Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

nephrotoxicity Related Abstracts

13 Protective Effect of L-Carnitine against Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Mohamed F. Ahmed, Mabruka S. Elashheb, Fatma M. Ben Rabha

Abstract:

This study aimed to determine the possible protective effects of L‐carnitine against gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity. Forty male albino rats were divided into 4 groups (10 rats each); Group 1: normal control, group 2: induced nephrotoxicity (gentamicin 50 mg/kg/day S.C; 8 days) , group 3: treated with L‐carnitine (40 mg/kg/d SC for 12 days) and group 4: treated with L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin. Gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity (group 2): caused significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, urinary N‐acetyl‐B‐D‐glucosaminidase (NAG), gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), urinary total protein and kidney tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) with significant decrease in serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum catalase and creatinine clearance and marked tubular necrosis in the proximal convoluted tubules with interruption in the basement membrane around the necrotic tubule compared to the normal control group. L‐carnitine 4 days before and for 8 days in concomitant with gentamicin (group 4) offered marked decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, urinary NAG, urinary GGT, urinary proteins and kidney tissue MDA, with marked increase in serum SOD, serum catalase and creatinine clearance with marked improvement in the tubular damage compared to gentamicin‐induced nephrotoxicity group. L‐carnitine administered for 12 days produced no change in the above-mentioned parameters as compared to the normal control group. In conclusion: L‐carnitine could reduce most of the biochemical parameters and also improve the histopathological features of the kidney associated with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: Kidney Disease, gentamicin, nephrotoxicity, L‐carnitine

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
12 Preventive Effect of Zinc on Nickel Hepatotoxicity and Nephrotoxicity in Albino (Wistar) Rats

Authors: Zine Kechrid, Samira Bouhalit

Abstract:

Aim: We studied the effect of intraperitonial zinc treatment on nickel sulphate-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in Wistar strain male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Liver and kidney dysfunction parameters represented by aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood glucose, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, and serum belurebin were estimated. Liver glutathione level, catalase and GPx activities were also determined in liver as indicators of oxidative damage. Result: Nickel treatment led to high serum glucose concentration and produced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity characterized by increasing GPT, GOT and alkaline phosphatase activities, serum total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and serum belurebin concentrations. In addition, liver glutathione level, catalase and GSH-Px activities diminished due to high lipid peroxidation. The simultaneous administration of zinc with nickel sulphate resulted in a remarkable improvement of the previous parameters compared with rats treated with nickel alone. Conclusion: In conclusion, nickel sulphate led to liver and kidney dysfunctions and hepatic lipid peroxidation in animals, but simultaneous treatment with zinc offers a relative protection against nickel induced hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and lipid peroxidation.

Keywords: rats, Nickel, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, GOT, GPT

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
11 Acrylamide Induced Chronic Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: afshin zahedi, Keivan Jmahidi

Abstract:

Acrylamide (AA) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of acrylamide (ACR) 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) were randomly assigned in 4 groups; including 3 treatment groups and 1 control group named as A, B, C, and D respectively. Rats in treatment groups were exposed to 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/kg ACR per day×90 days p.o (gavage) respectively. The remaining 10 rats in control group received daily p.o (gavage) of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 91, two rats were randomly selected, perfused, dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did not show morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and D, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, and tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, indicates for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, ie, chronic nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: rats, nephrotoxicity, acrylamide, glomerulonephritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 421
10 Acrylamide-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity in Rats

Authors: afshin zahedi, Keivan Jamshidi

Abstract:

Acrylamide (ACR) has been shown to cause neurotoxic effects in humans and neurotoxic, genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. To investigate the nephrotoxic effect of Acrylamide (ACR), 50 adult male rats (Wistar, approximately 250 g) housed in polycarbonate boxes as 5 per each, and randomly assigned in 5 groups including 4 exposure groups as A, B, C, and D groups of rats (10 rats per exposure group., total) and were exposed to 0.5, 5, 50, 100 mg/kg ACR per day×11days i.p. respectively. The remaining 10 rats were housed in group (E) as control group. Control rats received daily i.p. injections of 0.9% saline (3ml/kg). On day 12, four rats, were randomly selected, perfused , dissected and proper samples were collected from their kidneys. Results of histopathological studies based on H&E technique did show no morphologic changes in kidneys of rats belong to groups A, B and E, while moderate to severe morphologic changes including glomerular hypercellularity, global pattern of proliferative glomerulonephritis, occupation of capsular space, tubular cell swelling and hyaline cast formation, were observed in different stained sections obtained from the kidneys of rats belong to group, C, and D. This finding, beside neurotoxic, reproductive and carcinogenic effects, seems to indicate for the first time another important aspect of toxic effect of ACR, i.e., acute nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: rats, nephrotoxicity, acrylamide, glomerulonephritis

Procedia PDF Downloads 478
9 Lack of Functional Interaction between Nitric Oxide and ET-A Receptors in Cisplatin-Induced Acute Renal Failure

Authors: Mai M. Helmy

Abstract:

Although the role of either nitric oxide (NO) or endothelin receptors modulation in the severity of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been recognized in previous studies including our own, the possible interaction between the two pathways remains obscure. In this study, we tested the possible interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Sprague Dawley male rats (200 to 250 g) were divided into four groups: Control (given a single dose of normal saline, i.p.), cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin+Sildenafil (2 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin+Sildenafil+BQ-123 (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Each of the co-administered drugs was given in two doses; one hour before and one day after the cisplatin dose. Acute cisplatin administration resulted in significant increases in BUN and serum creatinine levels at 96 h following cisplatin injection. Increased levels of MDA, TNF-α and caspase-3, decreased nitrite/nitrate level and SOD activity in kidney homogenates were also observed following cisplatin injection. According to the obtained results, the co-adminstration of sildenafil alone with cisplatin offered a reno-protective effect comparable to that obtained following the concurrent administration of both sildenafil and the selective ETAR antagonist BQ-123. Thus, the current study is the first to reveal that the presence of an intact NO/cGMP system may offer a moderate reno-protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the presence of ETAR-mediated vasoconstriction, suggesting the absence of obvious functional interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

Keywords: nephrotoxicity, BQ-123, cisplatin, endothelin-1, sildenafil

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
8 A High Content Screening Platform for the Accurate Prediction of Nephrotoxicity

Authors: Sijing Xiong, Ran Su, Lit-Hsin Loo, Daniele Zink

Abstract:

The kidney is a major target for toxic effects of drugs, industrial and environmental chemicals and other compounds. Typically, nephrotoxicity is detected late during drug development, and regulatory animal models could not solve this problem. Validated or accepted in silico or in vitro methods for the prediction of nephrotoxicity are not available. We have established the first and currently only pre-validated in vitro models for the accurate prediction of nephrotoxicity in humans and the first predictive platforms based on renal cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. In order to further improve the efficiency of our predictive models, we recently developed a high content screening (HCS) platform. This platform employed automated imaging in combination with automated quantitative phenotypic profiling and machine learning methods. 129 image-based phenotypic features were analyzed with respect to their predictive performance in combination with 44 compounds with different chemical structures that included drugs, environmental and industrial chemicals and herbal and fungal compounds. The nephrotoxicity of these compounds in humans is well characterized. A combination of chromatin and cytoskeletal features resulted in high predictivity with respect to nephrotoxicity in humans. Test balanced accuracies of 82% or 89% were obtained with human primary or immortalized renal proximal tubular cells, respectively. Furthermore, our results revealed that a DNA damage response is commonly induced by different PTC-toxicants with diverse chemical structures and injury mechanisms. Together, the results show that the automated HCS platform allows efficient and accurate nephrotoxicity prediction for compounds with diverse chemical structures.

Keywords: nephrotoxicity, high content screening, in vitro models, toxicity prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
7 Involvement of BCRP/ABCG2 in Protective Mechanisms of Resveratrol against Methotrexate-Induced Renal Damage in Rats

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher, Azza A. El-Sheikh

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RES) is a well-known polyphenol antioxidant. We have previously shown that testicular protective effect of RES against the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX)-induced toxicity involves transporter-mediated mechanisms. Here, we investigated the effect of RES on MTX-induced nephrotoxicity. Rats were administered RES (10 mg/kg/day) for 8 days, with or without a single MTX dose (20 mg/kg i.p.) at day 4 of the experiment. MTX induced nephrotoxicity evident by significantly increase in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to control, as well as distortion of kidney microscopic structure. MTX also significantly increased renal nitric oxide level, with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. MTX also significantly up-regulated fas ligand and caspase 3. Administering RES prior to MTX significantly improved kidney function and microscopic picture, as well as significantly decreased nitrosative and apoptotic markers compared to MTX alone. RES, but not MTX, caused significant increase in expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), an apical efflux renal transporter that participates in urinary elimination of both MTX and RES. Interestingly, concomitant MTX and RES caused further up-regulation of renal Bcrp compared to RES alone. Using Human BCRP ATPase assay, both RES and MTX exhibited dose-dependent increase in ATPase activity, with Km values of 0.52 ± 0.03 and 30.9 ± 4.2 µM, respectively. Furthermore, combined RES and MTX caused ATPase activity which was significantly less than maximum ATPase activity attained by the positive control; sulfasalazine (12.5 µM). In conclusion, RES exerted nephro-protection against MTX-induced toxicity through anti-nitrosative and anti-apoptotic effects, as well as via up-regulation of renal Bcrp.

Keywords: Resveratrol, nephrotoxicity, methotrexate, breast cancer resistance protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6 Evaluation of Malva sylvestris L. Effect on Sodium Fluoride-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rat

Authors: S. Kianbakht, H. Fallah Huseini, P. Changaei, A. Mirjalili, J. Salehi, A. Babaei Zarch

Abstract:

Background: Malva Sylvestris L. has antioxidant property and is widely used in the traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and urological disorders. Objective: In this study the protective effect of Malva Sylvestris against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity in rat were evaluated. Methods: The Malva Sylvestris flower extract was prepared and injected intraperitoneally at the doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg/day to group of rats ( 10 in each group) for 1 week and subsequently 600 ppm sodium fluoride was added to the rats drinking water for 1 additional week. After these steps, the rats’ serum levels of urea, creatinine, reduced glutathione, catalase and malondialdehyde were determined. The histopathologies of the rats’ kidneys were also studied. Results: Sodium fluoride administration increased levels of BUN, creatinine glutathione, catalase activity and decreased malondialdehyde indicating induction of nephrotoxicity in rats. Malva Sylvestris extract pretreatment significantly decreased the BUN and creatinine levels (P<0.05). Moreover, the levels of catalase and glutathione were increased by Malva, and this increase were also statistically significant (P<0.05). All three doses of Malva extract decreased the malondialdehyde level, but it was significant only for the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (P<0.05). Histopathological findings also showed protective effect of Malva against renal damage induced by sodium fluoride. Conclusion: The results suggest that Malva Sylvestris has protective effect against sodium fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity maybe mediated by its antioxidant property.

Keywords: rat, nephrotoxicity, sodium fluoride, Malva sylvestris

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
5 Protective Approach of Mentha Piperita against Cadmium Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj

Abstract:

Cadmium is the second most hazardous heavy metal occurring in both elemental as well as compound forms. It is a highly toxic metal with a very high bio-concentration factor (BCF>100). WHO permitted groundwater cadmium concentration is 0.005 mg/L only, but reality is far away from this limit. A number of natural and anthropogenic industrial activities contribute to the spread of cadmium into the environment. The present study had been designated to find out the renal changes at functional level after cadmium intoxication and protection against these changes offered by Mentha piperata. For the purpose, albino rats were selected as the model organism. Cadmium significantly increases the serum level of serum proteins and nitrogenous wastes showing reduced filtration rate of kidneys. Pretreatment with Mentha piperata leaf extract causes significant retention of these levels to normalcy. These findings conclude that Cadmium exposure affects renal functioning but Mentha could prevent it, proving its nephro-protective potential against heavy metal toxicity.

Keywords: cadmium, nephrotoxicity, albino rat, Mentha piperata

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
4 Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Experimental Rats

Authors: Surender Singh, Prerna Kalra

Abstract:

Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent used in different solid tumors, but its main limiting factor is dose-dependent nephrotoxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, by stimulating inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Additional adjuvant therapies to decrease the toxicity of this chemotherapeutic drug are essential. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of Emblica officinalis Geartn (Indian gooseberry) against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Emblica officinalis was orally administered to Wistar rats (n=6) for 10 days in 50, 100 and 200mg/kg body weight. On day 7, 8mg/kg of cisplatin was administered intra-peritoneally to rats in all groups. Serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and antioxidant levels were measured on day10. The renal damage was evaluated by histopathological and transmission electron microscopy. We found that 200mg/kg dose of Emblica officinalis significantly inhibited the elevation of biochemical parameters i.e. serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, oxidant stress marker (malondialdehyde) and increased the reduced levels of antioxidant marker (endogenous glutathione and superoxide dismutase). Cisplatin treated rats have shown acute tubular necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rat kidney which was reversed after treating the animals with Emblica officinalis in the treatment group. In ultrastructural changes cisplatin treated group showed the damaged mitochondria (M) with dissolved cristae and large number of lysosomes (L) and vacuole (V) formation in tubular epithelial cells. EOE administered group showed visible cristae formation and sign of autophagy vacuoles at a dose of 200mg/kg. Further in-silico studies revealed that ellagic acid is responsible for its nephroprotective effect. The above findings conclude that the Emblica officinalis may be used as an adjuvant therapy in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity.

Keywords: nephrotoxicity, antioxidant, Emblica officinalis, in silico, cisplatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
3 Comparative Study on the Influence of Different Drugs against Aluminium- Induced Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Toqa M. Elnahhas, Abeer I. Abd El-Fattah, Mona M. Kamal, Karema Abu-Elfotuh

Abstract:

Background: Environmental pollution with the different aluminium (Al) containing compounds especially those in industrial waste water exposes people to higher than normal levels of Al that represents an environmental risk factor. Cosmetics, Al ware, and containers are also sources of Al besides some foods and food additives. In addition to its known neurotoxicity, Al affects other body structures like skeletal system, blood cells, liver and kidney. Accumulation of Al in kidney and liver induces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a pseudo-vitamin substance primarily present in the mitochondria. It is a powerful antioxidant and acts as radical scavenger. Wheat grass is a natural product that contains carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals, enzymes and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and cardiovascular protection activities. Cocoa is an excellent source of iron, potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. Vinpocetine is an antioxidant and anti inflammatory while zinc is an essential trace element involved in cell division and its deficiency is observed in many types of liver disease. Objective: To evaluate and compare the potency of different drugs (CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc) against nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. Methods: Rats were divided to seven groups and received daily for three weeks either saline for control group or AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups. Five groups of Al-toxicity model (treated groups) were orally received together with Al each of the following; CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg), cocoa powder (24mg/kg), vinpocetine (20mg/kg) or zinc (32mg/kg). Biochemical changes in the serum level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea were measured. Liver and kidney specimens from all groups were also collected for the assessment of hepatic and nephrotic level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3, oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO) and DNA fragmentation. Histopathological changes in liver and kidney were also evaluated. Results: Three weeks of AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) exposure induced nephro- and hepato-toxicity in rats. Treatment by the all used drugs showed protection against hazards of AlCl3. The protective effects were indicated by the significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH as well as total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels which were increased by Al. Liver and kidney of the treated groups showed decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation which were increased by Al, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC which were decreased by Al. The protection against both nephro- and hepato-toxicity was more pronounced especially with CoQ10 and wheat grass than the other used drugs. Histopathological examinations confirmed the biochemical results of toxicity and of protection. Conclusion: Protection from nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and the consequent degenerations induced by Al can be achieved by using different drugs as CoQ10, wheatgrass, cocoa, vinpocetine and zinc, but CoQ10 as well as wheat grass possesses the most superior protection.

Keywords: Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, zinc, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, wheatgrass, vinpocetine

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
2 Impact of Stress and Protein Malnutrition on the Potential Role of Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in Providing Protection from Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Aluminum in Rats

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Mona G. Khalil, Hemat A. Elariny, Shereen S. El Shaer

Abstract:

Background: Aluminium (Al) is very abundant metal in the earth’s crust. It is a constituent of cooking utensils, medicines, cosmetics, some foods and food additives. Salts of Al are widely used in the treatment of drinking water for purification purposes. Excessive and prolonged exposure to Al causes oxidative stress and impairment of many physiological functions. Its accumulation in liver and kidney causes hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Social isolation (SI) or Protein malnutrition (PM) also increases oxidative stress and may enhance the toxicity of Al as well as the degeneration in liver and kidney. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant catechin in green tea and has strong antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory activities and can protect against oxidative stress-induced degenerations. Objective: To study the influence of stress or PM on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats, as well as on the potential role of EGCG in providing protection. Methods: Rats received daily AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for three weeks (Al-toxicity groups) except one normal control group received saline. Al-toxicity groups were divided into four treated and four untreated groups; treated rats received EGCG (10 mg/kg, IP) together with AlCl3. One group of both treated and untreated rats served as control for each of them, and the others were subjected to either stress (mild using isolation or high using electric shock) or to PM (10% casein diet). Specimens of liver and kidney were used for assessment of levels of inflammatory mediators as TNF-α, IL6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), oxidative stress (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), Caspase-3 and for DNA fragmentation as well as for histopathological examinations. Biochemical changes were also measured in the serum as total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea as well as the level of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH). Results: Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by Al were enhanced in rats exposed to stress and to PM. The influence of stress was more pronounced than PM. Al-toxicity was indicated by the increase in liver and kidney MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3, DNA fragmentation and in ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea levels, together with the decrease in total proteins, SOD, TAC. EGCG provided protection against hazards of Al as indicated by the decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation as well as in levels of ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, bilirubin, creatinine and urea in liver and kidney, together with the increase in total proteins, SOD, TAC and confirmed by histopathological examinations. It provided more pronounced protection in high stressful conditions than in mild one than in PM. Conclusion: Stress have a bad impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity more than PM. Thus it can clarify and maximize the role of EGCG in providing protection. Consequently, administration of EGCG is advised with excessive Al-exposure to avoid nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity especially in populations more subjected to stress or PM.

Keywords: rats, stress, Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, protein malnutrition, epigallocatechin-3-gallate

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
1 Nephrotoxicity and Hepatotoxicity Induced by Chronic Aluminium Exposure in Rats: Impact of Nutrients Combination versus Social Isolation and Protein Malnutrition

Authors: Azza A. Ali, Karema Abu-Elfotuh, Doaa M. Abd El-Latif, Amany M. Gad, Yasser M. A. Elnahas

Abstract:

Background: Exposure to Aluminium (Al) has been increased recently. It is found in food products, food additives, drinking water, cosmetics and medicines. Chronic consumption of Al causes oxidative stress and has been implicated in several chronic disorders. Liver is considered as the major site for detoxification while kidney is involved in the elimination of toxic substances and is a target organ of metal toxicity. Social isolation (SI) or protein malnutrition (PM) also causes oxidative stress and has negative impact on Al-induced nephrotoxicity as well as hepatotoxicity. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a powerful intracellular antioxidant with mitochondrial membrane stabilizing ability while wheat grass is a natural product with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and different protective activities, cocoa is also potent antioxidants and can protect against many diseases. They provide different degrees of protection from the impact of oxidative stress. Objective: To study the impact of social isolation together with Protein malnutrition on nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure in rats as well as to investigate the postulated protection using a combination of Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa. Methods: Eight groups of rats were used; four served as protected groups and four as un-protected. Each of them received daily for five weeks AlCl3 (70 mg/kg, IP) for Al-toxicity model groups except one group served as control. Al-toxicity model groups were divided to Al-toxicity alone, SI- associated PM (10% casein diet) and Al- associated SI&PM groups. Protection was induced by oral co-administration of CoQ10 (200mg/kg), wheat grass (100mg/kg) and cocoa powder (24mg/kg) combination together with Al. Biochemical changes in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, proteins, creatinine and urea as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) were measured in serum of all groups. Specimens of kidney and liver were used for assessment of oxidative parameters (MDA, SOD, TAC, NO), inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6β, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), Caspase-3) and DNA fragmentation in addition to evaluation of histopathological changes. Results: SI together with PM severely enhanced nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by chronic Al exposure. Co Q10, wheat grass and cocoa combination showed clear protection against hazards of Al exposure either alone or when associated with SI&PM. Their protection were indicated by the significant decrease in Al-induced elevations in total bilirubin, lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, creatinine and urea levels as well as ALT, AST, ALP, LDH. Liver and kidney of the treated groups also showed significant decrease in MDA, NO, TNF-α, IL-6β, NF-κB, caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation, together with significant increase in total proteins, SOD and TAC. Biochemical results were confirmed by the histopathological examinations. Conclusion: SI together with PM represents a risk factor in enhancing nephro- and hepato-toxicity induced by Al in rats. CoQ10, wheat grass and cocoa combination provide clear protection against nephro- and hepatotoxicity as well as the consequent degenerations induced by chronic Al-exposure even when associated with the risk of SI together with PM.

Keywords: Aluminum, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, coenzyme Q10, cocoa, wheatgrass, isolation and protein malnutrition, nutrients combinations

Procedia PDF Downloads 112