Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

negative pressure Related Abstracts

7 Phase Diagram Including a Negative Pressure Region for a Thermotropic Liquid Crystal in a Metal Berthelot Tube

Authors: K. Hiro, T. Wada


Thermodynamic properties of liquids under negative pressures are interesting and important in fields of scienceand technology. Here, phase transitions of a thermotropic liquid crystal are investigatedin a range from positive to negative pressures with a metal Berthelot tube using a commercial pressure transducer.Two co-existinglines, namely crystal (Kr) – nematic (N), and isotropic liquid (I) - nematic (N) lines, weredrawn in a pressure - temperature plane. The I-N line was drawn to ca. -5 (MPa).

Keywords: Phase transitions, Berthelot method, liquid crystal, negative pressure

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6 An Innovative Equipment for ICU Infection Control

Authors: Ankit Agarwal


Background: To develop a fully indigenous equipment which is an innovation in critical care, which can effectively scavenge contaminated ICU ventilator air. Objectives: Infection control in ICUs is a concern the world over. Various modalities from simple hand hygiene to costly antibiotics exist. However, one simple and scientific fact has been unnoticed till date, that the air exhaled by patients harboring MDR and other microorganisms, is released by ventilators into ICU atmosphere itself. This increases infection in ICU atmosphere and poses risk to other patients. Material and Methods: Some parts of the ventilator are neither disposable nor sterilizable. Over time, microorganisms accumulate in ventilator and act as a source of infection and also contaminate ICU air. This was demonstrated by exposing microbiological culture plates to air from expiratory port of ventilator, whereby dense growth of pathogenic microorganisms was observed. The present prototype of the equipment is totally self-made. It has a mechanism of controlled negative pressure, active and passive systems and various alarms and is versatile to be used with any ventilator. Results: This equipment captures the whole of contaminated exhaled air from the expiratory port of the ventilator and directs it out of the ICU space. Thus, it does not allow contaminated ventilator air to release into the ICU atmosphere. Therefore, there is no chance of exposure of other patients to contaminated air. Conclusion: The equipment is first of its kind the world over and is already under patent process. It has rightly been called ICU Ventilator Air Removal System (ICU VARS). It holds a chance that this technique will gain widespread acceptance shall find use in all the ventilators in most of the ICUs throughout the world.

Keywords: Innovative, Microorganism, negative pressure, ICU Infection Control

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5 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev


Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: wave, temperature, negative pressure, liquid systems, metastable state

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4 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama


Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Observation, cavitation, Berthelot method, negative pressure

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3 Negative Pressures of Ca. -20 MPA for Water Enclosed into a Metal Berthelot Tube under a Vacuum Condition

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, M. Tanji, H. Deguchi, K. Hatari


Negative pressures of liquids have been expected to contribute many kinds of technology. Nevertheless, experiments for subjecting liquids which have not too small volumes to negative pressures are difficult even now. The reason of the difficulties is because the liquids tend to generate cavities easily. In order to remove cavitation nuclei, an apparatus for enclosing water into a metal Berthelot tube under vacuum conditions was developed. By using the apparatus, negative pressures for water rose to ca. -20 MPa. This is the highest value for water in metal Berthelot tubes. Results were explained by a traditional crevice model. Keywords

Keywords: Water, Berthelot method, negative pressure, cavitation nuclei

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2 Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Complex Injuries of the Limbs

Authors: Olivera Lupescu, Mihail Nagea, Alexandru Dimitriu, Nicolae Ciurea, Alina Grosu


Introduction: As severe open injuries are more and more frequent in modern traumatology, threatening not only the integrity of the affected limb but even the life of the patients, new methods desired to cope with the consequences of these traumas were described. Vacuum therapy is one such method which has been described as enhancing healing in trauma with extensive soft-tissue injuries, included those with septic complications. Material and methods: Authors prospectively analyze 15 patients with severe lower limb trauma with MESS less than 6, with considerable soft tissue loss following initial debridement and fracture fixation. The patients needed serial debridements and vacuum therapy was applied after delayed healing due to initial severity of the trauma, for an average period of 12 days (7 - 23 days).In 7 cases vacuum therapy was applied for septic complications. Results: Within the study group, there were no local complications; secondary debridements were performed for all the patients and vacuum system was re-installed after these debridements. No amputations were needed. Medical records were reviewed in order to compare the outcome of the patients: the hospital stay, anti-microbial therapy, time to healing of the bone and soft tissues (there is no standard group to be compared with) and the result showed considerable improvements in the outcome of the patients. Conclusion: Vacuum therapy improves healing of the soft tissues, including those infected; hospital stay and the number of secondary necessary procedures are reduced. Therefore it is considered a valuable support in treating trauma of the limbs with severe soft tissue injuries.

Keywords: Wound Therapy, negative pressure, complex injuries, open fractures

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1 The Routine Use of a Negative Pressure Incision Management System in Vascular Surgery: A Case Series

Authors: Hansraj Bookun, Rachel Xuan, Angela Tan, Kejia Wang, Animesh Singla, David Kim, Christopher Loupos, Linheng Zhao


Introduction: Incisional wound complications in vascular surgery patients represent a significant clinical and econometric burden of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to trial the feasibility of applying the Prevena negative pressure incision management system as a routine dressing in patients who had undergone arterial surgery. Conventionally, Prevena has been applied to groin incisions, but this study features applications on multiple wound sites such as the thigh or major amputation stumps. Method: This was a cross-sectional observational, single-centre case series of 12 patients who had undergone major vascular surgery. Their wounds were managed with the Prevena system being applied either intra-operatively or on the first post-operative day. Demographic and operative details were collated as well as the length of stay and complication rates. Results: There were 9 males (75%) with mean age of 66 years and the comorbid burden was as follows: ischaemic heart disease (92%), diabetes (42%), hypertension (100%), stage 4 or greater kidney impairment (17%) and current or ex-smoking (83%). The main indications were acute ischaemia (33%), claudication (25%), and gangrene (17%). There were single instances of an occluded popliteal artery aneurysm, diabetic foot infection, and rest pain. The majority of patients (50%) had hybrid operations with iliofemoral endarterectomies, patch arterioplasties, and further peripheral endovascular treatment. There were 4 complex arterial bypass operations and 2 major amputations. The mean length of stay was 17 ± 10 days, with a range of 4 to 35 days. A single complication, in the form of a lymphocoele, was encountered in the context of an iliofemoral endarterectomy and patch arterioplasty. This was managed conservatively. There were no deaths. Discussion: The Prevena wound management system shows that in conjunction with safe vascular surgery, absolute wound complication rates remain low and that it remains a valuable adjunct in the treatment of vasculopaths.

Keywords: Vascular Surgery, Wound Care, negative pressure, closed incision

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