Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Networks Related Abstracts

14 How to Modernise the ECN

Authors: Dorota Galeza

Abstract:

This paper argues that networks, such as the ECN and the American network, are affected by certain small events which are inherent to path dependence and preclude the full evolution towards efficiency. It is advocated that the American network is superior to the ECN in many respects due to its greater flexibility and longer history. This stems in particular from the creation of the American network, which was based on a small number of cases. Such structure encourages further changes and modifications which are not necessarily radical. The ECN, by contrast, was established by legislative action, which explains its rigid structure and resistance to change. It might be the case that the ECN is subject not so much to path dependence but to past dependence. It might have to be replaced, as happened to its predecessor. This paper is an attempt to transpose the superiority of the American network on to the ECN. It looks at concepts such as judicial cooperation, harmonization of procedure, peer review and regulatory impact assessments (RIAs), and dispute resolution procedures. The aim is to adopt these concepts into the EU setting without recourse to legal transplantation. The major difficulty is that many of these concepts have been tested only in the US and it is difficult to tell whether they could be modified to meet EU standards. Concepts such as judicial cooperation might be difficult due to different language traditions in EU member states. It is hoped that greater flexibility, as in the American network, would boost legitimacy and transparency.

Keywords: Networks, Regulation, Competition, ECN

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
13 How to Modernise the European Competition Network (ECN)

Authors: Dorota Galeza

Abstract:

This paper argues that networks, such as the ECN and the American network, are affected by certain small events which are inherent to path dependence and preclude the full evolution towards efficiency. It is advocated that the American network is superior to the ECN in many respects due to its greater flexibility and longer history. This stems in particular from the creation of the American network, which was based on a small number of cases. Such a structure encourages further changes and modifications which are not necessarily radical. The ECN, by contrast, was established by legislative action, which explains its rigid structure and resistance to change. This paper is an attempt to transpose the superiority of the American network on to the ECN. It looks at concepts such as judicial cooperation, harmonisation of procedure, peer review and regulatory impact assessments (RIAs), and dispute resolution procedures.

Keywords: Networks, Competition, antitrust, path dependence

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
12 Belonging in South Africa: Networks among African Immigrants and South African Natives

Authors: Efe Mary Isike

Abstract:

The variety of relationships between migrants and host communities is an enduring theme of migration studies. On one extreme, there are numerous examples of hostility towards ‘strangers’ who are either ejected from society or denied access to jobs, housing, education, healthcare and other aspects of normal life. More moderate treatments of those identified as different include expectations of assimilation in which host communities expect socially marginalized groups to conform to norms that they define. Both exclusion and assimilation attempt to manage the problem of difference by removing it. South Africa experienced great influx of African immigrants who worked in mines and farms under harsh and exploitative conditions before and after the institutionalization of apartheid. Although these labour migrants contributed a great deal to the economic development of South Africa, they were not given citizenship status. The formal democratization in 1994 came with dreams and expectations of a more inclusive South Africa, where black South Africans hoped to maximize their potential in a more free, fair and equal society. In the same vein, it also opened spaces for an influx of especially African immigrants into the country which set the stage for a new form of contest for belonging between South African citizens and African migrant settlers. One major manifestation of this contest was the violent xenophobic attacks against African immigrants which predate that of May 2008 and has continued with lower intensity across the country since then. While it is doubtless possible to find abundant evidence of antagonism in the relations between South Africans and African immigrants, the purpose of this study is to investigate the everyday realities of migrants in ordinary places who interact with a variety of people through their livelihood activities, marriages and social relationships, moving around towns and cities, in their residential areas, in faith-based organizations and other elements of everyday life. Rather than assuming all relations are hostile, this study intends to look at the breadth of everyday relationships within a specific context. Based on the foregoing, the main task of this study is to holistically examine and explain the nature of interactions between African migrants and South African citizens by analysing the social network ties that connect them in the specific case of Umhlathuze municipality. It will also investigate the variety of networks that exists between African migrants and South Africans and examine the nature of the linkages in the various networks identified between these two groups in Umhlathuze Municipality. Apart from a review of relevant literature, policies and other official documents, this paper will employ a purposive sample survey and in-depth interview of African immigrants and South Africans within their networks in selected suburbs in KwaZulu-Natal.

Keywords: Migration, Development, Networks, host communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
11 The Study of ZigBee Protocol Application in Wireless Networks

Authors: Ardavan Zamanpour, Somaieh Yassari

Abstract:

ZigBee protocol network was developed in industries and MIT laboratory in 1997. ZigBee is a wireless networking technology by alliance ZigBee which is designed to low board and low data rate applications. It is a Protocol which connects between electrical devises with very low energy and cost. The first version of IEEE 802.15.4 which was formed ZigBee was based on 2.4GHZ MHZ 912MHZ 868 frequency band. The name of system is often reminded random directions that bees (BEES) traversing during pollination of products. Such as alloy of the ways in which information packets are traversed within the mesh network. This paper aims to study the performance and effectiveness of this protocol in wireless networks.

Keywords: Networks, Wireless, ZigBee, protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
10 Optimized Dynamic Bayesian Networks and Neural Verifier Test Applied to On-Line Isolated Characters Recognition

Authors: Redouane Tlemsani, Abdelkader Benyettou, Redouane, Belkacem Kouninef

Abstract:

In this paper, our system is a Markovien system which we can see it like a Dynamic Bayesian Networks. One of the major interests of these systems resides in the complete training of the models (topology and parameters) starting from training data. The Bayesian Networks are representing models of dubious knowledge on complex phenomena. They are a union between the theory of probability and the graph theory in order to give effective tools to represent a joined probability distribution on a set of random variables. The representation of knowledge bases on description, by graphs, relations of causality existing between the variables defining the field of study. The theory of Dynamic Bayesian Networks is a generalization of the Bayesians networks to the dynamic processes. Our objective amounts finding the better structure which represents the relationships (dependencies) between the variables of a dynamic bayesian network. In applications in pattern recognition, one will carry out the fixing of the structure which obliges us to admit some strong assumptions (for example independence between some variables).

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Networks, Arabic on line character recognition, dynamic Bayesian network

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
9 Product Modularity, Collaboration and the Impact on Innovation Performance in Intra-Organizational R&D Networks

Authors: Daniel Martinez, Tim de Leeuw, Stefan Haefliger

Abstract:

The challenges of managing a large and geographically dispersed R&D organization have been further increasing during the past years, concentrating on the leverage of a geo-graphically dispersed body of knowledge in an efficient and effective manner. In order to reduce complexity and improve performance, firms introduce product modularity as one key element for global R&D network teams to develop their products and projects in collaboration. However, empirical studies on the effects of product modularity on innovation performance are really scant. Furthermore, some researchers have suggested that product modularity promotes innovation performance, while others argue that it inhibits innovation performance. This research fills this gap by investigating the impact of product modularity on various dimensions of innovation performance, i.e. effectiveness and efficiency. By constructing the theoretical framework, this study suggests that that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between product modularity and innovation performance. Moreover, this research work suggests that the optimum of innovation performance efficiency will be at a higher level than innovation performance effectiveness at a given product modularity level.

Keywords: Networks, Collaboration, R&D, Modularity, innovation performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
8 System Survivability in Networks

Authors: Mohamed Naceur Azaiez, Asma Ben Yaghlane

Abstract:

We consider the problem of attacks on networks. We define the concept of system survivability in networks in the presence of intelligent threats. Our setting of the problem assumes a flow to be sent from one source node to a destination node. The attacker attempts to disable the network by preventing the flow to reach its destination while the defender attempts to identify the best path-set to use to maximize the chance of arrival of the flow to the destination node. Our concept is shown to be different from the classical concept of network reliability. We distinguish two types of network survivability related to the defender and to the attacker of the network, respectively. We prove that the defender-based-network survivability plays the role of a lower bound while the attacker-based-network survivability plays the role of an upper bound of network reliability. We also prove that both concepts almost never agree nor coincide with network reliability. Moreover, we use the shortest-path problem to determine the defender-based-network survivability and the min-cut problem to determine the attacker-based-network survivability. We extend the problem to a variety of models including the minimum-spanning-tree problem and the multiple source-/destination-network problems.

Keywords: Networks, Information, Reliability, survivability, defense/attack strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
7 System Survivability in Networks in the Context of Defense/Attack Strategies: The Large Scale

Authors: Mohamed Naceur Azaiez, Asma Ben Yaghlane, Mehdi Mrad

Abstract:

We investigate the large scale of networks in the context of network survivability under attack. We use appropriate techniques to evaluate and the attacker-based- and the defender-based-network survivability. The attacker is unaware of the operated links by the defender. Each attacked link has some pre-specified probability to be disconnected. The defender choice is so that to maximize the chance of successfully sending the flow to the destination node. The attacker however will select the cut-set with the highest chance to be disabled in order to partition the network. Moreover, we extend the problem to the case of selecting the best p paths to operate by the defender and the best k cut-sets to target by the attacker, for arbitrary integers p,k > 1. We investigate some variations of the problem and suggest polynomial-time solutions.

Keywords: Networks, Large Scale, defense/attack strategies, partitioning a network

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
6 Female Entrepreneurship in the Creative Industry: The Antecedents of Their Ventures' Performance

Authors: Naoum Mylonas, Eugenia Petridou

Abstract:

Objectives: The objectives of this research are firstly, to develop an integrated model of predicting factors to new ventures performance, taking into account certain issues and specificities related to creative industry and female entrepreneurship based on the prior research; secondly, to determine the appropriate measures of venture performance in a creative industry context, drawing upon previous surveys; thirdly, to illustrate the importance of entrepreneurial orientation, networking ties, environment dynamism and access to financial capital on new ventures performance. Prior Work: An extant review of the creative industry literature highlights the special nature of entrepreneurship in this field. Entrepreneurs in creative industry share certain specific characteristics and intensions, such as to produce something aesthetic, to enrich their talents and their creativity, and to combine their entrepreneurial with their artistic orientation. Thus, assessing venture performance and success in creative industry entails an examination of how creative people or artists conceptualize success. Moreover, female entrepreneurs manifest more positive attitudes towards sectors primarily based on creativity, rather than innovation in which males outbalance. As creative industry entrepreneurship based mainly on the creative personality of the creator / artist, a high interest is accrued to examine female entrepreneurship in the creative industry. Hypotheses development: H1a: Female entrepreneurs who are more entrepreneurially-oriented show a higher financial performance. H1b: Female entrepreneurs who are more artistically-oriented show a higher creative performance. H2: Female entrepreneurs who have personality that is more creative perform better. H3: Female entrepreneurs who participate in or belong to networks perform better. H4: Female entrepreneurs who have been consulted by a mentor perform better. Η5a: Female entrepreneurs who are motivated more by pull-factors perform better. H5b: Female entrepreneurs who are motivated more by push-factors perform worse. Approach: A mixed method triangulation design has been adopted for the collection and analysis of data. The data are collected through a structured questionnaire for the quantitative part and through semi-structured interviews for the qualitative part as well. The sample is 293 Greek female entrepreneurs in the creative industry. Main findings: All research hypotheses are accepted. The majority of creative industry entrepreneurs evaluate themselves in creative performance terms rather than financial ones. The individuals who are closely related to traditional arts sectors have no EO but also evaluate themselves highly in terms of venture performance. Creative personality of creators is appeared as the most important predictor of venture performance. Pull factors in accordance with our hypothesis lead to higher levels of performance compared to push factors. Networking and mentoring are viewed as very important, particularly now during the turbulent economic environment in Greece. Implications-Value: Our research provides an integrated model with several moderating variables to predict ventures performance in the creative industry, taking also into account the complicated nature of arts and the way artists and creators define success. At the end, the findings may be used for the appropriate design of educational programs in creative industry entrepreneurship. This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund – ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Heracleitus II. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

Keywords: Networks, creative industry, female entrepreneurship, venture performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
5 Making Social Accountability Initiatives Work in the Performance of Local Self-Governing Institutions: District-Level Analysis in Rural Assam, India

Authors: Pankaj Kumar Kalita

Abstract:

Ineffectiveness of formal institutional mechanisms such as official audit to improve public service delivery has been a serious concern to scholars working on governance reforms in developing countries. Scholars argue that public service delivery in local self-governing institutions can be improved through application of informal mechanisms such as social accountability. Social accountability has been reinforced with the engagement of citizens and civic organizations in the process of service delivery to reduce the governance gap in developing countries. However, there are challenges that may impede the scope of establishing social accountability initiatives in the performance of local self-governing institutions. This study makes an attempt to investigate the factors that may impede the scope of establishing social accountability, particularly in culturally heterogeneous societies like India. While analyzing the implementation of two rural development schemes by Panchayats, the local self-governing institutions functioning in rural Assam in India, this study argues that the scope of establishing social accountability in the performance of local self-governing institutions, particularly in culturally heterogeneous societies in developing countries will be impeded by the absence of inter-caste and inter-religion networks. Data has been collected from five selected districts of Assam using in-depth interview method and survey method. The study further contributes to the debates on 'good governance' and citizen-centric approaches in developing countries.

Keywords: Networks, Citizen Engagement, social accountability, local self-governing institutions

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
4 The Use of Network Theory in Heritage Cities

Authors: J. L. Oliver, T. Agryzkov, L. Tortosa, J. Vicent, J. Santacruz

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how the use of Network Theory can be applied to a very interesting and complex urban situation: The parts of a city which may have some patrimonial value, but because of their lack of relevant architectural elements, they are not considered to be historic in a conventional sense. In this paper, we use the suburb of La Villaflora in the city of Quito, Ecuador as our case study. We first propose a system of indicators as a tool to characterize and quantify the historic value of a geographic area. Then, we apply these indicators to the suburb of La Villaflora and use Network Theory to understand and propose actions.

Keywords: Mathematics, Networks, Urban Studies, Graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
3 Networks in the Tourism Sector in Brazil: Proposal of a Management Model Applied to Tourism Clusters

Authors: Gysele Lima Ricci, Jose Miguel Rodriguez Anton

Abstract:

Companies in the tourism sector need to achieve competitive advantages for their survival in the market. In this way, the models based on association, cooperation, complementarity, distribution, exchange and mutual assistance arise as a possibility of organizational development, taking as reference the concept of networks. Many companies seek to partner in local networks as clusters to act together and associate. The main objective of the present research is to identify the specificities of management and the practices of cooperation in the tourist destination of São Paulo - Brazil, and to propose a new management model with possible cluster of tourism. The empirical analysis was carried out in three phases. As a first phase, a research was made by the companies, associations and tourism organizations existing in São Paulo, analyzing the characteristics of their business. In the second phase, the management specificities and cooperation practice used in the tourist destination. And in the third phase, identifying the possible strengths and weaknesses that potential or potential tourist cluster could have, proposing the development of the management model of the same adapted to the needs of the companies, associations and organizations. As a main result, it has been identified that companies, associations and organizations could be looking for synergies with each other and collaborate through a Hiperred organizational structure, in which they share their knowledge, try to make the most of the collaboration and to benefit from three concepts: flexibility, learning and collaboration. Finally, it is concluded that, the proposed tourism cluster management model is viable for the development of tourism destinations because it makes it possible to strategically address agents which are responsible for public policies, as well as public and private companies and organizations in their strategies competitiveness and cooperation.

Keywords: Cluster, Networks, management model, tourism sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
2 Community Structure Detection in Networks Based on Bee Colony

Authors: Bilal Saoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to find the community structure in networks. Our method is based on bee colony and the maximization of modularity to find the community structure. We use a bee colony algorithm to find the first community structure that has a good value of modularity. To improve the community structure, that was found, we merge communities until we get a community structure that has a high value of modularity. We provide a general framework for implementing our approach. We tested our method on computer-generated and real-world networks with a comparison to very known community detection methods. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposition.

Keywords: Networks, Modularity, bee colony, normalized mutual information

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
1 Visualizing the Commercial Activity of a City by Analyzing the Data Information in Layers

Authors: Leandro Tortosa, Taras Agryzkov, Jose L. Oliver, Jose Vicent

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how network models can be used to understand and to deal with some aspects of urban complexity. As it is well known, the Theory of Architecture and Urbanism has been using for decades’ intellectual tools based on the ‘sciences of complexity’ as a strategy to propose theoretical approaches about cities and about architecture. In this sense, it is possible to find a vast literature in which for instance network theory is used as an instrument to understand very diverse questions about cities: from their commercial activity to their heritage condition. The contribution of this research consists in adding one step of complexity to this process: instead of working with one single primal graph as it is usually done, we will show how new network models arise from the consideration of two different primal graphs interacting in two layers. When we model an urban network through a mathematical structure like a graph, the city is usually represented by a set of nodes and edges that reproduce its topology, with the data generated or extracted from the city embedded in it. All this information is normally displayed in a single layer. Here, we propose to separate the information in two layers so that we can evaluate the interaction between them. Besides, both layers may be composed of structures that do not have to coincide: from this bi-layer system, groups of interactions emerge, suggesting reflections and in consequence, possible actions.

Keywords: Mathematics, Networks, Urban Studies, Graphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 21