Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Neurotransmitters Related Abstracts

5 Elucidation of Mechanism of Action of Antidepressant-Like Effect of Valeriana wallichii Maaliol Chemotype in Mice

Authors: Sangeeta Pilkhwal Sah, C. S. Mathela, Kanwaljit Chopra

Abstract:

Valeriana wallichii DC, an ayurvedic traditional medicine, popularly named as Indian valerian exist as three chemotypes. GC-MS analysis of V. wallichii essential oil in present study showed maaliol as the major constituent followed by the presence of β-gurjunene, acoradiene, guaiol and α-santalene. The results thus confirmed it to be a maaliol chemotype. Further, the antidepressant-like effect of root essential oil (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg p.o.) was investigated in both acute and chronic treatment study using forced swim test in mice. Single administration of different doses produced an inverted U shaped curve and significantly inhibited the immobility period (39.7% and 58%) at doses 10 and 40 mg/kg respectively. Standard drug imipramine significantly decreased immobility period (59.8%). None of the doses altered locomotor activity except a significant decrease of 44.9% was observed with 40 mg/kg (p < 0.05). Similarly, daily administration of essential oil for 14 days produced a dose dependent effect with significantly reduced immobility period (70.9%) at 40 mg/kg dose only whereas imipramine produced 86% decrease (p < 0.05). The neurotransmitter levels in mouse brain were estimated on day 14 after the behavioral study. Significant increase in the level of norepinephrine (10%) and dopamine (23%) (p < 0.05) was found at 40 mg/kg dose, while no change was observed at 10 and 20 mg/kg doses. The antidepressant-like effect of essential oil (40 mg/kg) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with L-arginine (750 mg/kg i.p.) and sildenafil (5 mg/kg i.p). On the contrary, pretreatment of mice with L-NAME (10 mg/kg i.p.) or methylene blue (10 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of essential oil (20 mg/kg). The findings thus demonstrated that nitric oxide pathway is involved in mediating antidepressant like effect of essential oil from this chemotype.

Keywords: Neurotransmitters, Essential Oil, Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype, forced swim test, nitric oxide modulators

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4 Indoleamines (Serotonin & Melatonin) in Edible Plants: Its Influence on Human Health

Authors: G. A. Ravishankar, A. Ramakrishna

Abstract:

Melatonin (MEL) and Serotonin (SER), also known as [5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] are reported to be in a range of plant types which are edible. Their occurrence in plants species appears to be ubiquitous. Their presence in high quantities in plants assumes significance owing to their physiological effects upon consumption by human beings. MEL is a well known animal hormone mainly released by the pineal gland known to influence circadian rhythm, sleep, apart from immune enhancement. Similarly, SER is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, sleep and anxiety in mammals. It is implicated in memory, behavioral changes, scavenging reactive oxygen species, antipsychotic, etc. Similarly Role of SER and MEL in plant morphogenesis, and various physiological processes through intense research is beginning to unfold. These molecules are in common foods viz banana, pineapple, plum, nuts, milk, grape wine. N- Feruloyl serotonin and p-coumaroyl serotonin found in certain seeds are found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and anti-stress potential apart from reducing depression and anxiety. MEL is found in Mediterranean diets, nuts, cherries, tomato berries, and olive products. Consumption of foods rich in MEL is known to increase blood MEL levels which have been implicated in protective effect against cardiovascular damage, cancer initiation and growth. MEL is also found in wines, green tea, beer, olive oil etc. Moreover, presence of SER and MEL in Coffee beans (green and roasted beans) and decoction has been reported us. In this communication we report the occurrence of indole amines in edible plants and their implications in human health.

Keywords: Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Melatonin, Edible Plants, physiological effects

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3 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova

Abstract:

Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: Biomaterials, Neurotransmitters, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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2 Computational Analysis and Daily Application of the Key Neurotransmitters Involved in Happiness: Dopamine, Oxytocin, Serotonin, and Endorphins

Authors: Hee Soo Kim, Ha Young Kyung

Abstract:

Happiness and pleasure are a result of dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, and endorphin levels in the body. In order to increase the four neurochemical levels, it is important to associate daily activities with its corresponding neurochemical releases. This includes setting goals, maintaining social relationships, laughing frequently, and exercising regularly. The likelihood of experiencing happiness increases when all four neurochemicals are released at the optimal level. The achievement of happiness is important because it increases healthiness, productivity, and the ability to overcome adversity. To process emotions, electrical brain waves, brain structure, and neurochemicals must be analyzed. This research uses Chemcraft and Avogadro to determine the theoretical and chemical properties of the four neurochemical molecules. Each neurochemical molecule’s thermodynamic stability is calculated to observe the efficiency of the molecules. The study found that among dopamine, oxytocin, serotonin, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-endorphin, beta-endorphin has the lowest optimized energy of 388.510 kJ/mol. Beta-endorphin, a neurotransmitter involved in mitigating pain and stress, is the most thermodynamically stable and efficient molecule that is involved in the process of happiness. Through examining such properties of happiness neurotransmitters, the science of happiness is better understood.

Keywords: Positive Psychology, Neurotransmitters, Serotonin, Dopamine, Happiness, oxytocin, endorphins

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1 Study on the Neurotransmitters and Digestion of Amino Acids Affecting Psychological Chemical Imbalance

Authors: Yoonah Lee, Richard Kyung

Abstract:

With technological advances in the computational biomedical field, the ability to measure neurotransmitters’ chemical imbalances that affect depression and anxiety has been established. By comparing the thermodynamics stability of amino acid supplements, such as glutamine, tyrosine, phe-nylalanine, and methionine, this research analyzes mood-regulating neurotransmitters, amino acid supplements, and antipsychotic substances (ie. Reserpine molecule and CRF complexes) in relation to depression and anxiety and suggests alternative complexes that are low in energy to act as more efficient treatments for mood disorders. To determine a molecule’s thermodynamic stability, this research examines the molecular energy using Avogadro, a software for building virtual molecules and calculating optimized geometry using GAFF (General Amber Force Field) and UFF (Universal Force Field). The molecules, built using Avogadro, is analyzed using their theoretical values and atomic properties.

Keywords: Depression, Anxiety, Amino Acids, Neurotransmitters

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