Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 109

Neural Network Related Abstracts

19 A Neural Network Control for Voltage Balancing in Three-Phase Electric Power System

Authors: Dana M. Ragab, Jasim A. Ghaeb


The three-phase power system suffers from different challenging problems, e.g. voltage unbalance conditions at the load side. The voltage unbalance usually degrades the power quality of the electric power system. Several techniques can be considered for load balancing including load reconfiguration, static synchronous compensator and static reactive power compensator. In this work an efficient neural network is designed to control the unbalanced condition in the Aqaba-Qatrana-South Amman (AQSA) electric power system. It is designed for highly enhanced response time of the reactive compensator for voltage balancing. The neural network is developed to determine the appropriate set of firing angles required for the thyristor-controlled reactor to balance the three load voltages accurately and quickly. The parameters of AQSA power system are considered in the laboratory model, and several test cases have been conducted to test and validate the proposed technique capabilities. The results have shown a high performance of the proposed Neural Network Control (NNC) technique for correcting the voltage unbalance conditions at three-phase load based on accuracy and response time.

Keywords: Power Quality, Neural Network, reactive power control, three-phase power system, voltage unbalance factor

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18 Forecast of Polyethylene Properties in the Gas Phase Polymerization Aided by Neural Network

Authors: Nasrin Bakhshizadeh, Ashkan Forootan


A major problem that affects the quality control of polymer in the industrial polymerization is the lack of suitable on-line measurement tools to evaluate the properties of the polymer such as melt and density indices. Controlling the polymerization in ordinary method is performed manually by taking samples, measuring the quality of polymer in the lab and registry of results. This method is highly time consuming and leads to producing large number of incompatible products. An online application for estimating melt index and density proposed in this study is a neural network based on the input-output data of the polyethylene production plant. Temperature, the level of reactors' bed, the intensity of ethylene mass flow, hydrogen and butene-1, the molar concentration of ethylene, hydrogen and butene-1 are used for the process to establish the neural model. The neural network is taught based on the actual operational data and back-propagation and Levenberg-Marquart techniques. The simulated results indicate that the neural network process model established with three layers (one hidden layer) for forecasting the density and the four layers for the melt index is able to successfully predict those quality properties.

Keywords: Neural Network, Polymerization, Density, Polyethylene, melt index

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17 Obstacle Avoidance Using Image-Based Visual Servoing Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Tong He, Long Chen, Irag Mantegh, Wen-Fang Xie


This paper proposes an image-based obstacle avoidance and tracking target identification strategy in GPS-degraded or GPS-denied environment for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). The traditional force algorithm for obstacle avoidance could produce local minima area, in which UAV cannot get away obstacle effectively. In order to eliminate it, an artificial potential approach based on harmonic potential is proposed to guide the UAV to avoid the obstacle by using the vision system. And image-based visual servoing scheme (IBVS) has been adopted to implement the proposed obstacle avoidance approach. In IBVS, the pixel accuracy is a key factor to realize the obstacle avoidance. In this paper, the deep reinforcement learning framework has been applied by reducing pixel errors through constant interaction between the environment and the agent. In addition, the combination of OpenTLD and Tensorflow based on neural network is used to identify the type of tracking target. Numerical simulation in Matlab and ROS GAZEBO show the satisfactory result in target identification and obstacle avoidance.

Keywords: Neural Network, obstacle avoidance, deep reinforcement learning, image-based visual servoing, tracking target identification, artificial potential approach

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16 A Neural Network Approach to Evaluate Supplier Efficiency in a Supply Chain

Authors: Kishore K. Pochampally


The success of a supply chain heavily relies on the efficiency of the suppliers involved. In this paper, we propose a neural network approach to evaluate the efficiency of a supplier, which is being considered for inclusion in a supply chain, using the available linguistic (fuzzy) data of suppliers that already exist in the supply chain. The approach is carried out in three phases, as follows: In phase one, we identify criteria for evaluation of the supplier of interest. Then, in phase two, we use performance measures of already existing suppliers to construct a neural network that gives weights (importance values) of criteria identified in phase one. Finally, in phase three, we calculate the overall rating of the supplier of interest. The following are the major findings of the research conducted for this paper: (i) linguistic (fuzzy) ratings of suppliers such as 'good', 'bad', etc., can be converted (defuzzified) to numerical ratings (1 – 10 scale) using fuzzy logic so that those ratings can be used for further quantitative analysis; (ii) it is possible to construct and train a multi-level neural network in order to determine the weights of the criteria that are used to evaluate a supplier; and (iii) Borda’s rule can be used to group the weighted ratings and calculate the overall efficiency of the supplier.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Neural Network, fuzzy data, supplier

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15 Design of a Cooperative Neural Network, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Fuzzy Based Tracking Control for a Tilt Rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Mostafa Mjahed


Tilt Rotor UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) are naturally unstable and difficult to maneuver. The purpose of this paper is to design controllers for the stabilization and trajectory tracking of this type of UAV. To this end, artificial intelligence methods have been exploited. First, the dynamics of this UAV was modeled using the Lagrange-Euler method. The conventional method based on Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) control was applied by decoupling the different flight modes. To improve stability and trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor, the fuzzy approach and the technique of multilayer neural networks (NN) has been used. Thus, Fuzzy Proportional Integral and Derivative (FPID) and Neural Network-based Proportional Integral and Derivative controllers (NNPID) have been developed. The meta-heuristic approach based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method allowed adjusting the setting parameters of NNPID controller, giving us an improved NNPID-PSO controller. Simulation results under the Matlab environment show the efficiency of the approaches adopted. Besides, the Tilt Rotor UAV has become stable and follows different types of trajectories with acceptable precision. The Fuzzy, NN and NN-PSO-based approaches demonstrated their robustness because the presence of the disturbances did not alter the stability or the trajectory tracking of the Tilt Rotor UAV.

Keywords: Neural Network, Fuzzy Logic, PID, PSO, trajectory tracking, tilt-rotor UAV

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14 Rule Insertion Technique for Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Network

Authors: Osama Elsarrar, Marjorie Darrah, Richard Devin


This paper discusses the idea of capturing an expert’s knowledge in the form of human understandable rules and then inserting these rules into a dynamic cell structure (DCS) neural network. The DCS is a form of self-organizing map that can be used for many purposes, including classification and prediction. This particular neural network is considered to be a topology preserving network that starts with no pre-structure, but assumes a structure once trained. The DCS has been used in mission and safety-critical applications, including adaptive flight control and health-monitoring in aerial vehicles. The approach is to insert expert knowledge into the DCS before training. Rules are translated into a pre-structure and then training data are presented. This idea has been demonstrated using the well-known Iris data set and it has been shown that inserting the pre-structure results in better accuracy with the same training.

Keywords: Neural Network, self-organizing map, rule extraction, rule insertion

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13 Analysis of Residents’ Travel Characteristics and Policy Improving Strategies

Authors: Zhenzhen Xu, Chunfu Shao, Shengyou Wang, Chunjiao Dong


To improve the satisfaction of residents' travel, this paper analyzes the characteristics and influencing factors of urban residents' travel behavior. First, a Multinominal Logit Model (MNL) model is built to analyze the characteristics of residents' travel behavior, reveal the influence of individual attributes, family attributes and travel characteristics on the choice of travel mode, and identify the significant factors. Then put forward suggestions for policy improvement. Finally, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) models are introduced to evaluate the policy effect. This paper selects Futian Street in Futian District, Shenzhen City for investigation and research. The results show that gender, age, education, income, number of cars owned, travel purpose, departure time, journey time, travel distance and times all have a significant influence on residents' choice of travel mode. Based on the above results, two policy improvement suggestions are put forward from reducing public transportation and non-motor vehicle travel time, and the policy effect is evaluated. Before the evaluation, the prediction effect of MNL, SVM and MLP models was evaluated. After parameter optimization, it was found that the prediction accuracy of the three models was 72.80%, 71.42%, and 76.42%, respectively. The MLP model with the highest prediction accuracy was selected to evaluate the effect of policy improvement. The results showed that after the implementation of the policy, the proportion of public transportation in plan 1 and plan 2 increased by 14.04% and 9.86%, respectively, while the proportion of private cars decreased by 3.47% and 2.54%, respectively. The proportion of car trips decreased obviously, while the proportion of public transport trips increased. It can be considered that the measures have a positive effect on promoting green trips and improving the satisfaction of urban residents, and can provide a reference for relevant departments to formulate transportation policies.

Keywords: Neural Network, travel characteristics analysis, transportation choice, travel sharing rate, traffic resource allocation

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12 Modular Robotics and Terrain Detection Using Inertial Measurement Unit Sensor

Authors: Shubhakar Gupta, Dhruv Prakash, Apoorv Mehta


In this project, we design a modular robot capable of using and switching between multiple methods of propulsion and classifying terrain, based on an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) input. We wanted to make a robot that is not only intelligent in its functioning but also versatile in its physical design. The advantage of a modular robot is that it can be designed to hold several movement-apparatuses, such as wheels, legs for a hexapod or a quadpod setup, propellers for underwater locomotion, and any other solution that may be needed. The robot takes roughness input from a gyroscope and an accelerometer in the IMU, and based on the terrain classification from an artificial neural network; it decides which method of propulsion would best optimize its movement. This provides the bot with adaptability over a set of terrains, which means it can optimize its locomotion on a terrain based on its roughness. A feature like this would be a great asset to have in autonomous exploration or research drones.

Keywords: Neural Network, terrain classification, modular robotics, terrain detection

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11 Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrom Diagnosis Using Advanced ANN Techniques

Authors: Sachin Singh, Thomas Penzel, Dinesh Nandan


Accurate identification of Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrom Diagnosis is difficult problem for human expert because of variability among persons and unwanted noise. This paper proposes the diagonosis of Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS) using airflow, ECG, Pulse and SaO2 signals. The features of each type of these signals are extracted using statistical methods and ANN learning methods. These extracted features are used to approximate the patient's Apnea Hypopnea Index(AHI) using sample signals in model. Advance signal processing is also applied to snore sound signal to locate snore event and SaO2 signal is used to support whether determined snore event is true or noise. Finally, Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI) event is calculated as per true snore event detected. Experiment results shows that the sensitivity can reach up to 96% and specificity to 96% as AHI greater than equal to 5.

Keywords: Neural Network, Statistical Methods, AHI, autoregressive models

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10 An Improved Convolution Deep Learning Model for Predicting Trip Mode Scheduling

Authors: Amin Nezarat, Naeime Seifadini


Trip mode selection is a behavioral characteristic of passengers with immense importance for travel demand analysis, transportation planning, and traffic management. Identification of trip mode distribution will allow transportation authorities to adopt appropriate strategies to reduce travel time, traffic and air pollution. The majority of existing trip mode inference models operate based on human selected features and traditional machine learning algorithms. However, human selected features are sensitive to changes in traffic and environmental conditions and susceptible to personal biases, which can make them inefficient. One way to overcome these problems is to use neural networks capable of extracting high-level features from raw input. In this study, the convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture is used to predict the trip mode distribution based on raw GPS trajectory data. The key innovation of this paper is the design of the layout of the input layer of CNN as well as normalization operation, in a way that is not only compatible with the CNN architecture but can also represent the fundamental features of motion including speed, acceleration, jerk, and Bearing rate. The highest prediction accuracy achieved with the proposed configuration for the convolutional neural network with batch normalization is 85.26%.

Keywords: Neural Network, Deep learning, Predicting, urban trip

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9 Time Series Simulation by Conditional Generative Adversarial Net

Authors: Rao Fu, Jie Chen, Shutian Zeng, Yiping Zhuang, Agus Sudjianto


Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) has proved to be a powerful machine learning tool in image data analysis and generation. In this paper, we propose to use Conditional Generative Adversarial Net (CGAN) to learn and simulate time series data. The conditions include both categorical and continuous variables with different auxiliary information. Our simulation studies show that CGAN has the capability to learn different types of normal and heavy-tailed distributions, as well as dependent structures of different time series. It also has the capability to generate conditional predictive distributions consistent with training data distributions. We also provide an in-depth discussion on the rationale behind GAN and the neural networks as hierarchical splines to establish a clear connection with existing statistical methods of distribution generation. In practice, CGAN has a wide range of applications in market risk and counterparty risk analysis: it can be applied to learn historical data and generate scenarios for the calculation of Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES), and it can also predict the movement of the market risk factors. We present a real data analysis including a backtesting to demonstrate that CGAN can outperform Historical Simulation (HS), a popular method in market risk analysis to calculate VaR. CGAN can also be applied in economic time series modeling and forecasting. In this regard, we have included an example of hypothetical shock analysis for economic models and the generation of potential CCAR scenarios by CGAN at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Neural Network, Time series, conditional generative adversarial net, market and credit risk management

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8 Multimodal Direct Neural Network Positron Emission Tomography Reconstruction

Authors: William Whiteley, Jens Gregor


In recent developments of direct neural network based positron emission tomography (PET) reconstruction, two prominent architectures have emerged for converting measurement data into images: 1) networks that contain fully-connected layers; and 2) networks that primarily use a convolutional encoder-decoder architecture. In this paper, we present a multi-modal direct PET reconstruction method called MDPET, which is a hybrid approach that combines the advantages of both types of networks. MDPET processes raw data in the form of sinograms and histo-images in concert with attenuation maps to produce high quality multi-slice PET images (e.g., 8x440x440). MDPET is trained on a large whole-body patient data set and evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively against target images reconstructed with the standard PET reconstruction benchmark of iterative ordered subsets expectation maximization. The results show that MDPET outperforms the best previously published direct neural network methods in measures of bias, signal-to-noise ratio, mean absolute error, and structural similarity.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Neural Network, Deep learning, Positron Emission Tomography, Image Reconstruction

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7 Artificial Neural Network for Forecasting of Daily Reservoir Inflow: Case Study of the Kotmale Reservoir in Sri Lanka

Authors: E. U. Dampage, Ovindi D. Bandara, Vinushi S. Waraketiya, Samitha S. R. De Silva, Yasiru S. Gunarathne


The knowledge of water inflow figures is paramount in decision making on the allocation for consumption for numerous purposes; irrigation, hydropower, domestic and industrial usage, and flood control. The understanding of how reservoir inflows are affected by different climatic and hydrological conditions is crucial to enable effective water management and downstream flood control. In this research, we propose a method using a Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to assist the aforesaid decision-making process. The Kotmale reservoir, which is the uppermost reservoir in the Mahaweli reservoir complex in Sri Lanka, was used as the test bed for this research. The ANN uses the runoff in the Kotmale reservoir catchment area and the effect of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) to make a forecast for seven days ahead. Three types of ANN are tested; Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and LSTM. The extensive field trials and validation endeavors found that the LSTM ANN provides superior performance in the aspects of accuracy and latency.

Keywords: Neural Network, multi-layer perceptron, MLP, convolutional neural network, long short-term memory, LSTM, CNN, inflow

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6 Comprehensive Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Its Countermeasures: A Case Study of Beijing

Authors: Yike Lamu, Jieyu Tang, Jialin Wu, Jianyun Huang


With the development of economy and science and technology, the urban heat island effect becomes more and more serious. Taking Beijing city as an example, this paper divides the value of each influence index of heat island intensity and establishes a mathematical model – neural network system based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation index of heat island effect. After data preprocessing, the algorithm of weight of each factor affecting heat island effect is generated, and the data of sex indexes affecting heat island intensity of Shenyang City and Shanghai City, Beijing, and Hangzhou City are input, and the result is automatically output by the neural network system. It is of practical significance to show the intensity of heat island effect by visual method, which is simple, intuitive and can be dynamically monitored.

Keywords: Neural Network, Visualization, comprehensive evaluation, heat island effect

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5 Using Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers to Extract Topic-Independent Sentiment Features for Social Media Bot Detection

Authors: Maryam Heidari, James H. Jones Jr.


Millions of online posts about different topics and products are shared on popular social media platforms. One use of this content is to provide crowd-sourced information about a specific topic, event or product. However, this use raises an important question: what percentage of information available through these services is trustworthy? In particular, might some of this information be generated by a machine, i.e., a bot, instead of a human? Bots can be, and often are, purposely designed to generate enough volume to skew an apparent trend or position on a topic, yet the consumer of such content cannot easily distinguish a bot post from a human post. In this paper, we introduce a model for social media bot detection which uses Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (Google Bert) for sentiment classification of tweets to identify topic-independent features. Our use of a Natural Language Processing approach to derive topic-independent features for our new bot detection model distinguishes this work from previous bot detection models. We achieve 94\% accuracy classifying the contents of data as generated by a bot or a human, where the most accurate prior work achieved accuracy of 92\%.

Keywords: Social Media, Neural Network, natural language processing, bot detection

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4 RNA-Seq Analysis of Coronaviridae Family and SARS-Cov-2 Prediction Using Proposed ANN

Authors: Busra Mutlu Ipek, Merve Mutlu, Ahmet Mutlu


Novel coronavirus COVID-19, which has recently influenced the world, poses a great threat to humanity. In order to overcome this challenging situation, scientists are working on developing effective vaccine against coronavirus. Many experts and researchers have also produced articles and done studies on this highly important subject. In this direction, this special topic was chosen for article to make a contribution to this area. The purpose of this article is to perform RNA sequence analysis of selected virus forms in the Coronaviridae family and predict/classify SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) from other selected complete genomes in coronaviridae family using proposed Artificial Neural Network(ANN) algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Network, RNA Sequencing, ANN, COVID-19, Coronaviridae family

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3 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti


Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by density-based time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., mean value, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one class classifier (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, a new anomaly detector strategy is proposed, namely one class classifier neural network two (OCCNN2), which exploit the classification capability of standard classifiers in an anomaly detection problem, finding the standard class (the boundary of the features space in normal operating conditions) through a two-step approach: coarse and fine boundary estimation. The coarse estimation uses classics OCC techniques, while the fine estimation is performed through a feedforward neural network (NN) trained that exploits the boundaries estimated in the coarse step. The detection algorithms vare then compared with known methods based on principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and auto-associative neural network (ANN). In many cases, the proposed solution increases the performance with respect to the standard OCC algorithms in terms of F1 score and accuracy. In particular, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 96% with the proposed method.

Keywords: Neural Network, Structural health monitoring, Sensor Network, modal analysis, Anomaly Detection, vibration measurement, frequencies selection

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2 Detection and Tracking for the Protection of the Elderly and Socially Vulnerable People in the Video Surveillance System

Authors: Mobarok Hossain Bhuyain


Video surveillance processing has attracted various security fields transforming it into one of the leading research fields. Today's demand for detection and tracking of human mobility for security is very useful for human security, such as in crowded areas. Accordingly, video surveillance technology has seen a rapid advancement in recent years, with algorithms analyzing the behavior of people under surveillance automatically. The main motivation of this research focuses on the detection and tracking of the elderly and socially vulnerable people in crowded areas. Degenerate people are a major health concern, especially for elderly people and socially vulnerable people. One major disadvantage of video surveillance is the need for continuous monitoring, especially in crowded areas. To assist the security monitoring live surveillance video, image processing, and artificial intelligence methods can be used to automatically send warning signals to the monitoring officers about elderly people and socially vulnerable people.

Keywords: Neural Network, particle filter, target tracking, human detection

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1 Implications of Optimisation Algorithm on the Forecast Performance of Artificial Neural Network for Streamflow Modelling

Authors: Martins Y. Otache, John J. Musa, Abayomi I. Kuti, Mustapha Mohammed


The performance of an artificial neural network (ANN) is contingent on a host of factors, for instance, the network optimisation scheme. In view of this, the study examined the general implications of the ANN training optimisation algorithm on its forecast performance. To this end, the Bayesian regularisation (Br), Levenberg-Marquardt (LM), and the adaptive learning gradient descent: GDM (with momentum) algorithms were employed under different ANN structural configurations: (1) single-hidden layer, and (2) double-hidden layer feedforward back propagation network. Results obtained revealed generally that the gradient descent with momentum (GDM) optimisation algorithm, with its adaptive learning capability, used a relatively shorter time in both training and validation phases as compared to the Levenberg- Marquardt (LM) and Bayesian Regularisation (Br) algorithms though learning may not be consummated; i.e., in all instances considering also the prediction of extreme flow conditions for 1-day and 5-day ahead, respectively especially using the ANN model. In specific statistical terms on the average, model performance efficiency using the coefficient of efficiency (CE) statistic were Br: 98%, 94%; LM: 98 %, 95 %, and GDM: 96 %, 96% respectively for training and validation phases. However, on the basis of relative error distribution statistics (MAE, MAPE, and MSRE), GDM performed better than the others overall. Based on the findings, it is imperative to state that the adoption of ANN for real-time forecasting should employ training algorithms that do not have computational overhead like the case of LM that requires the computation of the Hessian matrix, protracted time, and sensitivity to initial conditions; to this end, Br and other forms of the gradient descent with momentum should be adopted considering overall time expenditure and quality of the forecast as well as mitigation of network overfitting. On the whole, it is recommended that evaluation should consider implications of (i) data quality and quantity and (ii) transfer functions on the overall network forecast performance.

Keywords: Algorithm, Neural Network, Optimisation, streamflow

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