Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Neonatal Infection Related Abstracts

4 A Case Report on Neonatal Conjunctivitis in Pugs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal conjunctivitis, or ophthalmia, is an infection of the conjunctiva or cornea before opening the eyelids. It is believed that immunodeficiency contributes to the development of the condition. This study aims at reporting a case of ophthalmia neonatorum in a dog, in addition to its diagnosis and treatment. A litter of five pug neonates was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, with complaints of ocular secretion. The neonates were five days old. The clinical examination revealed that three newborns presented swelling in the ocular region and a purulent secretion in the medial corner of the eye that was exerting pressure on the ocular globes, which are compatible with the description of this disease. The diagnosis was made based on the clinical signs and bacterial culture of the secretion, which revealed the presence of bacteria belonging to the genus Staphylococcus sp. The laboratory assays did not reveal any alterations. The treatment was instituted gently, opening the eyelids early and cleaning the purulent ocular secretion with saline solution. An ophthalmic ointment with retinol, amino acids, methionine, and chloramphenicol (Epitezan®) was prescribed four times a day for seven days. Blood plasma (2 mL/100 g) was administered subcutaneously because bacterial infections in neonates may represent a failure in the transference of passive immunity. A more thorough cleaning of the environment was also recommended. Neonatal conjunctivitis has a simple diagnosis and treatment. If not treated early, it can evolve to adherence of the eyelids to the cornea, ulceration, and perforation of the cornea. Therefore, the prognosis is favorable as long as the condition is diagnosed early, and the treatment is instituted quickly.

Keywords: Neonatal Infection, Newborn, ophthalmia neonatorum, puppy

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3 Case Report on Sepsis by Alpha-Hemolytic Streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica in Neonate Dogs

Authors: Maria L. G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic response of acute infection by bacteria that may lead to high mortality in a litter. This study aims to report a case of sepsis by alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica in neonate dogs. A pregnant, mixed-breed bitch at approximately the 60th day of pregnancy was admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, and subjected to a c-section due to uterine atony and fetuses no heartbeats on the ultrasound examination. The mother presented leukopenia of 1.6 thousand leukocytes, and there was no other information regarding previous clinical history. Among the offspring, four were stillborn, and five were born alive. On clinical examination, neonates weighed between 312 and 384 grams. Reflexes were present, and the newborn's body temperature was between 89.9 ºF and 96.4 ºF. Neonates also presented clinical signs of neonatal infection: omphalitis, abdomen, and extremities with cyanotic color, hematuria, and diarrhea (meconium). Complementary tests revealed leukopenia. The presence of alpha hemolytic streptococcus and Mannheimia haemolytica was revealed in the bacterial culture. The bacteria were sensitive to cephalosporins and penicillin on the antibiogram. Treatment for sepsis was instituted with the drug ceftriaxone, at a dose of 50 mg per kilogram, administered intravenous (jugular vein). Subsequently administered subcutaneous, every 12 hours, for seven days. Heated fluid therapy was performed, with Ringer lactate, at a dose of 4 ml per 100 grams of weight, intravenous. Heating measures were instituted. Blood plasma was also administered, at a dose of 2 mL per 100 grams of weight, administered subcutaneous, as a source of passive immunity. A maternal milk substitute was instituted, and lactation was discontinued since the mother was unable to nurse due to the infection. The mother was neutered during the c-section and treated with ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg). After seven days, the newborns presented normal clinical signs and no alterations in the hemogram. Early diagnosis and intervention were essential for the survival of these patients.

Keywords: Bacteria, Neonatal Infection, Newborn, puppies

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2 Treatment of Isosporiasis in Neonate Dogs – Case Report

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Viviane Y. Hibaru, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Isosporiasis is an affliction caused by coccidial protozoa belonging to genera Isospora spp. or Cystoisospora spp., which may parasitize the small and large intestines of dogs, of which neonates and young animals present higher risk of infection. This study aims at reporting a case of isosporiasis in neonate Pitbull dogs, as well as the diagnosis and treatment. Seven Pitbull puppies were admitted to the São Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, with history of yellowish diarrhea without mucus or blood for the past two days. The animals were five days old. The history of the mother, a primiparous two-year-old, revealed that she was properly vaccinated, not de-wormed and did not present diarrhea. The clinical examination revealed that the neonates weighted between 308 and 360 grams, and presented normal reflexes, moderate dehydration, body temperatures between 36.8 and 37.2 ºC, blood sugar between 103 and 124 mg/dL and normal appetite. A full blood count and a parasitology assay were performed to aid in the diagnosis. The full blood count detected eosinophilia, without any other relevant alterations. The parasitology assay (Willis-Molly & Faust) revealed the presence of Cystoisospora spp. The treatment was instituted with heated fluid therapy with Ringer’s Lactate (4 mL/100 g, subcutaneous) and antibiotic therapy with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (15 mg/kg, orally) every 12 hours for ten days. The mother and other dogs that came in contact with the newborns were also treated. The environment was disinfected for 10 minutes with 1.6% quaternary ammonium. After 10 days, the newborns presented normal clinical signs and no alterations in the full blood count. Isosporiasis is an affliction with high mortality rates in litters that should be diagnosed and treated as soon as possible to increase the survival rates in these patients.

Keywords: Neonatal Infection, Diarrhea, puppies, Cystoisospora spp

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1 Neonatal Sepsis in Dogs Attend in Veterinary Hospital of the Sao Paulo State University, Botucatu, Brazil – Incidence, Clinical Aspects and Mortality

Authors: Maria Lucia G. Lourenco, Keylla H. N. P. Pereira, Vivane Y. Hibaru, Fabiana F. Souza, Joao C. P. Ferreira, Simone B. Chiacchio, Luiz H. A. Machado

Abstract:

Neonatal sepsis is a systemic response to the acute generalized infection caused by one or more bacterial agents, representing the main infectious cause of neonatal mortality in dogs during the first three weeks of life. This study aims to describe the incidence of sepsis in neonate dogs, as well as the main clinical signs and mortality rates. The study included 735 neonates admitted to the Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) Veterinary Hospital, Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil, between January 2018 and November 2019. Seven hundred thirty-five neonates, 14% (98/703) presented neonatal sepsis. The main sources of infection for the neonates were intrauterine (72.5%, 71/98), lactogenic (13.2%, 13/98), umbilical (5.1%, 5/98) and unidentified sources (9.2%, 9/98). The main non-specific clinical signs observed in the newborns were weakness, depression, impaired or absent reflexes, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, dehydration, reduced muscle tonus and diarrhea. The newborns also manifested clinical signs of severe infection, such as hyperemia in the abdominal and anal regions, omphalitis, hematuria, abdomen and extremities with purplish-blue coloration necrosing injuries in the pads, bradycardia, dyspnea, epistaxis, hypotension and evolution to septic shock. Infections acquired during intrauterine life led to the onset of the clinical signs at the time of birth, with fast evolution during the first hours of life. On the other hand, infections acquired via milk or umbilical cord presented clinical signs later. The total mortality rate was 5.4% (38/703) and the mortality rate among the neonates with sepsis was 38.7% (38/98). The early mortality rate (0 to 2 days) accounted for 86.9% (33/38) and the late mortality rate (3 to 30 days) for 13.1% (5/38) of the deaths among the newborns with sepsis. The main bacterial agents observed were Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., Proteus spp. Mannheimia spp. and Escherichia coli. Neonatal sepsis evolves quickly and may lead to high mortality in a litter. The prognosis is usually favorable if the diagnosis is reached early and the antibiotic therapy instituted as soon as possible, even before the results of blood cultures and antibiograms. The therapeutic recommendations should meet the special physiological conditions of a neonate in terms of metabolism and excretion of medication. Therefore, it is of utmost importance that the veterinarian is knowledgeable regarding neonatology to provide effective intervention and improve the survival rates of these patients.

Keywords: Bacteria, Neonatal Infection, Newborn, puppies

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