Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

near infrared Related Abstracts

3 Near-Infrared Optogenetic Manipulation of a Channelrhodopsin via Upconverting Nanoparticles

Authors: Kanchan Yadav, Ai-Chuan Chou, Rajesh Kumar Ulaganathan, Hua-De Gao, Hsien-Ming Lee, Chien-Yuan Pan, Yit-Tsong Chen


Optogenetics is an innovative technology now widely adopted by researchers in different fields of the biological sciences. However, due to the weak tissue penetration capability of the short wavelengths used to activate light-sensitive proteins, an invasive light guide has been used in animal studies for photoexcitation of target tissues. Upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs), which transform near-infrared (NIR) light to short-wavelength emissions, can help address this issue. To improve optogenetic performance, we enhance the target selectivity for optogenetic controls by specifically conjugating the UCNPs with light-sensitive proteins at a molecular level, which shortens the distance as well as enhances the efficiency of energy transfer. We tagged V5 and Lumio epitopes to the extracellular N-terminal of channelrhodopsin-2 with an mCherry conjugated at the intracellular C-terminal (VL-ChR2m) and then bound NeutrAvidin-functionalized UCNPs (NAv-UCNPs) to the VL-ChR2m via a biotinylated antibody against V5 (bV5-Ab). We observed an apparent energy transfer from the excited UCNP (donor) to the bound VL-ChR2m (receptor) by measuring emission-intensity changes at the donor-receptor complex. The successful patch-clamp electrophysiological test and an intracellular Ca2+ elevation observed in the designed UCNP-ChR2 system under optogenetic manipulation confirmed the practical employment of UCNP-assisted NIR-optogenetic functionality. This work represents a significant step toward improving therapeutic optogenetics.

Keywords: Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin-2, near infrared, upconverting nanoparticles

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2 Classification of Germinatable Mung Bean by Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

Authors: Kaewkarn Phuangsombat, Arthit Phuangsombat, Anupun Terdwongworakul


Hard seeds will not grow and can cause mold in sprouting process. Thus, the hard seeds need to be separated from the normal seeds. Near infrared hyperspectral imaging in a range of 900 to 1700 nm was implemented to develop a model by partial least squares discriminant analysis to discriminate the hard seeds from the normal seeds. The orientation of the seeds was also studied to compare the performance of the models. The model based on hilum-up orientation achieved the best result giving the coefficient of determination of 0.98, and root mean square error of prediction of 0.07 with classification accuracy was equal to 100%.

Keywords: mung bean, near infrared, germinatability, hard seed

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1 Dow Polyols near Infrared Chemometric Model Reduction Based on Clustering: Reducing Thirty Global Hydroxyl Number (OH) Models to Less Than Five

Authors: Wendy Flory, Kazi Czarnecki, Matthijs Mercy, Mark Joswiak, Mary Beth Seasholtz


Polyurethane Materials are present in a wide range of industrial segments such as Furniture, Building and Construction, Composites, Automotive, Electronics, and more. Dow is one of the leaders for the manufacture of the two main raw materials, Isocyanates and Polyols used to produce polyurethane products. Dow is also a key player for the manufacture of Polyurethane Systems/Formulations designed for targeted applications. In 1990, the first analytical chemometric models were developed and deployed for use in the Dow QC labs of the polyols business for the quantification of OH, water, cloud point, and viscosity. Over the years many models have been added; there are now over 140 models for quantification and hundreds for product identification, too many to be reasonable for support. There are 29 global models alone for the quantification of OH across > 70 products at many sites. An attempt was made to consolidate these into a single model. While the consolidated model proved good statistics across the entire range of OH, several products had a bias by ASTM E1655 with individual product validation. This project summary will show the strategy for global model updates for OH, to reduce the number of models for quantification from over 140 to 5 or less using chemometric methods. In order to gain an understanding of the best product groupings, we identify clusters by reducing spectra to a few dimensions via Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection (UMAP). Results from these cluster analyses and a separate validation set allowed dow to reduce the number of models for predicting OH from 29 to 3 without loss of accuracy.

Keywords: polyol, near infrared, global model, hydroxyl, model maintenance

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