, microscopy images of failure progression, and the subsequent stress–strain curves are discussed and presented.

Keywords: nanowires, Nickel, electrodeposition, stress-strain, uniaxial tensile characterization

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27 Rapid Processing Techniques Applied to Sintered Nickel Battery Technologies for Utility Scale Applications

Authors: J. D. Marinaccio, I. Mabbett, C. Glover, D. Worsley


Through use of novel modern/rapid processing techniques such as screen printing and Near-Infrared (NIR) radiative curing, process time for the sintering of sintered nickel plaques, applicable to alkaline nickel battery chemistries, has been drastically reduced from in excess of 200 minutes with conventional convection methods to below 2 minutes using NIR curing methods. Steps have also been taken to remove the need for forming gas as a reducing agent by implementing carbon as an in-situ reducing agent, within the ink formulation.

Keywords: Energy, Batteries, Storage, Iron, Nickel

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26 Chelator-assisted Phytoextraction of Nickel from Nickeliferous Lateritic Soil by Phyllanthus sp. nov.

Authors: Grecco M. Ante, Princess Rochelle O. Gan


Plants that can absorb greater than 10,000 µg Ni/g dry mass in their stems and leaves are termed as ‘hypernickelophores’. Chelators are chemicals that make the metals in the soil more soluble, making them a potential enhancer for phytoextraction. This study aims to observe the effect of different concentrations of the chelating agent ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on the metal uptake (or rate of phytoextraction) of Nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. The plant is found to be a hyperickelophore in normal conditions. The addition of EDTA increased the metal uptake of the plant. The increasing amount of the chelating agent causes a decrease in the phytoextraction of the plant but moves the onset of its peak of maximum nickel content in its tissue to an earlier time. The chelator-assisted phytoextraction of nickel by Phyllanthus sp. nov. is proven to be an efficient auxiliary mining operation for nickel laterite mines.

Keywords: Nickel, laterite, EDTA, phytomining, Phyllanthus sp. nov

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25 Characterization of Pure Nickel Coatings Fabricated under Pulse Current Conditions

Authors: M. Sajjadnejad, H. Omidvar, M. Javanbakht, A. Mozafari


Pure nickel coatings have been successfully electrodeposited on copper substrates by the pulse plating technique. The influence of current density, duty cycle and pulse frequency on the surface morphology, crystal orientation, and microhardness was determined. It was found that the crystallite size of the deposit increases with increasing current density and duty cycle. The crystal orientation progressively changed from a random texture at 1 A/dm2 to (200) texture at 10 A/dm2. Increasing pulse frequency resulted in increased texture coefficient and peak intensity of (111) reflection. An increase in duty cycle resulted in considerable increase in texture coefficient and peak intensity of (311) reflection. Coatings obtained at high current densities and duty cycles present a mixed morphology of small and large grains. Maximum microhardness of 193 Hv was achieved at 4 A/dm2, 10 Hz and duty cycle of 50%. Nickel coatings with (200) texture are ductile while (111) texture improves the microhardness of the coatings.

Keywords: Microstructure, Nickel, current density, duty cycle, pulse frequency

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24 Removal of Nickel and Zinc Ions from Aqueous Solution by Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide Functionalized Glycine

Authors: M. Rajabi, O. Moradi


In this study, removal of Nickel and Zinc by graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces was examined. Amino group was added to surface of graphene oxide to produced functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin. Effect of contact time and initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions were studied. Results showed that with increase of initial concentration of Ni (II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity was increased. After 50 min has not a large change at adsorption capacity therefore, 50 min was selected as optimaze time. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy spectra used for the analysis confirmed the successful fictionalization of the Graphene oxide surface. Adsorption experiments of Ni (II) and Zn(II) ions graphene oxide and functionalized graphene oxide–gelaycin surfaces fixed at 298 K and pH=6. The Pseudo Firs-order and the Pseudo Second-order (types I, II, III and IV) kinetic models were tested for adsorption process and results showed that the kinetic parameters best fits with to type (I) of pseudo-second-order model because presented low X2 values and also high R2 values.

Keywords: Adsorption, Graphene Oxide, Nickel, zinc, kinetic, gelaycin

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23 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Nickel, bentonite

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22 Selective Solvent Extraction of Calcium and Magnesium from Concentrate Nickel Solutions Using Mixtures of Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA

Authors: Alexandre S. Guimarães, Marcelo B. Mansur


The performance of organophosphorus extractants Cyanex 272 and D2EHPA on the purification of concentrate nickel sulfate solutions was evaluated. Batch scale tests were carried out at pH range of 2 to 7 using a laboratory solution simulating concentrate nickel liquors as those typically obtained when sulfate intermediates from nickel laterite are re-leached and treated for the selective removal of cobalt, zinc, manganese and copper with Cyanex 272 ([Ca] = 0.57 g/L, [Mg] = 3.2 g/L, and [Ni] = 88 g/L). The increase on the concentration of D2EHPA favored the calcium extraction. The extraction of magnesium is dependent on the pH and of ratio of extractants D2EHPA and Cyanex 272 in the organic phase. The composition of the investigated organic phase did not affect nickel extraction. The number of stages is dependent on the magnesium extraction. The most favorable operating condition to selectively remove calcium and magnesium was determined.

Keywords: Nickel, solvent extraction, organophosphorus extractants, alkaline earth metals

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21 The Influence of Ni Elements on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP)

Authors: Yuksel Akinay, Fatih Hayat


The influence of Ni elements on mechanical properties and microstructure of twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steels were investigated in this study. TWIP 1 (0,6C, 24Mn) and TWIP 2 (0,6C, 24Mn, 1Ni) high Mn TWIP (Twinning Induced Plasticity) steels were fabricated, and were annealed at 700°C, 800°C and 900°C for 150 minute and then air-cooled. The microstructures and mechanical properties of specimens were analysed to investigate influence of Ni element on TWIP steel. The carbide precipitations have seen in microstructure of TWIP 1 and TWIP 2 specimen annealed at 700 °C. However, the microstructures of TWIP 1 annealed at 800°C and 900°C are fully austenite and some grains are including annealing twins. However twining did not occur at TWIP 2 specimens annealed at 700 °C, 800 °C and 900 °C. TWIP 2 steel contains also Ni element differently from TWIP 1 steel. It can conclude that, Nickel (Ni) was restrained formation of twinning. The reversion of the tensile strength occurred between 700°C and 800°C because of the carbide precipitation hardening. Beside that, hardness value has decreased between 800 °C and 900 °C, which show a good agreement with the equilibrium dissolution temperature of M3C carbides. However, the results show that, carbide precipitations also are as strong barriers for the formation of twining. For this reason, twinning was not obtained at 700 °C.

Keywords: Heat Treatment, Nickel, SEM, high manganese, cold rolling, TWIP steel

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20 Screening of Nickel-Tolerant Genotype of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) Based on Photosynthesis and Antioxidant System

Authors: Mohammad Yusuf, Qazi Fariduddin


The main aim of this study was to explore the different cultivars of Vigna radiata on basis of photosynthesis, antioxidants and proline to assess Ni-sensitive and Ni-tolerant cultivar. Seeds of five different cultivars were sown in soil amended with different levels of Ni (0, 50, 100, or 150 mg kg 1). At 30 d stage, plants were harvested to assess the various parameters. The Ni treatment diminished growth, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content and net photosynthesis along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced proline content and various antioxidant enzymes. The varieties T-44 found least affected, whereas PDM-139 experienced maximum damage at 150 mg kg-1 of Ni. Moreover, T-44 possessed maximum activity of antioxidant enzymes and proline content at all the levels of metal whereas PDM-139 possessed minimum values. Therefore, T-44 and PDM-139 were established as the most resistant and sensitive varieties, respectively.

Keywords: Photosynthesis, Antioxidants, Nickel, proline, Vigna radiata

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19 Hydrometallurgical Production of Nickel Ores from Field Bugetkol

Authors: A. T. Zhakiyenova, E. E. Zhatkanbaev, Zh. K. Zhatkanbaeva


Nickel plays an important role in mechanical engineering and creation of military equipment; practically all steel are alloyed by nickel and other metals for receiving more durable, heat-resistant, corrosion-resistant steel and cast iron. There are many ways of processing of nickel in the world. Generally, it is igneous metallurgy methods. In this article, the review of majority existing ways of technologies of processing silicate nickel - cobalt ores is considered. Leaching of ores of a field Bugetkol is investigated by solution of sulfuric acid. We defined a specific consumption of sulfuric acid in relation to the mass of ore and to the mass of metal.

Keywords: Leaching, Hydrometallurgy, Nickel, matte, cobalt, degree of extraction, igneous metallurgy

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18 Heating Behavior of Ni-Embedded Thermoplastic Polyurethane Adhesive Film by Induction Heating

Authors: DuckHwan Bae, YongSung Kwon, Min Young Shon, SanTaek Oh, GuNi Kim


The heating behavior of nanometer and micrometer sized Nickel particle-imbedded thermoplastic polyurethane adhesive (TPU) under induction heating is examined in present study. The effects of particle size and content, TPU film thickness on heating behaviors were examined. The correlation between heating behavior and magnetic properties of Nickel particles were also studied. From the results, heat generation increased with increase of Nickel content and film thickness. However, in terms of particle sizes, heat generation of Nickel-imbedded TPU film were in order of 70nm>1µm>20 µm>70 µm and this results can explain by increasing ration of eddy heating to hysteresis heating with increase of particle size.

Keywords: Composite, Induction Heating, Nickel, thermoplastic polyurethane, hysteresis loss, eddy current loss, curie temperature

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17 Optical and Electrochromic Properties of All-Solid-State Electrochromic Device Consisting of Amorphous WO₃ and Ni(OH)₂

Authors: Der-Jun Jan, Min-Chuan Wang, Ta-Huang Sun, Ming-Hao Hsieh


Electrochromism refers to the persistent and reversible change of optical properties by an applied voltage pulse. There are many transition metal oxides exhibiting electrochromism, e.g. oxides of W, Ni, Ir, V, Ti, Co and Mo. Organic materials especially some conducting polymers such as poly(aniline), poly(3, 4-propylene- dioxythiophene) also received much attention for electrochromic (EC) applications. Electrochromic materials attract considerable interest because of their potential applications, such as information displays, smart windows, variable reflectance mirrors, and variable-emittance thermal radiators. In this study, the EC characteristics are investigated on an all-solid-state EC device composed of a-WO₃ and Ni(OH)₂ with a Ta₂O₅ protective layer which is prepared by magnetron sputtering. It is found that the transmittance modulation increases with decreasing the film thickness of Ta₂O₅. On the other hand, the transmittance modulation is 57% as the Ni(OH)₂/ITO is prepared by the linear-sweep potential cycling of the sputter-deposited Ta₂O₅/NiO/ITO in a 0.5 M LiClO₄+H₂O electrolyte. However, when Ni(OH)₂/ITO is prepared by a 0.01 M HCl electrolyte, the transmittance modulation of EC device can be improved to 61%.

Keywords: Nickel, tungsten oxide, electrochromic device, Ta₂O₅

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16 Deasphalting of Crude Oil by Extraction Method

Authors: A. N. Kurbanova, G. K. Sugurbekova, N. K. Akhmetov


The asphaltenes are heavy fraction of crude oil. Asphaltenes on oilfield is known for its ability to plug wells, surface equipment and pores of the geologic formations. The present research is devoted to the deasphalting of crude oil as the initial stage refining oil. Solvent deasphalting was conducted by extraction with organic solvents (cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform). Analysis of availability of metals was conducted by ICP-MS and spectral feature at deasphalting was achieved by FTIR. High contents of asphaltenes in crude oil reduce the efficiency of refining processes. Moreover, high distribution heteroatoms (e.g., S, N) were also suggested in asphaltenes cause some problems: environmental pollution, corrosion and poisoning of the catalyst. The main objective of this work is to study the effect of deasphalting process crude oil to improve its properties and improving the efficiency of recycling processes. Experiments of solvent extraction are using organic solvents held in the crude oil JSC “Pavlodar Oil Chemistry Refinery. Experimental results show that deasphalting process also leads to decrease Ni, V in the composition of the oil. One solution to the problem of cleaning oils from metals, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan is absorption with chemical reagents directly in oil residue and production due to the fact that asphalt and resinous substance degrade operational properties of oils and reduce the effectiveness of selective refining of oils. Deasphalting of crude oil is necessary to separate the light fraction from heavy metallic asphaltenes part of crude oil. For this oil is pretreated deasphalting, because asphaltenes tend to form coke or consume large quantities of hydrogen. Removing asphaltenes leads to partly demetallization, i.e. for removal of asphaltenes V/Ni and organic compounds with heteroatoms. Intramolecular complexes are relatively well researched on the example of porphyinous complex (VO2) and nickel (Ni). As a result of studies of V/Ni by ICP MS method were determined the effect of different solvents-deasphalting – on the process of extracting metals on deasphalting stage and select the best organic solvent. Thus, as the best DAO proved cyclohexane (C6H12), which as a result of ICP MS retrieves V-51.2%, Ni-66.4%? Also in this paper presents the results of a study of physical and chemical properties and spectral characteristics of oil on FTIR with a view to establishing its hydrocarbon composition. Obtained by using IR-spectroscopy method information about the specifics of the whole oil give provisional physical, chemical characteristics. They can be useful in the consideration of issues of origin and geochemical conditions of accumulation of oil, as well as some technological challenges. Systematic analysis carried out in this study; improve our understanding of the stability mechanism of asphaltenes. The role of deasphalted crude oil fractions on the stability asphaltene is described.

Keywords: Extraction, Nickel, vanadium, IR spectroscopy, ICP-MS, asphaltenes, deasphalting, metalloporphyrins

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15 Corrosion Investigation of Superalloys, Molybdenum and TZM in Chloride Molten Salts

Authors: Craig Jantzen, Tim Abram, Dirk Engelberg, Hugues Lambert, Daniel Cooper


Molten salts are of high interest for use as coolants in nuclear reactors due to favourable high temperature and thermodynamic properties. The corrosive behaviour of molten salts however pose a materials integrity challenge. Three Ni / Ni-Fe based and two Mo based alloys have been exposed to molten eutectics (LiCl-KCl at 59.5:40.5 mol% and KCl-MgCl2 at 68:32 mol%) at 600°C and 800°C for durations up to 500hrs. Corrosion was observed to preferentially attack alloy constituents in order of their reactivity, with chromium the most vulnerable and depleted element. Alloy weight-loss per unit area was calculated to give linear corrosion rates, discounting any initial rapid corrosion of impurities. Further analysis was carried out using ICP-MS, SEM and EDX techniques to give a more detailed view of the corrosion mechanisms.

Keywords: Corrosion, Molybdenum, Salt, Superalloys, High Temperature, Nickel, molten salt, KCl, licl, MgCl

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14 Nickel and Chromium Distributions in Soil and Plant Influenced by Geogenic Sources

Authors: Hadi Ghorbani, Mohamad Sakizadeh, Fatemeh Mehrabi Sharafabadi


Concentrations of Cr and Ni in 97 plant samples (belonged to eight different plant species) and the associated soil groups were considered in this study. The amounts of Ni in soil groups fluctuated between 26.8 and 36.8 mgkg⁻¹ whereas the related levels of chromium ranged from 67.7 to 94.3mgkg⁻¹. The index of geoaccumulation indicated that 87 percents of the studied soils for chromium and 98.8 percents for nickel are located in uncontaminated zone. The results of Mann-Whitney U-test proved that agricultural practices have not significantly influenced the values of Ni and Cr. In addition, tillage had also little impact on the Ni and Cr transfer in the surface soil. Ni showed higher accumulation and soil-to-plant transfer factor compared with that of chromium in the studied plants. There was a high similarity between the accumulation pattern of Cr and Fe in most of the plant species.

Keywords: Chromium, Nickel, geoaccumulation index, bioconcentration factor

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13 Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Microwave-Synthesized Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 Supported Ni Catalysts

Authors: Thirasak Rirksomboon, Panumard Kaewmora, Vissanu Meeyoo


Due to the globally growing demands of petroleum fuel and fossil fuels, the scarcity or even depletion of fossil fuel sources could be inevitable. Alternatively, the utilization of renewable sources, such as biomass, has become attractive to the community. Biomass can be converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. In water phase of bio-oil, acetic acid which is one of its main components can be converted to hydrogen with high selectivity over effective catalysts in steam reforming process. Steam reforming of acetic acid as model compound has been intensively investigated for hydrogen production using various metal oxide supported nickel catalysts and yet they seem to be rapidly deactivated depending on the support utilized. A catalyst support such as Ce1-xZrxO2 mixed oxide was proposed for alleviating this problem with the anticipation of enhancing hydrogen yield. However, catalyst preparation methods play a significant role in catalytic activity and performance of the catalysts. In this work, Ce0.75Zr0.25O2 mixed oxide solid solution support was prepared by urea hydrolysis using microwave as heat source. After that nickel metal was incorporated at 15 wt% by incipient wetness impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by several techniques including BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XRF, SEM, and TEM as well as tested for the steam reforming of acetic acid at various operating conditions. Preliminary results showed that a hydrogen yield of ca. 32% with a relatively high acetic conversion was attained at 650°C.

Keywords: Microwave, Steam reforming, Nickel, zirconia, ceria, acetic acid

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12 Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations on Nickel Electrodeposition from Industrial Sulfate Electrolyte in Presence of Ca(II), Mg(II), Na(I) Ions

Authors: Udit Mohanty, Mari Lundstrom


Electrochemical investigation by cyclic voltammetry was conducted to explore the polarization behavior of reactions occurring in nickel electrowinning in presence of cationic impurities such as Ca2+ (0-100 mg/L), Na+ (1-10 g/L) and Mg2+ (10-100 mg/L). A comparative study was devised between industrial and synthetic electrolytes to observe the shift in the nucleation overpotentials of nickel deposition, dissolution and hydrogen evolution reactions at the cathode and anode respectively. Significant polarization of cathodic reactions were observed with concentrations of Na ≥ 8g /L and Ca ≤ 40 mg /L in the synthetic electrolytes. Nevertheless, a progressive increase in the concentration of Ca, Mg and Na in the industrial electrolyte demonstrated a depolarization behavior in the cathodic reactions related to nickel deposition and/or hydrogen evolution. Synergistic effect of Ca with Mg and Na in both the industrial and synthetic electrolytes induced a notable depolarization effect, also reflected in the peak currents.

Keywords: Cyclic Voltammetry, Nickel, Polarization, cationic impurities, electrowinning

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11 Composite Electrodes Containing Ni-Fe-Cr as an Activatable Oxygen Evolution Catalyst

Authors: Olga A. Krysiak, Grzegorz Cichowicz, Wojciech Hyk, Michal Cyranski, Jan Augustynski


Metal oxides are known electrocatalyst in water oxidation reaction. Due to the fact that it is desirable for efficient oxygen evolution catalyst to contain numerous redox-active metal ions to guard four electron water oxidation reaction, mixed metal oxides exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards oxygen evolution reaction compared to single metal oxide systems. On the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass slide (FTO) deposited (doctor blade technique) mixed metal oxide layer composed of nickel, iron, and chromium. Oxide coating was acquired by heat treatment of the aqueous precursors' solutions of the corresponding salts. As-prepared electrodes were photosensitive and acted as an efficient oxygen evolution catalyst. Our results showed that obtained by this method electrodes can be activated which leads to achieving of higher current densities. The recorded current and photocurrent associated with oxygen evolution process were at least two orders of magnitude higher in the presence of oxide layer compared to bare FTO electrode. The overpotential of the process is low (ca. 0,2 V). We have also checked the activity of the catalyst at different known photoanodes used in sun-driven water splitting. Herein, we demonstrate that we were able to achieve efficient oxygen evolution catalysts using relatively cheap precursor consisting of earth abundant metals and simple method of preparation.

Keywords: Electrocatalysis, Chromium, Iron, Oxygen Evolution, Metal Oxides, Nickel

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10 CO2 Methanation over Ru-Ni/CeO2 Catalysts

Authors: Christophe Poupin, Nathalie Elia, Samer Aouad, Jane Estephane, Bilal Nsouli, Edmond Abi Aad


Carbon dioxide is one of the main contributors to greenhouse effect and hence to climate change. As a result, the methanation reaction CO2(g) + 4H2(g) →CH4(g) + 2H2O (ΔH°298 = -165 kJ/mol), also known as Sabatier reaction, has received great interest as a process for the valorization of the greenhouse gas CO2 into methane which is a hydrogen-carrier gas. The methanation of CO2 is an exothermic reaction favored at low temperature and high pressure. However, this reaction requires a high energy input to activate the very stable CO2 molecule, and exhibits serious kinetic limitations. Consequently, the development of active and stable catalysts is essential to overcome these difficulties. Catalytic methanation of CO2 has been studied using catalysts containing Rh, Pd, Ru, Co and Ni on various supports. Among them, the Ni-based catalysts have been extensively investigated under various conditions for their comparable methanation activity with highly improved cost-efficiency. The addition of promoters are common strategies to increase the performance and stability of Ni catalysts. In this work, a small amount of Ru was used as a promoter for Ni catalysts supported on ceria and tested in the CO2 methanation reaction. The nickel loading was 5 wt. % and ruthenium loading is 0.5wt. %. The catalysts were prepared by successive impregnation method using Ni(NO3)2.6H2O and Ru(NO)(NO3)3 as precursors. The calcined support was impregnated with Ni(NO3)2.6H2O, dried, calcined at 600°C for 4h, and afterward, was impregnated with Ru(NO)(NO3)3. The resulting solid was dried and calcined at 600°C for 4 h. Supported monometallic catalysts were prepared likewise. The prepared solids Ru(0.5%)/CeO2, Ni(5%)/CeO2 and Ru(0.5%)-Ni(5%)/CeO2 were then reduced prior to the catalytic test under a flow of 50% H2/Ar (50 ml/min) for 4h at 500°C. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in the CO2 methanation reaction, in the temperature range of 100–350°C by using a gaseous mixture of CO2 (10%) and H2 (40%) in Ar balanced at a total flow rate of 100 mL/min. The effect of pressure on the CO2 methanation was studied by varying the pressure between 1 and 10 bar. The various catalysts showed negligible CO2 conversion at temperatures lower than 250°C. The conversion of CO2 increases with increasing reaction temperature. The addition of Ru as promoter to Ni/CeO2 improved the CO2 methanation. It was shown that the CO2 conversion increases from 15 to 70% at 350°C and 1 bar. The effect of pressure on CO2 conversion was also studied. Increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 70% to 87%, while increasing the pressure from 5 to 10 bar increases the CO2 conversion from 87% to 91%. Ru–Ni catalysts showed excellent catalytic performance in the methanation of carbon dioxide with respect to Ni catalysts. Therefore the addition of Ru onto Ni catalysts improved remarkably the catalytic activity of Ni catalysts. It was also found that the pressure plays an important role in improving the CO2 methanation.

Keywords: CO2, Nickel, ruthenium, methanation

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9 Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures

Authors: Sanjay Mathur, Ella C. Linganiso, Bonex W. Mwakikunga, Trilock Singh, Odireleng M. Ntwaeaborwa


The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, Nickel, zinc oxide, sulphur, Carrier-charge-separation

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8 Biosorption of Nickel by Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 Isolated from Indian Metalliferous Mining Overburden

Authors: Suchhanda Ghosh, A. K. Paul


Nickel, an industrially important metal is not mined in India, due to the lack of its primary mining resources. But, the chromite deposits occurring in the Sukinda and Baula-Nuasahi region of Odhisa, India, is reported to contain around 0.99% of nickel entrapped in the goethite matrix of the lateritic iron rich ore. Weathering of the dumped chromite mining overburden often leads to the contamination of the ground as well as the surface water with toxic nickel. Microbes inherent to this metal contaminated environment are reported to be capable of removal as well as detoxification of various metals including nickel. Nickel resistant fungal isolates obtained in pure form from the metal rich overburden were evaluated for their potential to biosorb nickel by using their dried biomass. Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203 was the best nickel biosorbant among the 20 fungi tested and was capable to sorbing 16.85 mg Ni/g biomass from a solution containing 50 mg/l of Ni. The identity of the isolate was confirmed using 18S rRNA gene analysis. The sorption capacity of the isolate was further standardized following Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models and the results reflected energy efficient sorption. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy studies of the nickel loaded and control biomass in a comparative basis revealed the involvement of hydroxyl, amine and carboxylic groups in Ni binding. The sorption process was also optimized for several standard parameters like initial metal ion concentration, initial sorbet concentration, incubation temperature and pH, presence of additional cations and pre-treatment of the biomass by different chemicals. Optimisation leads to significant improvements in the process of nickel biosorption on to the fungal biomass. P. simplicissimum SAU203 could sorb 54.73 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial Ni concentration of 200 mg/l in solution and 21.8 mg Ni/g biomass with an initial biomass concentration of 1g/l solution. Optimum temperature and pH for biosorption was recorded to be 30°C and pH 6.5 respectively. Presence of Zn and Fe ions improved the sorption of Ni(II), whereas, cobalt had a negative impact. Pre-treatment of biomass with various chemical and physical agents has affected the proficiency of Ni sorption by P. simplicissimum SAU203 biomass, autoclaving as well as treatment of biomass with 0.5 M sulfuric acid and acetic acid reduced the sorption as compared to the untreated biomass, whereas, NaOH and Na₂CO₃ and Twin 80 (0.5 M) treated biomass resulted in augmented metal sorption. Hence, on the basis of the present study, it can be concluded that P. simplicissimum SAU203 has the potential for the removal as well as detoxification of nickel from contaminated environments in general and particularly from the chromite mining areas of Odhisa, India.

Keywords: Nickel, fungal biosorption, Penicillium simplicissimum SAU203, Indian chromite mines, mining overburden

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7 Structural Analysis of Phase Transformation and Particle Formation in Metastable Metallic Thin Films Grown by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

Authors: Pouyan Motamedi, Ken Bosnick, Ken Cadien, James Hogan


Growth of conformal ultrathin metal films has attracted a considerable amount of attention recently. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) is a method capable of growing conformal thin films at low temperatures, with an exemplary control over thickness. The authors have recently reported on growth of metastable epitaxial nickel thin films via PEALD, along with a comprehensive characterization of the films and a study on the relationship between the growth parameters and the film characteristics. The goal of the current study is to use the mentioned films as a case study to investigate the temperature-activated phase transformation and agglomeration in ultrathin metallic films. For this purpose, metastable hexagonal nickel thin films were annealed using a controlled heating/cooling apparatus. The transformations in the crystal structure were observed via in-situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The samples were annealed to various temperatures in the range of 400-1100° C. The onset and progression of particle formation were studied in-situ via laser measurements. In addition, a four-point probe measurement tool was used to record the changes in the resistivity of the films, which is affected by phase transformation, as well as roughening and agglomeration. Thin films annealed at various temperature steps were then studied via atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, in order to get a better understanding of the correlated mechanisms, through which phase transformation and particle formation occur. The results indicate that the onset of hcp-to-bcc transformation is at 400°C, while particle formations commences at 590° C. If the annealed films are quenched after transformation, but prior to agglomeration, they show a noticeable drop in resistivity. This can be attributed to the fact that the hcp films are grown epitaxially, and are under severe tensile strain, and annealing leads to relaxation of the mismatch strain. In general, the results shed light on the nature of structural transformation in nickel thin films, as well as metallic thin films, in general.

Keywords: Nickel, thin film, phase transformation, atomic layer deposition, metastable

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6 Comparative Analysis of Photosynthetic and Antioxidative Responses of Two Species of Anabaena under Ni and As(III) Stress

Authors: Shivam Yadav, Neelam Atri


Cyanobacteria, the photosynthetic prokaryotes are indispensable components of paddy soil contribute substantially to the nitrogen economy however often appended with metal load. They are well known to play crucial roles in maintenance of soil fertility and rice productivity. Nickel is one such metal that plays a vital role in the cellular physiology, however at higher concentrations it exerts adverse effects. Arsenic is another toxic metalloid that negatively affects the cyanobacterial proliferation. However species-specific comparative responses under As and Ni is largely unknown. The present study focuses on the comparative effects of nickel (Ni2+) and arsenite (As(III)) on two diazotrophic cyanobacterial species (Anabaena doliolum and Anabaena sp. PCC7120) in terms of antioxidative aspects. Oxidative damage measured in terms of lipid peroxidation and peroxide content was significantly higher after As(III) than Ni treatment as compared to control. Similarly, all the studied enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters of antioxidative defense system except glutathione reductase (GR) showed greater induction against As(III) than Ni. Moreover, integrating comparative analysis of all studied parameters also demonstrated interspecies variation in terms of stress adaptive strategies reflected through higher sensitivity of Anabaena doliolum over Anabaena PCC7120.

Keywords: Arsenic, Cyanobacteria, Nickel, antioxidative system

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