Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Negotiation Related Abstracts

10 Gender Differences in Negotiation: Considering the Usual Driving Forces

Authors: Claude Alavoine, Ferkan Kaplanseren

Abstract:

Negotiation is a specific form of interaction based on communication in which the parties enter into deliberately, each with clear but different interests or goals and a mutual dependency towards a decision due to be taken at the end of the confrontation. Consequently, negotiation is a complex activity involving many different disciplines from the strategic aspects and the decision making process to the evaluation of alternatives or outcomes and the exchange of information. While gender differences can be considered as one of the most researched topic within negotiation studies, empirical works and theory present many conflicting evidences and results about the role of gender in the process or the outcome. Furthermore, little interest has been shown over gender differences in the definition of what is negotiation, its essence or fundamental elements. Or, as differences exist in practices, it might be essential to study if the starting point of these discrepancies does not come from different considerations about what is negotiation and what will encourage the participants in their strategic decisions. Some recent and promising experiments made with diverse groups show that male and female participants in a common and shared situation barely consider the same way the concepts of power, trust or stakes which are largely considered as the usual driving forces of any negotiation. Furthermore, results from Human Resource self-assessment tests display and confirm considerable differences between individuals regarding essential behavioral dimensions like capacity to improvise and to achieve, aptitude to conciliate or to compete and orientation towards power and group domination which are also part of negotiation skills. Our intention in this paper is to confront these dimensions with negotiation’s usual driving forces in order to build up new paths for further research.

Keywords: Power, Gender, Trust, Strategies, Negotiation, stakes

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
9 Intended-Actual First Asking/Offer Price Discrepancies and Their Impact on Negotiation Behaviour and Outcomes

Authors: Liuyao Chai, Colin Clark

Abstract:

Analysis of 574 participants in a simulated two-person distributive negotiation revealed that the first price 245 (42.7%) of these participants actually asked/offered for the item under negotiation (a used car) differed from the first price they previously stated they intended to ask/offer during their negotiation. This discrepancy between a negotiator’s intended first asking/offer price and his/her actual first asking/offer price had a significant and economically consequential impact on both the course and the outcomes of the negotiations studied. Participants whose actual first price remained the same as their intended first price tended to secure better negotiation outcomes. Moreover, participants who changed their intended first price tended to obtain relatively lower outcomes regardless of whether their modified first announced price had created a negotiating position that was ‘stronger’ or ‘weaker’ than if they had opened with their intended first price. Subsequent investigation of over twenty negotiation behaviours and pre-negotiation perceptual variables within this dataset indicated that the three types of first price announcers—i.e. intended first asking/offer price ‘weakeners’, ‘maintainers’ and ‘strengtheners’— comprised persons who tended to have significantly different pre-negotiation perceptions and behaved in systematically different ways during their negotiation. Typically, the most negative, outcome-compromising consequences of changing, weakening or strengthening an intended first price occurred at the very beginning of a negotiation when participants exchanged their actual first asking/offer prices.

Keywords: Business Communication, Persuasion, Negotiation, intended first asking/offer prices, bargaining

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
8 The Locus of Action - Tinted Windows

Authors: Devleminck Steven, Debackere Boris

Abstract:

This research is about the ways artists and scientists deal with (and endure) new meaning and comprehend and construct the world. The project reflects on the intense connection between comprehension and construction and their place of creation – the ‘locus of action’. It seeks to define a liquid form of understanding and analysis capable of approaching our complex liquid world as discussed by Zygmunt Bauman. The aim is to establish a multi-viewpoint theoretical approach based on the dynamic concept of the Flâneur as introduced by Baudelaire, replacing single viewpoint categorization. This is coupled with the concept of thickening as proposed by Clifford Geertz with its implication of interaction between multi-layers of meaning. Here walking and looking is introduced as a method or strategy, a model or map, providing a framework of understanding in conditions of hybridity and change.

Keywords: Science, Liquid, Art, Action, place, Negotiation, locus

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
7 The Influence of National Culture on Business Negotiations: An Exploratory Study of Venezuelan and British Managers

Authors: Mohamed Haffar, Loredana Perez

Abstract:

Significant attention has recently been paid to the cross-cultural negotiations due to the growth of international businesses. Despite the substantial body of literature examining the influence of national culture (NC) dimensions on negotiations, there is a lack of studies comparing the influence of NC in Latin America with a Western European countries, In particular, an extensive review of the literature revealed that a contribution to knowledge would be derived from the comparison of the influence of NC dimensions on negotiations in UK and Venezuela. The primary data was collected through qualitative interviews, to obtain an insight about the perceptions and beliefs of Venezuelan and British business managers about their negotiating styles. The findings of this study indicated that NC has a great influence on the negotiating styles. In particular, Venezuelan and British managers demonstrated to have opposed negotiating styles, affecting the way they communicate, approach people and their willingness to take risks.

Keywords: International Business, Negotiation, national culture, Venezula

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
6 I Look Powerful So You Will Yield to Me: The Effects of Embodied Power and the Perception of Power on Conflict Management

Authors: Fai-Ho E. Choi, Wing-Tung Au

Abstract:

This study investigated the effects of embodiment on conflict management. As shown in the research literature, the physiological (i.e. bodily postures) can affect the emotional and cognitive proceedings of human beings, but little has been shown on whether such effects would have ramifications in decision-making related to other individuals. In this study, conflict is defined as when two parties have seemingly incompatible goals, and the two have to deal with each other in order to maximize one’s own gain. In a matched-gender experiment, university undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either the high power condition or the low power condition, with participants in each condition instructed to perform a fix set of bodily postures that would either embody them with a high sense of power or a low sense of power. One high-power participant would pair up with a low-power participant to engage in an integrative bargaining task and a dictator game. Participants also filled out a pre-trial questionnaire and a post-trial questionnaire measuring general sense of power, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Personality was controlled for. Results are expected to support our hypotheses that people who are embodied with power will be more unyielding in a conflict management situation, and that people who are dealing with another person embodied with power will be more yielding in a conflict management situation. As conflicts arise frequently both within and between organizations, a better understanding of how human beings function in conflicts is important. This study should provide evidence that bodily postures can influence the perceived sense of power of the parties involved and hence influence the conflict outcomes. Future research needs to be conducted to investigate further how people perceive themselves and how they perceive their opponents in conflicts, such that we can come up with a behavioral theory of conflict management.

Keywords: Perception, Embodiment, Conflict Management, Negotiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
5 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi

Abstract:

This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: Communication, Gender, Identity, Negotiation, cultural expectations

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
4 The Emotional Implication of the Phraseological Fund Applied in Cognitive Business Negotiation

Authors: Kristine Dzagnidze

Abstract:

The paper equally centers on both the structural and cognitive linguistics in light of phraseologism and its emotional implication. Accordingly, the methods elaborated within the framework of both the systematic-structural and linguo-cognitive theories are identically relevant to the research of mine. In other words, through studying the negotiation process, our attention is drawn upon defining negotiations’ peculiarities, emotion, style and specifics of cognition, motives, aims, contextual characterizations and the quality of cultural context and integration. Besides, the totality of the concepts and methods is also referred to, which is connected with the stage of the development of the emotional linguistic thinking. The latter contextually correlates with the dominance of anthropocentric–communicative paradigm. The synthesis of structuralistic and cognitive perspectives has turned out to be relevant to our research, carried out in the form of intellectual action, that is, on the one hand, the adequacy of the research purpose to the expected results. On the other hand, the validity of methodology for formulating the objective conclusions needed for emotional connotation beyond phraseologism. The mechanism mentioned does not make a claim about a discovery of a new truth. Though, it gives the possibility of a novel interpretation of the content in existence.

Keywords: Communication, Negotiation, implication, cognitivism

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
3 Treadmill Negotiation: The Stagnation of the Israeli – Palestinian Peace Process

Authors: Itai Kohavi, Wojciech Nowiak

Abstract:

This article explores the stagnation of the Israeli -Palestinian peace negotiation process, and the reasons behind the failure of more than 12 international initiatives to resolve the conflict. Twenty-seven top members of the Israeli national security elite (INSE) were interviewed, including heads of the negotiation teams, the National Security Council, the Mossad, and other intelligence and planning arms. The interviewees provided their insights on the Israeli challenges in reaching a sustainable and stable peace agreement and in dealing with the international pressure on Israel to negotiate a peace agreement while preventing anti-Israeli UN decisions and sanctions. The findings revealed a decision tree, with red herring deception strategies implemented to postpone the negotiation process and to delay major decisions during the negotiation process. Beyond the possible applications for the Israeli – Palestinian conflict, the findings shed more light on the phenomenon of rational deception of allies in a negotiation process, a subject less frequently researched as compared with deception of rivals.

Keywords: Negotiation, deception, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, red herring, terrorist state, treadmill negotiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
2 Work-Family Conflict and Family and Job Resources among Women: The Role of Negotiation

Authors: Noa Nelson, Meitar Moshe, Dana Cohen

Abstract:

Work-family conflict (WFC) is a significant source of stress for contemporary employees, with research indicating its heightened severity for women. The conservation of resources theory argues that individuals experience stress when their resources fall short of demands, and attempt to reach balance by obtaining resources. Presumably then, to achieve work-family balance women would need to negotiate for resources such as spouse support, employer support and work flexibility. The current research tested the hypotheses that competent negotiation at home and at work associated with increased family and job resources and with decreased WFC, as well as with higher work, marital and life satisfaction. In the first study, 113 employed mothers, married or cohabiting, reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with spouse over division of housework, and their actual housework load compared to spouse. They answered a WFC questionnaire, measuring how much work interferes with family (WIF) and how much family interferes with work (FIW), and finally, measurements of satisfaction. In the second study, 94 employed mothers, married or cohabiting reported to what extent they conducted satisfactory negotiation with their boss over balancing work demands with family needs. They reported the levels of three job resources: flexibility, control and family-friendly organizational culture. Finally, they answered the same WFC and satisfaction measurements from study 1. Statistical analyses –t-tests, correlations, and hierarchical linear regressions- showed that in both studies, women reported higher WIF than FIW. Negotiations associated with increased resources: support from spouse, work flexibility and control and a family-friendly culture; negotiation with spouse associated also with satisfaction measurements. However, negotiations or resources (except family-friendly culture) did not associate with reduced conflict. The studies demonstrate the role of negotiation in obtaining family and job resources. Causation cannot be determined, but the fact is that employed mothers who enjoyed more support (at both home and work), flexibility and control, were more likely to keep active interactions to increase them. This finding has theoretical and practical implications, especially in view of research on female avoidance of negotiation. It is intriguing that negotiations and resources generally did not associate with reduced WFC. This finding might reflect the severity of the conflict, especially of work interfering with family, which characterizes many contemporary jobs. It might also suggest that employed mothers have high expectations from themselves, and even under supportive circumstances, experience the challenge of balancing two significant and demanding roles. The research contributes to the fields of negotiation, gender, and work-life balance. It calls for further studies, to test its model in additional populations and validate the role employees have in actively negotiating for the balance that they need. It also calls for further research to understand the contributions of job and family resources to reducing work-family conflict, and the circumstances under which they contribute.

Keywords: Gender, Negotiation, work-life balance, job resources, sork-family conflict, family resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
1 Sexual Consent: Exploring the Perceptions of Heterosexual, Gay, and Bisexual Men

Authors: Shulamit Sternin, Raymond M. McKie, Carter Winberg, Robb N. Travers, Terry P. Humphreys, Elke D. Reissing

Abstract:

Issues surrounding sexual consent negotiation have become a major topic of societal concern. The majority of current research focuses on the complexities of sexual consent negotiations and the multitude of nuanced issues that surround the consent obtainment of heterosexual adults in post-secondary educational institutions. To date, the only study that has addressed sexual consent negotiation behaviour in same-sex relationships focused on the extent to which individuals used a variety of different verbal and nonverbal sexual consent behaviours to initiate or respond to sexual activity. The results were consistent with trends found within heterosexual individuals; thus, suggesting that the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation, which is grounded in heterosexual research, can serve as a strong foundation for further exploration of sexual consent negotiation within same-sex relationships populations. The current study quantitatively investigated the differences between heterosexual men and gay and bisexual men (GBM) in their understanding of sexual consent negotiation. Exploring how the perceptions of GBM differ from heterosexual males provides insight into some of the unique challenges faced by GBM. Data were collected from a sample of 252 heterosexual men and 314 GBM from Canada, the United States, and Western Europe. Participants responded to the question, 'do you think sexual consent and sex negotiation is different for heterosexual men compared to gay men? If so, how?' by completed an online survey. Responses were analysed following Braun & Clarke’s (2006) six phase thematic analysis guidelines. Inter-rater coding was validated using Cohen’s Kappa value and was calculated at (ϰ = 0.84), indicating a very strong level of agreement between raters. The final thematic structure yielded four major themes: understanding of sexual interaction, unique challenges, scripted role, and universal consent. Respondents spoke to their understanding of sexual interaction, believing GBM sexual consent negotiation to be faster and more immediate. This was linked to perceptions of emotional attachment and the idea that sexual interaction and emotional involvement were distinct and separate processes in GBM sexual consent negotiation, not believed to be the case in heterosexual interactions. Unique challenges such as different protection concerns, role declaration, and sexualization of spaces were understood to hold differing levels of consideration for heterosexual men and GBM. The perception of a clearly defined sexual script for GBM was suggested as a factor that may create ambiguity surrounding sexual consent negotiation, which in turn holds significant implications on unwanted sexual experiences for GBM. Broadening the scope of the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation by focusing on heterosexual and GBM population, the current study has revealed variations in perception of sexual consent negotiation between these two populations. These differences may be understood within the context of sexual scripting theory and masculinity gender role theory. We suggest that sexual consent negotiation is a health risk factor for GBM that has not yet been adequately understood and addressed. Awareness of the perceptions that surround the sexual consent negotiation of both GBM and heterosexual men holds implications on public knowledge, which in turn can better inform policy making, education, future research, and clinical treatment.

Keywords: Negotiation, sexual consent, heterosexual men, GBM, sexual script

Procedia PDF Downloads 1